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OP  A 











JFamt  i&ecorfc  of  a 








A  CONSIDERABLE  period  has  now  elapsed  since  we 
made  our  last  tour  in  Egypt  and  Palestine.  During 
this  interval  we  have  experienced  the  most  signal 
proofs  of  the  Divine  protection  and  bounty,  and 
trusting  to  the  same  mercy,  in  which  we  have 
ever  endeavoured  to  place  our  hope  and  confi- 
dence, we  once  more  turn  our  eyes  to  the  land 
of  our  fathers,  to  the  place  of  their  sojourning, 
and  to  the  inheritance  of  the  promises. 

Thursday,  November  1, 1838. — The  preliminary 
arrangements  having  been  completed,  we  took 
our  leave  of  the  many  dear  friends,  whose  ardent 
wishes  for  our  welfare,  meeting  the  feelings  natu- 
ral to  those  who  are  about  to  enter  upon  a  long, 
and  perhaps  dangerous  journey,  gave  to  the 
moment  of  departure  a  sentiment  of  mingled 
pain  and  pleasure.  We  started  at  two  o'clock 
attended  by  Armstrong,  our  former  courier,  whose 
services  we  engaged,  encouraged,  by  his  previous 



assiduity  and  ability,  to  expect  his  continued 

Having  reached  Park  Lane,  it  was  no  slight 

comfort  to  see  that  ouilfcdear  brother  B was 

sufficiently  in  spirits  to  leave  his  bed,  after  a  long 
night  of  suffering.  May  Heaven  restore  him  to 
perfect  health  and  strength,  and  give  him  many 
years  of  happiness  in  the  bosom  of  his  affectionate 
family.  No  circumstance  is  more  painful  at  the 
commencement  of  a  long  journey  than  the  neces- 
sity of  saying  farewell  to  a  friend  bowed  down 
with  sickness,  or  any  other  species  of  affliction. 

Our  travelling-carriage  and  female  servant 
were  awaiting  us,  and  having  partaken  of  an  ex- 
cellent luncheon  with  some  of  our  dear  friends 
who  had  assembled  to  witness  our  departure, 
we  took  our  leave,  and  proceeded  to  Vauxhall, 
where  the  maternal  and  sisterly  greetings  of  Mrs. 

Montefiore  and  Mrs.   S attended  us.     Our 

adieus  were  mingled  with  prayers  for  a  happy 
re-union;  and  thus,  as  must  ever  be  the  case  in 
this  passing  scene,  the  sentiment  which  most 
powerfully  excited  our  feelings  at  the  present, 
naturally  carried  us  forward,  and  connected  itself 
with  the  future. 

We  find  our  old  re-embellished  travelling-car- 
riage replenished  with  whatever  tends  to  comfort 
and  enjoyment,  and  extremely  easy  and  spacious. 


The  heavy  state  of  the  roads  made  us  determine 
to  pass  the  night  at  Sittingbourne.  A  clear,  bright 
moon  rendered  the  last  two  stages  very  agreeable, 
and  at  ten  o'clock  the  good-tempered-looking 
host  and  hostess,  at  the  George  Hotel,  welcomed 
our  arrival.  Tea  and  eggs  furnish  our  repast,  and 
we  intend  retiring  early.  Armstrong  is,  as  before , 
thoughtful  of  what  we  may  require,  and  Ann, 
our  maid,  appears  extremely  good-tempered. 
What  have  we  more  to  wish  for,  but  that  the 
Almighty  may  accept  our  thanks,  and  answer 
our  prayers,  as  well  for  the  happiness  of  our 
friends  as  our  own  safety  ? 

Friday,  November  2.  Ramsgate. — Left  Sitting- 
bourne  at  ten.  A  delightful  morning.  We  met 
many  persons  travelling  post  for  London ;  and  so 
in  life  as  in  a  journey,  the  various  pursuits 
of  individuals  incline  to  different  roads;  and 
while  some  are  but  setting  out,  others  are 
hastening  to  the  close  and  resting-place  of 
their  course. 

We  reached  Ramsgate  at  two  o'clock,  and  pro- 
ceeding at  once  to  the  Albion,  had  the  comfort 
to  find  fires  in  our  rooms,  and  other  proofs  of  the 
attention  of  the  good  mistress  of  the  hotel.  The 
harbour  is  full  of  shipping,  but  the  effects  of  the 
late  storm  have  been  magnified. 

Saturday,  November  3. — A  boisterous  evening, 
B  2 


wind  south-west ;  and  thankful  we  are  for  being 
safe  on  land.  Attended  synagogue,  morning  and 

afternoon,  and  paid  a  farewell  visit  to  Mr.  H 

and  Mr.  A ,  sen. 

Sunday,  November  4. — A  dull,  cold  morning. 
Made  arrangements  for  the  journey.  Rode  to 
East  Cliff,  and  spoke  to  Mrs.  Star  about  the 
pheasants,  the  present  of  our  departed  and 
lamented  friend,  M.  de  Rothschild.  She  does  not 
succeed  in  the  management  of  them,  the  numbers 
having  decreased  from  twenty-one  to  eight,  a 
grievous  mortality  in  our  feathered  stock,  so 
much  prized  for  the  donor's  sake. 

November  5.  Journey  to  Dover. — The  rain  con- 
tinued through  out  the  night,  and  has  not  entirely 

ceased.  I  accompanied  M this  morning 

to  synagogue,  to  beseech  of  the  Almighty,  in 
the  house  of  prayer,  that  same  protection  and 
mercy  which  He  has  ever  bestowed  upon  us, 
and  which  we  again  feel  so  necessary  to  the 
happy  accomplishment  of  our  renewed  visit  to 

Italy  and  the  Holy  Land.  Mr.  A ,  sen.,  was 

present,  in  order  to  complete  the  ten,  and  join  in 
prayer.  This  was  a  mark  of  great  kindness  at  his 
age,  (verging  on  ninety,)  and  with  his  infirmities. 

With  the  warm  expressions  of  many  friends, 
we  quitted  Ramsgate  at  a  quarter  past  one. 
Mr.  M and  his  brother  accompanied  us 


till  we  reached  the  river  which  separates  the 
Isle  of  Thanet.  There  they  bade  us  a  reluctant 
farewell !  We  reached  Dover  at  twenty  minutes 
before  four ;  and  during  a  walk  on  the  jetty,  met 

Lord   K ~,  who  has  just  returned   from  the 

Continent  with  his  lady  and  children.  His  lord- 
ship gave  us  no  flattering  account  of  his  excursion, 
but  spoke  much  of  the  fatigues  and  annoyances 
attending  it,  concluding  with  an  expression  of 
delight  at  again  meeting  English  acquaintances, 
and  treading  on  English  ground.  Our  inten- 
tion of  taking  a  different  route  through  Italy, 
avoiding  the  Tyrol,  consoles  us. 

Tuesday,  November  6. — The  sun  is  shedding 
his  enlivening  rays  with  the  warmth  and  bright- 
ness of  summer.  This,  after  a  fortnight's  stormy 
wind  and  rain,  is  most  auspicious,  and  may  be 
regarded  as  a  fresh  instance  of  the  goodness  of 
that  God  who  has,  through  life,  so  largely 
crowned  us  with  his  blessings. 

The  English  government  steamer  being  ap- 
pointed to  leave  as  early  as  seven,  and  lying  off 
the  shore,  we  have  resolved  to  take  our  passage 

by  the  French  boat,  Estafette,  Captain  Y 

a  good  sea-boat.  There  is  not  a  ripple  on  the 
water,  nor  could  we  have  chosen  a  finer  day.  Our 
carriage  being  put  on  board  at  eleven,  we  embarked 
once  again  for  foreign  climes.  Several  friends 


greeted  us  from  the  pier,  and  wafted  their  adieus. 
The  number  of  our  fellow-passengers  consisted  of 
only  five  gentlemen.  We  did  not  make  way  till 
about  twelve  o'clock.  When  clear  of  the  harbour 
two  sails  were  hoisted,  and  as  the  vessel  cut  its 
path  through  the  deep,  we  could  not  help  admiring 
the  cleanness  of  the  deck  the  brightness  of  the 
brass  appurtenances,  everything  vying,  in  short, 
with  the  smartness  and  propriety  of  an  English 

Calais  was  reached  after  a  passage  of  two 
hours  and  forty-seven  minutes.  Familiar  faces 
soon  presented  themselves,  and  I  had  so  entirely 
escaped  the  usual  annoyances  of  the  passage,  that 
I  could  look,  better  than  ever  before,  on  the  lively 
and  not  unpicturesque  scene  which  the  entrance 
to  Calais  offers  to  the  eye  of  a  stranger.  We 
found  in  the  friendly  conversation  of  our  fellow- 
passengers,  among  whom  was  a  Comte  Mesnard, 
and  in  the  prompt  civility  of  the  attendants 
at  Quillacq's,  fresh  proofs  of  the  kindly  nature 
of  the  French. 

Time  seems  to  have  vanished  since  our  last 
visit.  We  took  a  walk  whilst  dinner  was  pre- 
paring, the  repast  consisting  of  some  fish,  and  a 
cold  chicken  brought  with  us.  A  letter  from  Mr. 

H and  one  from  Baron  A awaited  us. 

The  former  is  expected  here  to-morrow.  We 


passed  the  evening  most  agreeably  in  writing 

Quillacq's  Hotel,  November  7.  Calais. — A  rainy 
morning  makes  us  more  sensible  of  the  blessing  of 

yesterday's  passage.  M walked  on  the  pier 

before  breakfast,  and  I  afterwards  accompanied 

him  to  meet  Mr.  D ,  whom  we  expected  with 

the  mail,  at  half-past  eleven.  Owing,  however, 
to  the  shallowness  of  the  water  in  the  harbour 
the  vessel  was  obliged  to  lie  out  in  the  bay,  and 
land  her  passengers  in  small  boats.  A  shower 
prevented  us  from  remaining  to  receive  our 
friend,  and  we  hastened  to  the  hotel  with-1 
out  him.  Shortly  after  he  made  his  appearance, 
fatigued  from  his  night's  journey,  but  more  so 
from  a  tempestuous  and  anxious  passage.  A 
warm  bath  and  the  toilette,  with  a  good  repast, 
proved  salutary  restoratives.  It  was  difficult  to 
suppress  a  sad  recollection  of  the  circumstances 
under  which  we  last  met :  but  it  often  becomes  a 
duty  to  obliterate  past  sorrows  in  the  enjoyment 
of  present  mercies. 

Our  evening  passed  in  rational  and  social  con- 
versation, plans  for  the  journey  generally  min- 
gling themselves  with  the  other  topics  which  en- 
gaged our  thoughts, 

Thursday,  November  8. — A  young  Greek  who 
arrived  here  two  days  since,  showed  us  his 


fine  gold  jacket,  and  though  but  eleven  years  old, 
according  to  his  own  statement,  possesses  a 
scimitar.  He  was  purchased  by  an  English  gen- 
tleman, just  arrived  from  Alexandria.  He  looks 
a  sharp  lad,  and  has  already  made  proficiency  in 
Italian.  No  doubt  he  will  become  an  important 
personage  in  his  master's  household. 

We  left  Calais  at  half-past  eleven,  and  in  the 
course  of  our  journey  met  the. Duke  and  Duchess 

of   B on   their  return  home.       The  roads 

were  extremely  muddy,  and  some  parts  of  the 
pavee  being  out  of  repair,  no  slight  danger  must 
attend  travelling  in  the  night.  We  reached  Cas- 
sel  about  six  o'clock,  and  put  up  at  the  neat* 
clean  Hotel  d'Angleterre.  Some  excellent  fish 
was  provided  for  our  dinner,  and  as  it  was  our 

first  day's  journey,  M considered  it  proper  to 

call  for  champagne  to  do  honour  to  the  health 
of  absent  friends.  The  visitors'  book  being 
presented,  we  were  not  a  little  amused  at  the 
eulogiums  with  which  it  abounded. 

Friday,  November  9.  Lille.  A  proper  Lord 
Mayor's  day. — Cassel  commands  a  fine  view  of 
the  surrounding  country,  but  the  continued  rain 
would  not  allow  of  my  enjoying  the  beautiful 
prospects  presented  on  the  descent  of  the  hill. 
We  were  en  route  for  Lille  at  twenty  minutes 
past  nine.  At  the  entrance  of  the  town  our  pass- 

LILLE.  9 

ports  were  demanded,  and  we  proceeded  to  the 
Hotel  de  1'Europe,  where  we  were  ushered  into  the 
spacious  apartments,  said  to  have  been  arranged 
for  George  the  Fourth  on  his  visit  to  Hanover. 

We  observed  the  cultivation  of  beetroot  to  be 
very  general  in  this  neighbourhood,  and  that  the 
number  of  women  labouring  in  the  fields  far 
exceeded,  as  in  other  parts  of  the  Continent,  that 
of  men.  Numerous  windmills  give  a  peculiar 
aspect  to  the  environs.  They  are  principally  used 
in  the  grinding  of  linseed  and  rapeseed  for  the 
manufacture  of  oil.  The  town  is  now  lighted  by 
the  Continental  Gas  Company,  but  the  rage  of 
competition  is  such,  that  offers  are  made  to  light 
the  city  free  of  expense,  for  the  privilege  of 
obtaining  the  private  lights. 

Saturday  Evening,  November  10.  Lille. — Mr. 

B called  yesterday  evening,  and  brought  a 

gazette,  wherein  were  noticed  the  remarkable 
events  which  had  happened  on  preceding  anni- 
versaries of  the  day.  Among  the  occurrences 
thus  considered  worthy  of  record,  was  the  con- 
ferring of  knighthood,  by  the  Queen  of  England, 
on  Sir  Moses  Montefiore. 

The  synagogue  is  a  pretty  building,  and  we 
found  the  service  attended  by  about  a  dozen 
gentlemen  and  eight  ladies.  During  the  after- 
noon we  walked  to  the  gas-works,  to  which  we 


were  conducted  by  Mr.  D .  The  establish- 
ment is  extensive,  and  supplies  a  great  part  of 
the  town  with  light.  Lille  is  in  a  flourishing 
state,  among  the  proofs  of  which  are  the  appear- 
ance of  many  new  buildings,  and  the  pavement 
for  foot-passengers. 

Sunday,  November  11.  Ghent. — A  rainy 
morning.  Left  Lille  at  half-past  nine.  As  the 
country  presented  but  an  unvaried  and  unpic- 
turesque  continuation  of  cultivated  land,  and 
the  weather  was  dull,  I  amused  myself  with 
reading  '  Leila.'  I  admire  Mr.  Bulwer's  de- 
lineations, but  not  his  sentiments,  which  give  a 
colouring  to  the  character  of  a  people  tending  to 
support  prejudices,  so  galling  to  the  feelings  of 
those  who  are  as  sensible  to  honour,  generosity, 
and  virtue,  as  those  of  more  prosperous  nations. 
It  may  be  policy  to  exaggerate  faults,  but  is  it 
justice  to  create  them  solely  to  gratify  opponents  ? 
It  is  too  much  the  practice  of  authors  engaged  in 
the  production  of  light  literature,  to  utter  sen- 
timents existing  only  in  their  own  imaginations, 
and  by  ascribing  them  to  others,  to  disseminate  a 
baneful  prejudice  against  multitudes,  who  feel 
indignant  at  finding  themselves  the  subjects  of 
unjust  suspicion. 

We  reached  this  town  at  five  o'clock,  and  drove 
to  the  Hotel  de  la  Poste,  having  encountered  on 

GHENT.  11 

entering  Belgium  no  annoyance  either  at  the 
Douane,  or  at  the  passport-office. 

Monday,  November  12.  Hotel  de  la  Poste. 
Ghent. — The  day  has  been  cold,  but  fine. 

November  13.  Brussels. — Again  fine,  bat  cold. 
We  called  on  Mr.  D ,  who  has  an  ex- 
cellent house,  furnished  in  a  superior  manner. 
I  was  greatly  pleased  with  the  conservatory, 
leading  from  the  drawing-room.  The  collection 
of  camellias  is  numerous  and  choice.  Several 
family  pictures  adorn  the  sitting-room,  among 

which  is  that  of  our  friend  Mr.  W.  A , 

painted  by  an  Italian  artist.  Mrs.  D accom- 
panied me  to  the  Cathedral.  The  architecture  of 
the  edifice  is  grand  and  imposing,  and  the  aisles 
are  adorned  with  many  pieces  of  fine  sculptured 
marble.  There  was  a  grand  assemblage  last  Sun- 
day, at  the  consecration  of  a  new  bishop.  The 
preceding  prelate,  a  young  man,  died,  it  is  said, 
from  the  excitement  attending  his  sudden  rise 
from  the  station  of  a  humble  parish  priest  to 
that  of  Bishop  of  Ghent.  Insanity  and  a  pre- 
mature death  were  the  immediate  consequences 
of  his  envied  elevation. 

Could  we  have  sent  our  carriage  by  the  railroad, 
we  should  have  availed  ourselves  of  that  mode  of 
conveyance ;  but,  at  the  intercession  of  the  post- 
masters, gentlemen's  carriages  are  are  present 


prohibited  from  travelling  by  them.  We  reached 
this  city  at  a  quarter  past  five,  and  found  most 
agreeable  and  spacious  apartments  at  the  Hotel. 
A  brisk  fire  soon  made  us  forget  the  coldness  of 
the  temperature,  and  we  enjoyed  from  our  win- 
dows the  cheerful  spectacle  presented  by  the 
Grande  Place,  well  lighted  with  gas. 

King  Leopold  opened  the  sittings  of  the 
Chambers  to-day.  We  shall  hear  the  speech 
to-morrow.  The  military  band  is  now  calling 
the  troops  to  the  barracks,  and  as  the  fine 
martial  notes  peal  through  the  stillness  of  the 
evening,  the  mind  is  impressed  with  a  thousand 
stirring  associations. 

Wednesday,  November  14.  Hotel  de  V Europe. 
Brussels. — We  are  delighted  with  our  apartments, 
situated  as  they  are  in  the  Place  Royale,  and 
commanding  a  side-view  of  the  park,  wanting, 
moreover,  neither  elegancies  nor  comforts.  The 
houses  in  Brussels  are  handsome,  lofty,  and  uni- 
formly built,  and  being  painted  of  a  yellow  white, 
have  a  neat  as  well  as  handsome  appearance. 

Education  keeps  pace  with  other  improvements 
in  Belgium.  We  yesterday  observed  several  public 
schools,  and  poor  children  with  books  in  their 
hands.  This  is  the  fruit  of  peace,  but  the  neces- 
sity of  supporting  a  standing  army  still  produces 
no  slight  portion  of  distress  and  discontent. 


Having  paid  visits  to  some  friends  living 
beyond  the  barrier,  we  drove  round  the  town, 
and  amused  ourselves  with  the  agreeable  variety 
presented  by  the  Boulevards,  the  botanical  gar- 
dens, and  a  new  area  consisting  of  noble  houses, 
and  which  it  is  intended  to  dignify  by  the  title 
of  La  Ville  de  Leopold. 

The  synagogue  is  an  extremely  neat  build- 
ing, and  government  contributes  five  hundred 
francs  annually  to  its  support.  Government  also 
appoints  the  spiritual  head  of  the  congregation 
and  the  readers;  and  there  is  a  school  for  the 
poor,  who  receive  various  kinds  of  instruction, 
among  which  music  holds  no  insignificant  place. 
Sermons  in  German  are  delivered  weekly  by  the 
Rabbi.  About  eighty  families  of  our  persuasion 
reside  in  Brussels,  but  some  of  them  are  far 
from  being  distinguished  for  orthodoxy. 

Thursday,  November  15. — We  left  Brussels 
about  nine  o'clock.  A  fine  forest  of  noble  elms 
soon  changed  the  hitherto  monotonous  scenery. 
Soft  hills  rose  in  the  distance,  and  handsome 
buildings,  bordered  by  trees,  still  noble,  though 
divested  of  their  genial  foliage,  added  a  fresh 
grace  to  the  landscape.  This  was  even  increased 
by  the  long  lines  of  labourers  employed  in  con- 
structing the  railroad  ;  the  busy  scene  presented 
by  which  continually  reminded  us  of  the  mighty 


impulse  given  in  our  age  to  the  progress  of 

Not  a  post-carriage  has  appeared  on  the  road, 
but  heavily  laden  waggons,  shaking  the  high- 
way to  its  foundations,  have  amply  convinced  us 
of  the  necessity  of  the  pave*e  in  the  centre.  We 
were  frequently  obliged  to  make  way  for  their 
passing,  and  the  jerk  into  the  deep  ruts  on  the 
road  side  proved  a  formidable  trial  to  the 
strength  of  our  springs,  which  at  length  gave 
way,  in  charitable  consideration  of  innumerable 
blacksmiths  who  surrounded  the  carriage  at 
every  change  of  horses. 

At  six  o'clock  we  reached  Liege,  and  found 
comfortable  rooms  at  the  Pavilion.  Liege  is 
lighted  with  gas  by  a  company  established  in 
the  town.  I  ought  to  have  mentioned  that  the 
Hotel  de  Ville  at  Louvain  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  Gothic  structures  in  Belgium :  it  has 
been  lately  repaired,  and  richly  deserves  the 
attention  of  the  traveller. 

Friday,  November  16. — Left  Liege  for  Aix-la- 
Chapelle  at  ten  o'clock.  A  rainy  morning.  On  our 
entering  the  Prussian  dominions,  no  further 
trouble  was  given  us  than  that  which  consisted  in 

the  mere  opening  of  the  box  containing  M 's 

uniform.  The  passing  of  an  artificial  barrier, 
separating  one  country  from  another,  is  generally 


attended  with  emotions  of  surprise.  A  sudden 
change  is  at  once  discoverable  in  the  physiog- 
nomy of  the  people ;  and  yet  more  striking  are 
the  various  intonations  and  forms  of  expression 
which  fall  upon  the  ear  of  the  stranger,  who  sees 
nothing  to  account  for  the  mystery,  but  the 
simple  fact  that  he  has  passed  from  one  side 
of  an  invisible  boundary  to  another.  Happy 
surely  will  be  the  times  when  one  religion,  one 
language,  and  one  heart  shall  exist  among  the 
nations  of  the  world  ! 

We  reached  Aix-la-Chapelle  at  half-past  three, 
and  found  excellent  apartments  at  Le  Grand  Mo- 
narque,  having  been  first  set  down  at  Le  Grand 
Hotel,  which  was  extremely  dull.  I  found  myself 
too  indisposed  in  the  evening  to  appear  at  the 
dinner  table,  but  a  few  hours  quiet  enabled  me 
to  join  the  party  at  tea.  Aix-la-Chapelle  is 
lighted  with  gas,  the  works,  which  have  been 
established  only  a  few  months,  exhibiting  every 
sign  of  skilful  arrangement  and  success. 

Saturday,  November  17.  Aix-la-Chapelle. — 
M—  -  went  to  synagogue.  He  was  greatly 
pleased  with  the  discourse  delivered  after  the 
service  by  the  rabbi,  a  young  man  about  twenty- 
eight  years  of  age,  and  whose  address  and  man- 
ner were  both  agreeable  and  impressive.  He 
spoke  in  German.  The  congregation  consists  of 


nearly  forty  families.  A  new  synagogue  is  being 
erected,  and  will  be  finished  in  a  few  weeks.  A 
deputation  of  three  gentlemen  from  the  syna- 
gogue waited  upon  .us,  soliciting  a  contribution 
towards  the  gas-fittings  for  that  building,  having 
previously  written  on  the  subject.  M pre- 
sented them  with  a  handsome  chandelier. 

In  Aix-la-Chapelle,  as  in  most  places,  the  poor 
are  more  numerous  than  the  rich,  but  there  are 
few  appearances  of  absolute  destitution.  French 
is  spoken  by  most  persons  here,  and  English  is 
becoming  scarcely  less  general.  Education  is 
obtained  on  such  moderate  terms  that  none  need 
remain  uninstructed. 

The  Hotel  du  Grand  Monarque  is  a  very  ex- 
tensive establishment,  making  up  no  less  than 
one  hundred  and  fifty  beds,  and  is  still  being 
enlarged.  During  the  season,  which  continues 
four  months,  it  is  said  to  be  completely  full. 

Sunday,  November  18.  Aix-la-Chapelle. — A 
continuance  of  rain  prevents  our  walking. 

We  visited  the  baths.  Some  are  very  hand- 
some, being  ornamented  with  various  coloured 
marbles.  The  hot  springs,  which  are  chiefly  sul- 
phurous, are  said  to  prove  extremely  efficacious 
in  cutaneous,  rheumatic,  and  paralytic  affections. 

Our  carriage  has  undergone  a  complete  repair 
after  the  injuries  which  it  suffered  from  the  pave- 


ment  and  rugged  roads.  Armstrong  thinks  the 
charge  of  seventy-one  francs  very  moderate.  We 
are  debating  whether  to  take  the  way  to  Lyons 
by  Strasbourg,  or  to  retrace  our  steps  to  Belgium, 
and  thence  proceed  to  Paris.  Maps,  books,  and 
opinions  have  all  been  severally  consulted,  and 
at  length  we  have  decided  upon  proceeding  to 

I  dislike  the  stoves  which  are  used  here.  The 
fire  is  almost  obscured  from  view,  and  the  coal 
emits  an  unpleasant  odour.  The  shops  have 
been  kept  open  during  a  great  part  of  the  day, 
a  circumstance  which  would  have  surprised  me, 
the  country  being  Protestant,  but  for  the  large 
proportion  of  Koman  Catholic  inhabitants. 

Monday,  November  19.  Cologne. — At  twenty 
minutes  past  ten  we  quitted  Aix-la-Chapelle. 
The  rain  did  not  cease  during  the  journey.  We 
entered  the  post-house  at  Bergheim,  and  found 
music  and  singing,  but  no  resting  place  for  the 
traveller.  On  being  directed,  however,  to  the 
Hotel  opposite,  we  were  shown  into  warm,  clean 
rooms,  and  partook  of  some  excellent  refresh- 
ment. The  master,  a  very  polite  person,  exhi- 
bited the  honours  he  had  received  at  Waterloo, 
and  said  that  many  English  families  had  remained 
at  his  house.  Among  them  were  the  Duchess  of 
Gloucester  and  Lord  Londonderry. 


From  Bergheim  the  state  of  the  roads  began  to 
improve,  having  undergone,  as  our  host  described 
it,  some  palliatives, — improvements  effected  by  a 
little  band  of  labourers  engaged  for  the  purpose. 

We  arrived  at  the  KaiserlicheHoff  at  a  quarter 
past  six,  and  had  tea  and  fried  haddock,  with  ex- 
cellent potatoes.  The  house  is  extremely  com- 
fortable ;  but  experience  recommends  a  choice  of 
apartments  in  which  the  sitting-room  and  cham- 
ber are  adjoining.  It  is  our  intention  to  go  to- 
morrow to  Coblentz  by  the  steam-boat,  which 
starts  at  seven  in  the  morning,  and  will  teach  us 
our  first  lesson  in  early  rising.  The  time  of  year 
is  not  the  most  auspicious  for  this  reform,  but 
we  shall  probably  gain  in  health  what  we  lose  in 

Tuesday,  November  20. — Called  at  five.  Mr. 

and  Mrs.  D would  not  suffer  us  to  depart 

without  joining  our  breakfast- table.  We  reached 
the  boat  in  excellent  time,  and  found  it  a  spacious 
•vessel,  comfortably  and  handsomely  fitted  up.  It 
belongs  to  the  Cologne  Company ;  the  captain 
speaks  English,  and  the  accommodations  reach 
almost  to  luxury.  There  were  from  fifteen  to 
twenty  passengers,  ladies  and  gentlemen.  Some 
were  landed  at  different  villages  on  the  Rhine. 
As  the  day  was  cold,  we  amused  ourselves  with 
writing ;  but  the  pavilion  seeming  damp,  we  re- 


paired  to  the  cabin,  invitingly  warm  and  elegant. 
The  passengers' dinner  consisted  of  a  great  variety 
of  dishes,  and  was  what  we  should  term  in 
English,  luxurious. 

Though  wanting  its  summer  tints,  the  majestic 
scenery  of  the  Rhine  presents  objects  of  surpass- 
ing grandeur.  What  they  lose  of  beauty  under 
the  winter  sky,  they  gain  in  that  stern  and  solemn 
sublimity,  which  affects  the  imagination  even 
more  forcibly  than  the  brighter  glories  of  a  softer 

The  passage  surpassed  our  expectation.  We 
reached  Coblentz  by  five  o'clock,  and  took  up  our 
abode  for  the  night  at  the  Hotel  de  Belle  Vue. 

November  21.  Hotel  Belle  Vue.  Coblentz.— 
Arose  at  half -past  five.  Thermometer  in  the  car- 
riage 31^.  Took  coffee,  and  were  on  board  the 
steam-boat  again  at  seven.  All  our  yesterday 
fellow  passengers  had  left.  To-day  there  are  but 
two  gentlemen  and  a  lady,  besides  ourselves,  in 
the  cabin.  A  good  fire  is  kept  up,  so  that  it  is 
exceedingly  comfortable,  and  our  pleasurable 
sensations  are  increased  by  an  excellent  break- 
fast of  chocolate. 

The  scenery  as  we  advanced  became  more  and 

more  imposing :  stupendous  rocks,  covered  with 

vines  and  shrubs,  overhanging  the  stream,  and 

throwing  their  dark  masses  of  shade  along  its 

C  2 


rapid  waters,  inspiring  a  feeling  of  awe  as  well 
as  admiration. 

We  reached  Mayence  after  a  very  comfortable 
passage,  at  four  o'clock,  and  went  to  the  Rhenish 
Hotel.  The  streets  of  this  town  seem  badly 
paved  and  dirty ;  but  it  contains  some  well-built 
houses,  and  may  in  summer  present  a  neater  and 
gayer  aspect.  There  is  a  fine  quay,  and  the  town 
generally  affords  great  facilities  for  commerce.  I 
observed  several  vessels  laden  with  corn,  sacks 
of  feathers,  and  other  articles  of  traffic. 

Thursday,  November  22.  Mayence. — As  the 
boat  for  Mannheim  does  not  leave  till  eight,  we 
have  not  been  so  hurried  this  morning,  though 
still  obliged  to  rise  by  candle-light.  We  are  now 
on  board  the  Stockholm,  not  quite  so  large  a  boat 
as  the  Leopold,  but  equally  comfortable,  and  well 
fitted  up.  There  is  no  fatigue  in  this  mode  of 
travelling,  and  the  banks  of  the  Rhine  continue 
to  present,  with  their  numerous  villages,  castles, 
and  bridges,  objects  of  perpetual  interest.  We 
are  now  passing  the  pretty  town  of  Nuremberg, 
where  the  superior  wine  of  that  name  is  made, 
the  scenery  being  varied  at  this  spot  by  several 
hills  and  a  flying  bridge. 

The  sky  is  dull  and  gloomy :  not  a  gleam  of 
sun ;  and  there  is  a  strange  and  romantic  feeling 
inspired  by  the  sound  of  the  bell,  as  it  swings  to 


and  fro,  to  warn  the  boats  or  villagers  of  our 

My  German  has  obtained  a  compliment  from 
the  waiter,  who  says  that  I  speak  it  like  a  native. 
At  least  the  little  I  know  is  found  useful. 

We  have  passed  the  town  of  Worms.  The  view 
of  its  fine  old  towers,  seen  well  from  the  river, 
reminded  us  of  our  friends  of  that  name  in  Lon- 
don. At  half-past  four  the  boat  reached  Mann- 
heim. The  long  avenues  of  trees  and  pretty 
buildings,  together  with  the  account  given  us  by 
persons  on  board  of  its  well-paved  streets  and 
agreeable  walks,  might  well  have  enticed  us  to 
enter  ;  but  the  favourable  change  of  the  atmo- 
sphere, and  our  desire  to  arrive  in  good  time  to- 
morrow at  Strasbourg,  have  determined  us  to 
pursue  our  route. 

Armstrong  having  hastened  to  order  post-horses, 
in  the  course  of  half-an-hour  we  took  leave  of  the 
Boat  Stadt  Coblentz,  and  were  again  seated  in  the 
carriage.  Beautiful  and  almost  startling,  was  the 
contrast  of  the  spectacle  which  the  sky  presented 
to  what  it  had  offered  a  few  hours  before.  Then 
a  mass  of  gloomy  fog  had  involved  everything  in 
its  folds  :  now  the  young  moon  was  shedding  on 
all  sides  its  benignant  rays,  and  in  a  short  time 
the  whole  immense  canopy  of  heaven  appeared 
studded  with  countless  stars.  The  brilliancy  of 


this  glorious  scene  would  not  allow  us  to  com- 
mence preparations  for  the  night  so  early  as  we 
had  intended.  We  reached  Speyer  in  good  time, 
and  less  fatigued  than  might  have  been  expected 
from  the  appearance  of  the  poor  post-horses.  We 
began  to  find,  in  the  latter  part  of  this  journey, 
the  advantage  of  our  travelling-bed. 

Friday,  November  23.  Strasbourg. — Thanks  to 
the  Almighty  !  we  arrived  here  in  safety  after  a 
night's  journey  ;  somewhat  weary,  it  is  true,  but 
greatly  gratified  at  the  nice  appearance  of  the 
Hotel  de  Paris,  and  the  very  handsome  suite  of 
apartments  ready  for  our  reception.  At  one  o'clock 
we  were  partaking  of  a  breakfast  of  excellent  tea, 
rolls,  and  boiled  trout.  Our  servants  had  borne 
the  nocturnal  trip  with  their  usual  good  temper. 
We  engaged  a  valet-de-place  to  accompany  us 
round  the  town.  He  also  conducted  us  to  the 
synagogue,  not  very  distant  from  the  hotel, 
and  which  we  found  to  be  a  very  respectable 
building,  well-lighted,  and  attended  by  a  nume- 
rous congregation  a  portion  of  which  was  formed 
of  ladies.  There  is  a  choir  of  boys  dressed  in 
costume  similar  to  that  worn  by  the  choristers  at 
Bordeaux.  The  chief  rabbi  and  reader  are  ap- 
pointed and  paid  by  the  government.  It  is  only 
two  years  since  the  building  was  finished,  and 
is  the  freehold  property  of  the  community. 


Saturday  Evening,  November  24.  Strasbourg. — 
Grateful  for  having  passed  a  most  satisfactory 
day.  The  valet-de-place  was  in  readiness  at 
eight  o'clock  to  escort  us  to  synagogue,  where 
we  found  a  yet  more  numerous  congregation  than 

on  the  preceding  evening.     M was  called  to 

the  reading  of  the  law,  and  made  an  offering. 
The  chief  rabbi  read  the  prayer  for  the  King  and 
Royal  Family.  We  were  much  impressed  with 
the  beauty  of  the  chanting,  but  it  seemed  to  me 
that  the  prayers  were  abridged,  a  consequence, 
perhaps,  of  the  reforms  of  the  age.  At  twelve  we 
walked  to  see  the  cathedral,  a  building  of  great 
antiquity,  and  of  exceedingly  handsome  architec- 
ture. Its  tower  is  of  immense  height,  and  exqui- 
site in  style  and  proportions.  Both  this,  and  the 
curious  clock,  which  formed  one  of  the  marvels 
of  the  edifice,  were  some  time  since  much  injured 
by  lightning.  Repairs  are  in  progress,  which  it 
will  require  two  years  more  to  complete.  The 
stained  glass  in  this  cathedral  is  the  richest  I 
have  seen. 

We  next  visited  the  church  of  St.  Thomas,  an 
ancient  Protestant  structure,  and  where  we  saw 
the  beautiful  marble  monument  erected  by  Louis 
XV.  to  the  memory  of  Marshal  Saxe,  who  died 
at  the  age  of  fifty-five,  in  1777.  There  is  another 
curious  object  in  this  church.  It  is  the  ingeni- 


otisly  sculptured  tomb  of  a  Count  of  Nassau,  and 
which  was  discovered  by  the  workmen  engaged  in 
repairing  the  church.  The  embalmed  bodies  of 
the  count  and  his  daughter,  which  formerly  re- 
posed in  this  costly  resting  place,  are  now  to  be 
seen  in  an  adjoining  chapel,  inclosed  in  glass 
coffins,  and  habited  in  the  costume  of  the  eleventh 
century.  As  we  were  contemplating  here  the 
nothingness  of  life,  and  this  vanity  of  death,  the 
tones  of  the  organ,  which  the  man  had  just  come 
to  tune,  suddenly  broke  upon  our  ears,  and  helped 
to  raise  our  thoughts  above  the  gloom  of  mere 

Our  next  visit  was  to  the  arsenal.  The  number 
of  brass  cannon,  bombs,  and  mortars  appeared 
to  me  sufficient  to  destroy  all  Europe. 

The  guide  now  presented  himself :  an  old  sol- 
dier, with  a  somewhat  Austrian  countenance,  who 
had  served  in  all  Napoleon's  campaigns,  and  in 
his  own  battalion,  when  engaged  in  Egypt,  Italy, 
&c.  He  unlocked  the  armoury,  where  spears, 
muskets,  pistols,  cuirasses,  were  arranged  so 
as  to  form  various  devices,  and  covering  in 
sparkling  array  the  walls  and  ceilings  of  two 
immense  rooms.  At  the  end  of  the  second  was  a 
bust  of  Louis  Philippe,  the  features  of  which  were 
now  lit  up  by  the  sun's  rays,  which  aided,  in  no 
slight  degreej  the  effect  of  the  decorations,  the 

COLMAR.  25 

ancient  armour,  and  other  splendid  memorials  of 
war  that  surrounded  the  marble. 

The  hour  of  dinner  had  arrived,  and  the  streets 
being  mostly  paved  with  asphalte,  easy  to  the 
feet,  we  walked  through  the  promenade  to  the 
hotel,  and  thence  to  the  restaurateur. 

Sunday,  November  25. — Left  Strasbourg  at 
eleven  o'clock.  The  greater  part  of  the  shops 
were  closed,  half  the  population  being  Protestant. 
Having  passed  the  strong  fortifications,  and  the 
bridge  over  the  river  Ille,  an  excellent  raised  road 
conducted  us  across  an  expensive  plain,  and  by  the 
aid  of  good  horses  and  careful  postillions,  we  pur- 
sued our  journey  with  ease  and  rapidity.  A 
brilliant  sun  cheered  us  on  our  way.  As  we  ap- 
proached the  department  of  the  Upper  Rhine, 
stupendous  mountains  began  to  appear,  and  con- 
tinued on  our  right  till  we  reached  Colmar,  the 
place  of  destination  for  the  night.  Ruins  of 
castles  crowned  the  summits  of  most  of  the  hills, 
and  innumerable  villages  sloped  down  to  their 
base :  snow  had  fallen  a  few  weeks  since,  and 
some  of  it  still  remained  to  vary  the  colouring  of 
the  picturesque  scenery.  The  plain  itself  was 
ornamented  with  vineyards,  and  cheered  the  mind 
with  the  prospect  of  coming  plenty,  as  did  the 
Indian  corn,  growing  abundantly  under  the  very 
walls  of  the  town.  This  day's  journey  of  eight 


posts  was  much  the  easiest  we  have  made. 
Reached  a  comfortable  hotel  at  nine  minutes  past 
five  o'clock. 

Monday,  November  26.  L'ile  stir  de  Doubs. — 
Left  this  place  at  two  minutes  past  seven.  A  de- 
lightful morning,  the  sun  rising  with  unwonted 
brilliancy.  The  chain  of  mountains  forms  a  boun- 
dary to  the  right  of  an  extensive  plain,  innumer- 
able villages  diversifying  the  scene,  romantically 
crowned  with  ruins  of  castles,  which  speak  of 
times  of  yore.  The  road  continued  excellent  as 
far  as  Belfort,  a  strongly  fortified  town,  where 
art  and  nature  combine  to  resist  a  siege.  At  this 
town  we  stopped  to  take  some  refreshment.  The 
Salle-d-manger  being  warm,  it  sufficed  for  a  short 
visit  of  an  hour  for  coffee.  The  weather  now 
changed,  snow  began  to  fall,  and  continued  in- 
creasing the  whole  afternoon.  The  horses  ad- 
vanced with  difficulty,  and  as  the  road  became 
slippery  and  mountainous,  we  stopped  at  Tavey, 
to  have  them  rough-shod.  We  were  four  hours 
and  thirty-four  minutes  going  two  posts  and  a 
half,  the  postillions  walking  most  of  the  way. 
The  humble  accommodation  at  the  inn  was  com- 
paratively comfortable  :  a  good  fire  is  an  accept- 
able object,  after  a  snowy,  mountainous  journey ; 
staircase  and  floors  must  be  disregarded. 

Tuesday,    November     27.       Hotel     de     Paris. 

BESANgON.  27 

Besan^on. — Terrified  at  the  road  pierced  along 
the  side  of  a  stupendous  rock, — ascending  and 
descending, — covered  with  snow.  A  fearful  pre- 
cipice lay  on  the  right, — a  rapid,  foaming  river  be- 
neath. With  all  my  courage,  I  could  not  sup- 
press a  scream  as  the  postillions  trotted  down  the 
windings,  and  my  request  to  be  allowed  to  walk 
was  unavailing.  How  glad  I  was  whenever  a 
waggon  appeared :  it  seemed  to  assure  one's  safety, 
as  did  the  cheerful,  good-tempered  countenances 
of  the  conductors.  Fortunately  it  has  ceased  to 
snow,  and  the  cold  is  not  so  severe.  As  we 
advance,  I  can  better  enjoy  the  beautiful  and 
magnificent  scenery,  which,  notwithstanding  its 
wintry  garb,  strikes  the  beholder  with  awe  and 
admiration.  How  thankfully  I  beheld  the  road 
now  protected  by  parapets  and  hedges  ;  and  then 
the  widening  plain  and  sloping  vineyards  !  The 
Doubs  is  navigated  by  the  assistance  of  locks  at 
several  distances.  We  observed  many  barges 
passing  the  falls  in  the  river,  which  without  the 
locks  would  form  insurmountable  obstacles  to 
navigation.  The  snow  has  now  almost  dis- 
appeared. At  a  quarter  past  five  we  reached  this 
strongly  fortified  town,  and  found  the  hotel 
superior  to  that  of  last  night.  The  landlady 
wishes  us  to  remain  to-morrow  to  see  the  beauties 
of  the  town. 


Wednesday,  November  28.  Poligny. — -After  a 
stormy  journey  over  the  Jura  mountain,  and  along 
a  difficult  road,  we,  with  the  blessing  of  the 
Almighty,  arrived  here  in  safety  at  five  o'clock. 
The  wind  rose  so  high  that  it  compelled  M — 
to  descend  from  the  carriage  and  walk.  And 
dreading  lest  the  vehicle,  though  pretty  substan- 
tial, should  be  blown  over,  I  disregarded  the  dis- 
figurement of  my  hat  and  cloak,  and  joined  him  in 
his  walk  down  the  descent,  sheltered  behind  the 
carriage.  I  thus  felt  comparatively  secure,  and, 
oh !  how  I  commiserated  the  poor  old  men  and 
women,  who,  laden  with  bundles  of  wood,  were 
toiling  patiently  over  the  mountain  in  face  of  the 
boisterous  gale,  fatigued  and  worn !  Can  we  who 
possess  the  luxuries  of  life  be  sufficiently  thankful 
to  that  Almighty  power  who  has  bestowed  them 
on  us  ?  Let  us  study  to  merit  them,  and  when  in 
security  never  forget  the  dangers  and  troubles 
that  have  presented  themselves  in  the  progress  of 
life.  Now  seated  by  a  comfortable  fire,  with  an 
affectionate  companion,  the  table  nicely  prepared 
for  tea,  and  kettle  boiling,  the  rattling  of  the 
windows  and  boisterous  sounds  make  me  the  more 
sensible  of  present  enjoyments  and  the  storm  we 
have  just  escaped.  Surely  the  German  saying  is 
true,  Getheilte  Freud?  ist  ganze  Freude ;  getheilter 
Schmerz  ist  halber  Schmerz! 

BOURG.  29 

There  is  a  new  road  nearly  completed,  to 
avoid  the  mountain  we  have  just  crossed.  How 
great  an  advantage  to  future  travellers  in  this 
part  of  France  !  Ann  praises  the  present  fille 
f/r  c/tambre,  as  she  understands  her  French 
so  much  better  than  others  we  have  met  with. 
The  other  evening  at  Colmar,  when  she  said, 
"  Mademoiselle — Lampe  de  nuit — sil  mm  plait ! 
Comment !  voulcz  TOUS  un  verre  de  feau  de 
ric  ?  "  This  made  Ann  for  the  first  time  angry  ; — 
she  said,  she  really  would  not  understand.  The 
horses  and  postillions  have  been  very  good  to- 
day, and  we  found  them  ready  at  the  different 
stations,  the  conductor  of  the  diligence  having 
ordered  them  at  our  request. 

Thursday,  November  29.  Bourg. — A  fine 
morning  after  a  stormy  night.  We  were  in  the 
carriage  by  twenty  minutes  past  seven.  Ther- 
mometer 52°,  which  on  Monday  was  32°.  Very 
few  hills  :  good  road  over  a  vast  plain,  richly 
cultivated.  The  sun  was  so  powerful  that  we 
required  the  shades  down  almost  throughout  the 
day,  and  the  country  was  enlivened  by  cattle 
grazing,  often  tended  by  children  only.  A  flat 
broad-brimmed  black  lace  hat  is  here  worn  by 
the  country  women,  very  different  from  any  I 
have  seen  elsewhere.  Everywhere  the  roads  are 
undergoing  repair,  and  in  some  parts  being 


widened.  We  passed  some  extensive  salt-works. 
The  towns  are  adorned  by  public  fountains ; 
and  the  French  women  still  continue  the  custom 
of  washing  in  the  public  stream.  On  setting  oft' 
from  the  last  station,  one  of  the  horses  began 
kicking  going  down  a  descent,  but  ceased  imme- 
diately on  the  slipper  being  fixed  to  the  wheel, 
which  is  performed  without  the  servant's  getting 
down — an  excellent  invention,  and  only  requiring 
care.  Arrived  at  this  town  at  five  o'clock. 

Friday,  November  30.  Bourg. — A  catarrh, 
which  troubled  me  exceedingly  last  night  and 
disturbed  my  rest,  is  not  much  better  this  morn- 
ing ;  but  an  extra  piece  of  new  flannel  will 
I  trust  prevent  any  inconvenience  from  our  con- 
tinuing our  journey  at  the  early  hour  of  twenty 
minutes  before  six.  The  day  was  just  dawning 
in  all  its  refulgent  glory.  The  sun  breaking 
through  the  dark  clouds,  and  suffusing  them  with 
amber,  purple,  emerald,  sapphire,  and  other  tints 
more  brilliant  than  art  could  possibly  imitate. 
But,  as  if  to  teach  mankind  that  the  brightest 
colours  soonest  fade,  the  sky  quickly  became 
overcast,  and  in  the  forenoon  we  had  a  con- 
tinuance of  light  showers.  To-day's  journey 
carried  us  along  the  continuance  of  a  vast  plain, 
with  a  view  of  distant  mountains.  The  road  is 
not  yet  in  complete  order,  the  pave  having 

LYONS.  31 

yielded  to  the  Mac -Adam  system.  For  a  few 
miles  we  had  an  extra  horse,  the  ascent  requir- 
ing additional  force.  All  the  towns  we  passed 
through  appeared  dirty  and  out  of  repair ;  the 
few  new  houses  building  were  of  mud,  supported 
by  a  few  planks  and  stones  at  the  base.  From 
Mirabel,  we  ascended  a  steep  hill,  and  soon 
gained  a  fine  view  of  Lyons,  its  surrounding 
gardens,  rivers,  and  mountains,  and  at  twenty 
minutes  before  three  were  set  down  at  the 
Hotel  de  Provence. 

Saturday  Evening,  December  1.  Hotel  de 
Provence.  Lyons. — A  letter  announcing  my  dear 
brother's  continued  illness  gave  us  great  pain. 
It  is  impossible  to  enjoy  the  pleasures  of  the 
world  when  those  we  regard  are  deprived  of 

them.     M went  to  synagogue.     I  did  not 

accompany  him,  finding  myself  hoarse  after  the 
soreness  on  my  chest.  Towards  noon  I  im- 
proved, and  the  sun  invited  me  to  take  a  nearer 
view  of  the  handsome  equestrian  statue  of  Louis 
XIV.,  in  the  Place  Belle-cour,  a  sight  of  which 
and  of  the  neighbouring  mountains,  we  gained 
from  our  window.  The  troops  were  performing 
their  evolutions  in  the  square,  after  completing 
which  they  filed  off  in  martial  array.  The  pro- 
menade along  the  quay  presents  a  busy  scene. 
Numberless  casks  and  bales  were  about  to  be 


embarked  on  the  rivers, — the  Rhone,  the  Saone, 
the  Loire,  which  afford  such  great  facilities  to 
the  commerce  of  this  city.  The  streets  are  badly 
paved  and  worse  kept.  To-day  a  religious  pro- 
cession was  to  have  taken  place,  by  order  of  the 
archbishop,  but  the  people  would  not  allow  it  to 
enter  the  gates  of  the  city.  Multitudes  have 
assembled,  and  insulted  the  priests,  while  they 
demolished  the  figure  representing  the  saint 
intended  to  be  honoured.  At  one  o'clock  I  went 

with   M to  afternoon  prayers.     A .  Mr.  H. 

R ,  President  du  Conservatoire  a  Lyons,  escorted 

us  to  the  neighbouring  restaurateur,  where  dinner 
was  ordered.  This  gentleman  politely  urged  us* 
to  dine  with  him.  He  remained  with  us  during 
the  greater  part  of  our  repast.  This  did  not 
consist  of  the  most  luxurious  kind  of  viands ; 
but  we  were  satisfied,  considering  the  shortness 
of  the  notice  to  prepare  it, 

Sunday,  December  2.  Hotel  de  Provence.  Lyons. 
— A  rainy  morning.  All  the  shops  are  closed. 
Armstrong  is  returned  from  the  post  without 
letters.  We  are  very  anxious  to  hear  from  home. 
It  is  most  perplexing  to  be  on  a  journey  in  a  state 
of  anxious  uncertainty  with  regard  to  sick  friends. 
We  know  not  whether  to  proceed  or  return. 

This  day  admitted  of  no  walk.  We  rode  to 
Mr.  R 's  to  dinner,  and  having  engaged 


a  box  at  the  opera,  which  commences  at  six,  we 
went  thither  at  half-past.  During  our  repast 
our  host  entertained  us  with  anecdotes  of  the 
inhabitants.  The  theatre  is  spacious,  not  ele- 
gantly fitted  up,  but  well  lighted  with  gas.  The 
house  was  full,  and  a  new  ballet  was  presented, 
called  the  Deux  Roses ;  both  the  orchestra, 
dancing,  and  costumes  being  very  superior.  At 
half-past  ten  it  was  over.  The  box  for  four 
persons  was  only  fifteen  francs. 

Monday,   December  3.     Lyons. — A   fine   warm 

morning.     Walked  with  M over  the  quay  to 

the  Hotel  de  Yille.  Saw  the  museum :  greatly 
pleased  with  the  pictures.  A  large  painting  by 
Victor  Orsel,  of  Moses  being  presented  to  Pha- 
raoh, and  another  by  Rubens.  Tasso  in  a 
Lunatic  Hospital,  by  Henry  Richard,  (fine  light 
and  shade,)  and  a  head  by  Rembrant,  fine 
specimens  of  art. 

Tuesday,  December  4.  Hotel  de  Provence. 
Lyons. — Walked  over  the  new  suspension  bridge, 
called  Pont  Palais  de  Justice.  A  new  palace  is 
now  being  erected  opposite  this  bridge.  Entered 
the  cathedral,  and  the  chapel,  where  Saint 
Exupere,  lately  presented  by  Pope  Gregory  XVI. 
to  the  city  of  Lyons,  was  surrounded  by  persons 
to  take  a  view  of  the  martyr,  who  lay,  decorated 
in  white  satin  and  gold,  in  a  glass  coffin. 



By  the  existing  law  of  France,  religious 
public  processions  are  prohibited.  The  Arch- 
bishop of  Lyons,  however,  thought  proper  to 
have  a  public  display  of  the  Pope's  muni- 
ficence; but  the  prefect  fearing  lest  some  dis- 
turbance might  be  produced  by  the  infringement 
on  present  regulations,  sent  a  troop  of  soldiers  to 
prevent  the  procession  entering  the  gates  of  the 
city.  The  multitude  had,  at  an  early  hour,  col- 
lected in  great  numbers.  The  priests  became 
alarmed,  and  retired  round  the  private  entrance 
to  the  cathedral,  and  the  saint  was  at  last  peace- 
ably deposited  in  the  chapel.  We  heard  some 
soldiers,  who  had  just  gratified  their  curiosity 
by  a  look,  say,  laughingly  to  each  other, "  Oh, 
c'est  ne  rien  que  cire"  In  the  evening  went  to  the 
Gymnase  theatre,  and  were  well  entertained. 
Armstrong  and  Ann  went  also. 

Wednesday,  December  5. — I  am  thankful  for  a 
fine  morning  for  our  excursion  upon  the  Rhone,' 
but  the  rain  of  the  preceding  week  has  so  raised 
the  water,  which  flows  abundantly  into  this  river, 
that  the  captain  doubted  for  some  time  whether 
the  passage  under  the  various  chain-bridges 
would  be  practicable.  It  was  at  length  agreed  to 
attempt  it,  and  at  half-past  nine  we  were  on 
board  the  Comete,  French  steam-boat.  Another 
carriage  besides  our  own  was  on  deck,  and  more 

THE  RHONE.  35 

than  a  hundred  passengers,  of  whom  some  were 
English.  I  wrapped  myself  up  pretty  warmly,  as 
I  found  something  more  than  a  gentle  breeze 
blowing,  and  I  had  been  suffering  from  cold  for 
some  days  past.  The  vociferating  calls  of  the 
captain  and  men,  till  I  became  used  to  them,  made 
me  almost  imagine  that  something  alarming  was 
about  to  happen  ;  but  after  the  arrangements  had 
all  been  made,  and  breakfast  finished,  we  found 
the  cheerful  song,  laughing  conversation,  and 
good-tempered  countenances  of  the  crew  very 
agreeable.  The  bustle  and  litter  of  the  luggage 
led  Armstrong  to  suggest  that  the  cabin  would  be 
preferable  to  the  deck  :  however,  we  found  so  nu- 
merous an  assemblage  there,  and  the  ceiling  so 
low,  that  we  soon  returned  to  old  quarters.  I 
amused  myself  with  the  conversation  of  a  French 
lady  and  her  little  boy,  till  the  approach  to  the 
first  bridge,  when  we  all  ran  out  of  the  way  of  the 
ropes  and  chimney,  which  was  to  be  lowered  in 
order  to  clear  the  arch.  This  being  safely  accom- 
plished, we  resumed  our  seats.  The  mountainous 
scenery,  crowned  by  various  old  castles  and  mo- 
nasteries, frequent  villages,  vineyards,  wherever 
nature  favoured  the  industry  of  man,  and  perpen- 
dicular quarries,  were  objects  sufficient  to  amuse 
the  eye,  as  the  rapid  current  impelled  us  on  at  the 
rate  of  fifteen  miles  an  hour.  The  fourth  bridge 
D  2 


now  became  an  object  of  alarm,  it  being  so  low  to 
the  water,  that  for  some  time  it  was  doubted 
whether  we  should  be  able  to  pass.  The  anxiety 
of  the  passengers,  who  had  all  assembled  at  the 
head  of  the  vessel  whilst  the  height  of  water  was 
being  measured,  was  intense.  At  last  it  was  as- 
certained that  there  were  four  inches  to  spare, 
and  the  captain  resolved  on  proceeding.  With 
expressions  and  intimations  of  fear  from  many 
we  cleared  the  bridge  in  safety,  and  again  the 
mind  passed  from  agitation  to  tranquillity.  The 
number  of  new  suspension-bridges  over  the 
several  rivers  in  this  province,  undertaken  by 
companies,  must  greatly  facilitate  the  intercourse 
of  the  various  districts  and  commercial  enterprise. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  these  elegant  structures 
were  not  better  considered  in  respect  to  the  rising 
of  the  waters  of  so  rapid  a  current  as  the  Rhone. 
Much  delay  and  uneasiness  might  thereby  have 
been  avoided.  Perhaps  this  error  may  yet  be 
corrected.  It  was  four  o'clock  before  we  reached 
Valence,  two  hours  later  than  usual.  The  boat 
was  consequently  not  expected  at  the  hotel  this 
evening,  and  the  bustle  of  preparing  dinner  for 
the  Table  d'Hote,  &c.  and  chambers  for  a  greater 
number  of  visitors  than  usual,  immediately  com- 
menced. Armstrong  had  run  off  on  the  first  stop- 
ping of  the  vessel,  to  take  possession  of  the  best 


room  for  us,  so  that  we  found  the  wood-fire 
blazing,  and  tea  already  prepared.  A  plate  of 
macaroni  and  hot  potatoes  soon  added  to  the 
acceptable  repast ;  and  as  we  are  to  be  on  board 
to-morrow  by  six  o'clock,  we  retired  early,  but 
not  to  rest,  repose  being  effectually  banished  by 
the  noise  of  heavy  footsteps,  loud  calling  of 
gar §on  a,n<ifemme  de  chambre,  and  the  conversation 
of  some  of  the  more  contented  guests,  prolonged 
till  a  late  hour.  When  Ann  rapped  at  the  door 
at  four  o'clock,  I  had  had  so  little  sleep  that  I 
requested  her  to  ask  whether  the  captain  did  not 
think  it  too  boisterous  to  depart  ! 

Thursday,  December  6.  Avignon. — Thanks  to 
that  all-merciful  Power,  whose  goodness  towards 
us  has  been  manifest  in  so  many  instances,  we  ar- 
rived at  this  town  in  safety  at  two  o'clock,  after  a 
cold  and  windy  passage  :  I  was,  however,  well 
protected  in  the  carriage,  and  most  of  the  com- 
pany took  refuge  in  the  cabin.  Occasionally  I 
attempted  to  walk  the  deck,  but  as  speedily  made 

my  retreat.     My  dear  M ,  for  the  most  part, 

was  my  companion,  and  several  of  our  yesterday's 
acquaintance  sociably  entered  into  conversation 
at  the  carriage  door.  Among  them  were  the 
Bishop  of  Nancy,  a  man  of  fine  intelligent  coun- 
tenance, and  his  chaplain  ;  and  an  Italian  gentle- 
man, who,  with  his  lady  and  two  young  sons,  are 


on  their  return  to  Milan,  after  some  absence  in 
England.  They  informed  us  that  his  grace  was 
proceeding  to  Rome,  to  make  complaints  to 
his  holiness  against  his  rebellious  flock,  who 
refused  to  follow  certain  rigid  admonitions.  His 
countenance  was  benign  and  amiable,  and  his 
manner  equally  so.  We  thought  we  could  not 
appropriate  the  evening  more  agreeably  than  by 
going  to  the  opera,  and  therefore  sent  to  engage  a 
box,  and  went  at  half-past  six.  La  Dame  Blanche 
was  performed.  It  was  for  the  benefit  of  a  blind 
actor,  who  took  a  part  in  the  after-piece. 

Friday ,  December  7.  Hotel  de  L' Europe.  Avig- 
non.— After  inquiring  concerning  members  of  our 
religion  in  this  town,  we  learn  that  there  is  no 
assemblage  at  synagogue  on  Sabbath,  unless  par- 
ticularly called  for — it  is  merely  on  particular 
holidays  that  they  meet.  A  member  of  our  com- 
munity is  the  master  of  the  Hotel  Palais  Royal, 
opposite  to  this,  but  there  is  no  meat  or  poultry 
to  be  had  properly  killed,  except  it  be  expressly 
ordered.  Went  to  see  the  ancient  cathedral, 
built  on  a  rock,  where  one  of  the  popes,  Innocent 
XII.,  and  many  of  the  most  renowned  men  of  the 
department  of  Vaucluse,  lie  interred. 

The  piercing  wind  prevailing  at  this  time,  and 
which  usually  continues  for  about  three  months, 
made  us  glad  to  return  to  the  hotel. 


The  climate  of  Avignon  is  variable  and  danger- 
ous, a  dazzling  sun  and  overpowering  heat  in 
summer ;  and  in  winter  continued  gales,  are  suf- 
ficient to  try  most  constitutions.  It  is  common 
to  see  chimney-tops  and  tiles  of  houses  lying 
strewed  about  every  morning,  during  the  high 
wind.  The  streets  are  clean,  but  badly  paved, 
and  we  observed  a  great  number  of  empty  houses. 
Our  hostess  presented  me  with  a  delicious  bou- 
quet— roses,  heliotrope,  and  jasmine  :  her  man- 
ners exhibited  no  small  share  of  politeness  and 
good  temper.  Armstrong  contrived  to  have  ex- 
cellent soup-maigre  for  dinner.  The  fish  obtain- 
ed here  from  Marseilles  is  extremely  fresh,  and  of 
good  quality.  The  mail  performs  the  journey  in 
little  more  than  six  hours. 

Saturday,  December  8.  Hotel  de  TEurope. 
Avignon. — A  valet  de  place  escorted  us  to  visit 
some  of  the  curiosities  of  the  town.  The  first 
object  which  demanded  our  attention  was  the 
ancient  palace  of  the  popes,  an  edifice  well  cal- 
culated to  excite  both  awe  and  admiration.  It 
traces  its  origin  to  the  twelfth  century,  and  its 
history  is  connected  with  many  of  the  most 
startling  events  recorded  in  the  annals  of  the 
middle  ages.  The  eminence  on  which  it  stands 
commands  a  most  extensive  view  of  the  plains  of 
Provence,  the  mountains  of  Piedmont,  and  the 


Mediterranean.  Some  of  the  spacious  arched 
rooms  are  now  converted  into  barracks  ;  and  it  is 
not  without  horror  that  one  beholds  the  hall 
where  the  Inquisition  was  held,  the  prisons 
where  the  poor  martyrs  were  incarcerated,  and 
the  spot  where  their  sufferings  were  ended  in 
the  burning  pile.  Several  names  and  dates  were 
inscribed  on  the  walls.  We  were  then  shown 
some  fresco  paintings,  the  colours  on  the  ceilings 
still  retain  great  brightness.  Our  next  visit  was 
to  the  Museum ;  in  the  hall  are  some  immense  jars 
found  in  the  vicinity.  The  collection  of  anti- 
quities and  medals  is  very  interesting,  as  well  as 
the  pictures,  especially  those  by  Vernet,  brothers. 
A  startling  one  is  that  of  a  Cossack  on  horseback 
crossing  a  wooden  bridge  over  a  foaming  torrent. 
The  bridge  gives  way ;  and  the  figure  of  the  horse 
is  terror  itself.  There  are  some  convents  remain- 
ing in  this  town,  about  twelve  out  of  a  hundred 
and  fifty ;  the  nuns  never  go  out,  but  are  allowed 
to  speak  to  their  friends  through  the  grilles.  It 
has  been  a  very  cold  and  windy  day,  though, 
thanks  to  Heaven,  we  have  been  extremely  happy. 
Sunday,  December  9.  Hotel  du  Prince.  Aix. — 
At  nine  we  quitted  Avignon  with  the  good 
wishes  of  our  hostess,  who  expressed  hopes  that 
we  should  not  forget  her  on  our  return  :  she  hand- 
ed us  in  the  carriage  a  parcel  of  cakes,  and  one  of 

AIX.  41 

roasted  chestnuts  for  the  journey.  As  we  pro- 
ceeded the  wind  abated,  but  the  cold  continued. 
Thermometer  forty-eight  to  fifty-two  through- 
out the  day.  About  two  leagues  off  was  the 
famous  wooden  bridge  over  la  Durance,  vis-d-vis  to 
which  is  the  convent  of  la  Chartreuse,  called  le 
Bon  Pas.  Numbers  of  Cypress-trees  planted  in 
rows  form  walls  against  the  sun  and  wind.  Ex- 
tensive plains,  diversified  by  sterile  rocks  and 
snowy  mountains,  extend  over  a  vast  district, 
varied  by  the  olive  and  the  vine.  The  road  for 
twelve  or  fourteen  miles  was  in  good  order ;  it 
then  became  heavy  and  full  of  ruts,  and  for  three 
quarters  of  an  hour  we  had  a  mountainous  pass. 
Innumerable  open  carts  passed  us,  mostly  drawn 
by  mules  with  a  donkey  for  a  leader : — I  do  not 
mean  a  driver  !  The  view  from  the  summit  of  the 
ascent  is  extremely  grand  and  imposing,  from  its 
extent,  and  from  the  various  colours  of  the  sur- 
rounding rocks,  terraces  of  vines  descending  to 
the  valley,  and  the  winding  road  leading  to  the 
town  of  Aix. 

We  arrived  about  twenty  minutes  before  five, 
and  found  spacious  and  well-furnished  apart- 
ments at  this  hotel.  A  fountain  near  a  post-house, 
on  the  way,  reminded  me  very  forcibly  of  our 
having  seen,  during  our  last  journey  on  this 
road,  an  old  woman,  who  moistened  her  hard, 


black  crust  of  bread  at  the  same  stream  !   where 
is  she,  after  so  long  an  interval ! 

Monday,  December  10.  Hotel  Beauveau.  Mar- 
seilles.— As  we  had  but  four  postes'  journey  from 
Aix,  we  walked  through  the  principal  streets  of 
that  town,  and  looked  into  two  churches,  where, 
as  at  all  hours,  we  found  persons  at  their  devo- 
tions. The  houses  are  large,  and  built  of  stone,  but 
the  red  tiles  on  the  roofs  spoil  their  appearance. 

The  streets  are  narrow  and  badly  paved,  clean- 
liness is  disregarded,  but  the  cours  and  boulevards 
are  extremely  agreeable.  As  the  morning  was 
fine,  I  was  tempted  to  take  the  first  station  out- 
side with  dear  M .  We  set  off  at  twelve. 

The  road  was  broad,  and  the  ascents  we  had  to 
pass  were  protected  by  a  parapet-wall.  Many 
labourers  were  repairing  the  road,  which  at  present 
is  in  a  bad  state,  perhaps  from  a  continuance  of 
some  weeks  of  rain.  The  scenery  is  still  ex- 
tensive and  diversified,  pines  ornamenting  the 
hills,  and  olives  and  vines  the  valleys.  At 
length  the  Mediterranean  appeared.  We  then 
passed  some  coal-mines.  On  descending  the 
steep  entrance  into  this  town  the  chain  of  the 
slipper  broke,  and  took  some  minutes  to  arrange, 
during  which  time  the  carriage  was  surrounded 
by  numbers  of  the  idle  and  curious.  In  our  way, 
being  anxious  for  letters,  we  called  at  the  post- 


office,  where  we  found  three.  We  obtained  a  com- 
fortable saloon  and  chamber,  with  servants'  room 
adjoining,  opposite  the  harbour,  which  is  crowded 
with  vessels.  We  are  informed  that  the  Turkish 
ambassador  is  in  this  house,  and  will  depart 
to-morrow  by  sea  for  Constantinople.  The 
appearance  of  the  sky  this  afternoon  has  none  of 
that  azure  so  much  the  boast  of  the  south  of 
France.  It  wears  the  sombre  covering  of  an 
English  December,  though  breathing  a  warmer  air. 
I  find  my  boa  requisite,  and  the  fire  is  constantly 
being  replenished  with  large  logs  of  wood,  near 
which  we  are  passing  the  evening,  thinking  of 
our  friends,  talking  of  them,  reading  and  writing. 
Tuesday,  December  11.  Marseilles. — Mr.  C — 

called  this  morning  to  welcome  M .     At  one 

he  returned  in  a  carriage  with  his  lady,  and  we 
accompanied  them  to  the  gas-station.  We  then 
drove  back,  engaged  a  box  at  the  Grand  Theatre 
for  the  benefit  of  M.  and  Madame  Taigny  of  Paris ; 
great  favourites  here.  A  dinner  being  ordered  at 
Solomon's,  we  went  at  five,  (after  attending  syna- 
gogue, this  being  the  first  day  of  Hanuka,)  and 
found  an  excellent  repast  prepared,  exceedingly 
clean,  and  in  the  best  order:  at  half-past  six 
Armstrong  brought  a  carriage,  and  we  repaired 

to  Rue  de  Rome  to  call  for  Mr.  and  Mrs.  C , 

who    accompanied    us    to    the    theatre.       The 


house  was  thronged  with  well-dressed  company, 
and  the  acting  extremely  good  :  four  amusing 
vaudevilles  wrere  performed,  which  continued  till 
past  eleven  o'clock.  The  vociferating  noise  in 
the  pit,  during  the  acts,  exceeded  anything  of 
the  kind  I  had  ever  before  heard. 

Wednesday,  December  12.  Hotel  Beauveau. 
Marseilles. — This  morning  we  were  greeted  with 
several  letters  from  our  distant  friends.  The 
accounts,  however,  of  our  suffering  relatives  are 
far  from  satisfactory.  May  we  hope  that  the 
divine  mercy  will  grant  them  a  speedy  and  perfect 
restoration  to  health,  amen !  Having  engaged  to 

call  for  Mrs.  C ,  at  eleven  I  was  at  her  house. 

We  drove  for  an  hour  up  the  country,  but  the 
bad  and  heavy  state  of  the  roads  diminished  the 
pleasure  which  the  picturesque  scenery  would 
otherwise  have  afforded.  Went  shopping,  and 
found  articles  of  millinery  expensive  here.  We 
had  some  friends,  at  dinner.  Fish,  vegetables, 
and  fruit  are  extremely  abundant  in  this  country 
and  of  superior  quality,  and  the  bread  the  best  I 
have  tasted  in  France.  Wine  can  be  procured  by 
the  people  at  a  penny  a  bottle.  The  population  con- 
sists of  a  hundred  and  sixty  thousand.  The  trade 
in  corn,  oil,  wine,  and  soap  is  very  considerable. 

Thursday,  December  \%th.  Marseilles. — Mr. 
C calls  every  morning  about  ten  o'clock,  and 


supplies  us  with  Galignani's  and  other  French 
newspapers.  The  number  of  vessels  discharging 
their  cargoes  of  corn,  and  various  other  merchan- 
dise, present  an  amusing  scene  opposite  our  win- 
dows, the  extensive  harbour  being  crowded  with 
vessels  from  different  countries  ;  and  large  steam- 
boats, appointed  by  government,  depart  from  hence 
every  ten  days  for  various  ports  in  Italy,  Egypt, 
&c.  The  quay  affords  a  lively  promenade,  where 
crowds  of  people  of  various  countries  pass  to  and 
fro,  some  smoking,  others  purchasing  at  different 
shops  and  stalls.  The  Corso  is  generally  embel- 
lished with  a  good  supply  of  flowers  for  sale. 
Rows  of  trees  and  well-built  houses  on  either 
side  of  a  rising  walk,  lead  to  the  lazaretto,  which 
is  a  handsome  stone  building  commanding  a  beau- 
tiful sea  view  and  surrounding  rocks  :  the  water 
appears  of  a  deep  blue.  Were  the  people  more 
observant  of  cleanliness  this  would  be  a  delightful 
promenade.  At  present  it  is  used  for  a  rope-walk, 
and  the  houses  on  the  right  appear  dilapidated. 

The  Isle  of  Iff  is  in  view,  where  Mirabeau  was 
imprisoned.  We  often  take  a  luncheon  of  coffee 
or  chocolate  at  the  cafes,  which  are  never  with- 
out company,  many  of  whom  are  seen  at  cards  or 
dominoes  even  in  the  day-time.  Mr.  S con- 
tinues his  dinners  in  the  best  manner.  We  un- 
derstand that  religion  is  greatly  neglected  here — 


and  those,  who  can  best  afford  to  support  the 
institutions,  neglect  them.  The  rabbi  and 
reader  here,  as  in  other  towns,  are  paid  by  govern- 
ment. There  is  a  school  for  boys,  and  one  for 
girls.  Hebrew,  French,  and  Latin  are  taught, 
and  efficient  masters  instruct  them  in  translat- 
ing. We  again  visited  the  theatre,  it  being 
Madame  Taigny's  benefit.  The  audience  was 

numerous  and  respectable.  Mr.  0 and  family 

were  of  our  party,  and  some  of  their  friends 
were  in  the  adj  oining  boxes.  The  entertainments 
continued  till  twelve  o'clock,  at  which  time  the 
gas  is  extinguished.  At  the  moment  the  light 
was  reduced,  though  not  put  out,  this  sudden 
transition  to  the  crowded  company,  from  bril- 
liancy to  dulness,  called  forth  a  burst  of  mirth 
and  good  tempered  remarks. 

Friday,  December  14.  Hotel  Beauveau.  Mar- 
seilles.— There  is  a  constant  succession  of  arrivals 
at  this  hotel;  some  by  steam-boats,  others  by  land; 
some  on  their  way  to  Italy,  others  returning. 

Mr.  R and  his  partner  called  on  us,  and 

offered  most  politely  their  services.  I  wrote  a  letter 

to  my  dear  sister  H ,  then  walked  to  our 

favourite  spot  to  gain  a  view  of  the  sea,  and  after- 
wards to  the  fruit  and  flower  market.  There  is  a 
peculiar  sort  of  fish  sold  here  in  great  abundance, 
rather  larger  than  anchovies,  called  les  Sardines, 


and  also  a  shell-fish  peculiar  to  this  coast.  The 
markets  afford  a  plentiful  supply  of  various  fish, 
to  gratify  the  taste  and  aid  the  observance  of 
abstinence  from  meat  on  Fridays.  A  bottle  of 
Muscat,  a  superior  quality  of  which  is  found 
in  this  country,  was  put  on  our  evening  table,  in 
order  to  chase  away  those  recollections  which  the 
illness  of  our  absent  friends  shaded  with  sadness ; 
but  happily  the  consoling  Sabbath  had  taught  us 
to  confide  in  that  Power  which  alone  can  cure  the 
sick,  give  balm  to  the  afflicted,  and  substitute 
satisfaction  and  felicity  for  regret. 

Saturday,    December     15.       Marseilles. — After 
attending  synagogue,  called   on   Mr.  and   Mrs. 

C .     They  accompanied  us  in  a  walk  up  the 

Mount  de  la  Garde  de  Notre  Dame.  Here  is  a 
column  supporting  a  fine  bust  of  Napoleon.  At 
the  return  of  the  Bourbons  this  was  displaced,  but 
is  now  reinstated.  Further  is  a  venerated  figure 
of  the  Virgin.  Having  passed  a  row  of  handsome 
new  houses,  the  sea  and  adjacent  mountains  com- 
mand the  admiration  of  the  beholder.  Advancing 
further,  the  sight  of  the  extensive  city  and  har- 
bour, crowded  with  sails,  is  added  to  the  coup 
d'oeil.  How  grateful  ought  the  inhabitants  of 
those  regions  to  be,  in  which  nature  and  art  have 
so  munificently  united  to  minister  to  their  wants 
and  pleasures  !  but  here,  as  elsewhere,  you  find 


multitudes  dissatisfied,  poor,  and  unhappy.  A 
small  cottage  to  let  attracted  our  attention  to  its 
beautiful  locality.  A  gentleman  who  possesses 
the  adjoining  house  politely  offered  to  show  us  it 
from  his  garden.  It  is  a  landscape  in  miniature  ; 
a  neat  garden  planted  with  vines,  olives,  and 
flowers,  joined  to  a  pretty  cottage  on  a  hill,  close 
to  the  sea,  within  a  mile  of  the  city.  The  road  back 
was  beautifully  planted  on  either  side  with  choice 
shrubs,  bounded  by  a  trim  hedge,  and  embellished 
with  grottoes,  fountains,  and  stone  seats,  and 
walks  leading  down  to  the  Boulevards.  We  passed 

an  agreeable  evening  at  Mrs.C ?s  where  a  small 

party  were  invited  to  meet  us.    Whist  and  dcarte. 
Sunday,  December    16.       Marseilles. — Our    in- 
quietude   respecting    our    dear   brother   B 

was  in  a  degree  allayed,  by  a  more  favour- 
able letter  from  home;  but  the  one  concern- 
ing the  health  of  my  dear  sister  A was 

not  so  satisfactory.  May  the  Almighty  grant 
them  a  speedy  and  perfect  re-establishment. 
The  promenade  was  to-day  crowded.  Vegeta- 
bles, fruit,  fish,  toys,  and  bonbons  were  to 
be  had  in  abundance,  for  the  enjoyment  of 
the  Sunday,  when  the  superiority  in  dress 
was  observable.  Walked  with  Mr.  and  Mrs. 

C to  the  Sanatoire  to  see  the  bas-relief  of 

Puget,  and  the  paintings  of  the  plague  which 


infested  this  city  in  the  seventeenth  century — one 
of  the  yellow  fever  at  Barcelona,  and  another  of 
the  cholera.  We  afterwards  went  to  see  the 
Hotel  de  Ville ;  the  facade,  and  staircase  by 
Puget  are  extremely  handsome.  Here  we  saw 
another  large  painting  descriptive  of  the  plague, 
executed  by  a  pupil  of  Puget. 

The  figures  are  well  pourtrayed,  and  give  an 
awful  representation  of  that  dreadful  visitation. 
The  galley-slaves  are  sent   to  bury  the  bodies, 
when  all,  except  four,  fall  victims  to  the  scourge. 
The  remaining  four  are  questioned  as  to  the  man- 
ner of  their  escape,  since  all  their  comrades  had 
suffered  :    they  said  it  was  by  the  use  of  strong 
vinegar — whence  that  quality  of  vinegar  was  ever 
after  distinguished  as  "  Vinegar  of  the  four  galley 
slaves."  A  beautiful  picture  of  Hannibal  crossing 
the  Alps,  by  Feron,  also  adorns  this  room.     The 
conqueror  has  just  attained  the  summit  of  the 
mountain,  and  is  in  the  act  of  pointing  out  the 
town  to  his  comrades.     A  wounded  soldier  raises 
his  head  to  behold  the  scene,  while  pain  and 
curiosity  are  blended  in  his  countenance.     The 
clouds  over  the  Alps,  and  the  fine  azure  of  an 
Italian  sky  are  skilfully  depicted.     Our  morning 
excursions   were   terminated  by  a  row  up  the 
harbour.     The  boatman  amused  us  by  his  loqua- 
city, and  we  learned  from  him  that  he  had  been 


a  prisoner  during  the  war,  in  Portsmouth,  and 
had  fought  in  many  a  battle.  He  added  that  war 
was  desirable  at  Marseilles  :  the  population  was 
too  great ; — they  would  eat  each  other  !  We 
landed  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  harbour.  Mr. 

and  Mrs.  C and  Mr.  P took  tea  with  us 

Monday,  December  17.  Cujes. — Our  expecta- 
tion of  receiving  another  letter  was  fulfilled 
this  morning  before  we  quitted  Marseilles, 
though  its  tendency  was  not  of  a  more  favour- 
able nature  than  any  previously  received.  About 
eleven  o'clock  we  were  seated  in  the  carriage, 
and  on  the  road  to  Toulon.  The  diversity  of  the 
scenery  compensated  for  heavy  roads ;  but  as 
the  materials  for  repairing  them  lie  ready  on 
either  side,  it  is  to  be  hoped  they  will  soon  be 
improved.  Crags  reaching  to  the  skies,  wore  a 
different  shape  at  every  turn  of  the  road,  some 
covered  to  the  summit  with  thickly  planted  pine, 
contrasting,  by  its  bright  green  foliage,  with  the 
opposing  sterile  rocks,  and  the  fertile  valley, 
neatly  and  carefully  decked  with  the  olive  and 
vine,  the  young  wheat  springing  up  in  the  inter- 
vals between.  Who  could  behold  these  gifts 
of  Providence  without  reflecting  in  gratitude  on 
the  goodness  whence  they  spring  ?  Huge  masses 
of  stone  for  the  aid  and  purposes  of  art ;  oil, 
for  light  and  taste  ;  wine  to  gladden  the  heart ; 

TOULON.  51 

corn,  the  staff  of  life ; — all  concentrated  in  one 
spot.  Frost  and  ice  were  to  be  seen  here.  At 
Aubagne  we  were  detained  an  hour  and  a  quarter 
for  horses,  but  we  employed  the  interval  in  taking 
some  refreshment,  and  looking  at  a  marble  monu- 
ment, erected  in  honour  of  the  Abbe  Barthelemy, 
author  of  Anacharsis'  Greece.  It  is  surmounted 
by  his  bust,  and  an  account  of  his  works  and 
merits  is  inscribed  on  either  side  the  pedestal 
in  Latin  and  French.  He  was  a  native  of  this 
town.  We  then  proceeded  over  an  improved 
road,  and  through  a  magnificent  country,  to 
Cujes,  and  were  again  informed  that  the  horses 
were  all  out,  but  some  were  expected  to  return 
in  the  course  of  an  hour :  we  waited  patiently 
some  time  beyond  the  stated  period.  At  last  the 
sound  of  the  whip  announced  their  arrival :  the 
poor  animals  had  now  to  be  refreshed.  Another 
hour  had  elapsed,  and  finding  darkness  approach- 
ing, we  judged  it  more  prudent  to  pass  the  night 
in  this  small  town,  particularly  as  the  mistress 
of  the  hotel  had  repeatedly  invited  us  to  walk 
up  stairs  and  warm  ourselves.  We  found  the 
accommodation  surpass  our  expectation.  The 
bread  is  excellent  here,  and  this  with  good  butter, 
coffee,  and  eggs,  by  the  side  of  a  lively  wood  fire, 
composed  an  agreeable  meal. 

Tuesday,    December    18.      Toulon.       Hotel    la 
E  2 


Croix  d'Or. — A  little  before  six  this  morning,  a 
tap  at  the  door  warned  us  that  it  was  time  to 
rise ;  at  half-past  six  the  horses  were  ordered, 
and  we  hastened  to  be  in  readiness.  Again  we 
were  detained  by  the  mismanagement  of  the 
postillions  or  master,  whilst  the  animals  were 
being  rough-shod,  a  work  not  so  speedily  effected 
here.  In  the  meantime  we  heard  a  carriage  arrive; 
it  was  a  caravan  taking  prisoners  to  Toulon. 
Poor  unfortunates  !  not  a  very  enviable  journey 
for  them.  A  little  before  eight  we  were  again 
en  route,  with  an  extra  pair  of  horses,  having  an 
ascent  of  three  quarters  of  an  hour.  The  sub- 
limity of  the  prospects  increased  at  every  turn, 
and  we  could  not  forbear  reflecting  on  the 
long  interval  that  had  elapsed  since  our  former 
visit  to  this  lovely  country,  nor  suppress  our 
thanks  for  being  again  permitted  to  travel 
through  it  in  health  and  enjoyment.  Having 
attained  the  summit,  the  two  extra  horses  were 
unharnessed,  and  we  again  proceeded  with  four : 
an  excellent  road  brought  us  to  the  descent.  The 
craggy  rocks  now  seemed  to  tower  above  the 
skies,  and  awfully  to  refuse  the  appearance  of 
an  outlet,  which  is  only  discovered  on  the  turn 
of  the  road,  pierced  through  the  side  of  the 
stupendous  mountain,  dissevered  from  the  oppo- 
site side  by  a  torrent. 

TOULON.  53 

Though  I  could  not  behold  these  astonishing 
works  of  nature  without  amazement,  yet  the 
more  softening  views  of  the  cultivated  valleys, 
and  terraces  of  vines  and  olives,  with  the  enliven- 
ing pine  covering  the  hills,  were  more  welcome 

Nothing  could  exceed  the  beauty  of  the  sun's 
reflection  on  the  waters  of  the  Mediterranean, 
which  broke  suddenly  on  the  view  between  the 
mountains  in  the  distance,  while  the  towering 
masts  of  the  shipping  increased  the  grandeur,  and 
added  new  life  and  interest  to  the  scene.  After 
a  delightful  journey  of  twenty  miles,  we  reached 
this  town;  and  the  clean  and  well-furnished 
hotel,  in  a  lively  situation,  pleased  us  as  much  as 
the  breakfast  proved  salutary,  after  the  stimu- 
lants of  air  and  exercise. 

We  devoted  this  day  to  letter-writing,  and 
find  ourselves  so  comfortable  as  to  be  wavering 
whether  to  proceed  to-morrow  on  our  way  to 
Nice,  or  remain  here  for  a  few  days. 

Wednesday  y  December  19.  Toulon.  Hotel  la 
Croix  d'Or. — This  comfortable  residence,  town, 
and  sea-air  have  tempted  us  to  continue  till 
Sunday.  Having  asked  permission  of  the  soldier, 
stationed  at  the  entrance  of  the  dock-yard,  to 

enter,  M sent  his  card  to  the  officer,  when  a 

corporal  was  desired  to  show  the  kitchen,  the 


forge,  and  take  us  to  view  the  hospital-ship.  On 
our  return,  the  officer  politely  inquired  if  we 
would  like  to  see  his  garden,  to  which  he  escorted 
us.  It  is  a  walled  retreat,  covered  with  vine  and 
fig-trees,  affording  a  shelter  from  the  summer's 
scorching  sun. 

The  officer  took  great  pains  to  search  for  vio- 
lets, wishing  to  add  some  to  the  ranunculuses 
which  he  had  previously  gathered,  but  all  had 
disappeared,  as  he  said,  in  this  morbid  season.  He 
then  asked  me  if  I  should  fear  an  excursion  on 
the  water.  The  fineness  of  the  day  insured  a 
negative  to  the  question,  and  immediately  a  large 
boat  rowed  by  eight  men  approached  us.  The 
clearness  of  the  water  in  the  inner  harbour  made 
us  consent  to  proceed  to  the  outer  one,  and  while 
gliding  along  this  magnificent  basin,  the  history 
of  the  surrounding  heights,  fortresses,  naval 
schools,  and  ships  were  explained  to  us  by  one 
of  our  gallant  companions. 

First,  the  fortress  built  by  Louis  XIV.,  now 
used  as  an  hospital ;  then  the  sterile  mountains  of 
the  islands  of  Hyeres,  old  castles,  batteries,  mag- 
nificent arsenals,  &c.  The  Montebello  now  be- 
came the  grand  object  of  attention.  A  bell  having 
sounded,  two  midshipmen  appeared  on  the  steps. 
I  was  handed  up,  and  introduced  to  the  officers 
of  this  superb  man-of-war.  Nothing  could  ex- 

TOULON.  55 

ceed  its  neatness.  The  decks  were  as  white  as 
snow,  the  brass  works  as  bright  as  gold,  and  the 
officers'  apartments  were  furnished  with  hand- 
some carpets,  looking-glasses,  and  highly  polished 
mahogany,  with  crimson  silk.  Decks  of  immense 
sjace,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty-guns,  are  found 
in  this  colossal  vessel ;  whose  full  complement 
oi  men  is  one  thousand.  There  were  now  about 
tvo  hundred  on  board. 

After  seeing  the  kitchen,  the  dining  room,  and 
tie  various  equipments  of  the  ship,  we  took  our 
leive,  highly  gratified  at  having  been  permitted 
t(  visit,  with  amicable  sentiments,  an  object  so 
inportant  in  time  of  war,  but  now  of  admiration 
cnly,  and  never  of  terror  to  our  brave  country- 
men. When  experiencing  the  courtesy,  the 
suavity  of  manners  of  strangers  in  a  foreign  clime, 
and  who  have  been  our  rivals  for  years,  one  can- 
not but  hope  most  ardently,  that  ambition  may 
never  again  overpower  humanity,  or  interrupt 
that  delightful  intercourse  with  different  nations, 
and  mankind  in  general,  so  favourable  to  the 
best  interests  of  the  world.  We  returned  to  the 
boat,  escorted  by  the  officer,  Monsieur  A.  A. 

F ,  highly  delighted  with  his  politeness,  and 

our  morning's  amusement. 

The  ship  that  took  Buonaparte  to  Egypt  was 

lying  in  the  harbour :  Monsieur  F said  it 

was  as  a  monument. 


Thursday,  December  20.  Toulon. — Wrote  let- 
ters to  some  of  our  friends,  as  the  post  for 
England  leaves  at  two  o'clock.  We  then  wert 
to  see  the  arsenal,  one  of  the  finest  in  Europe. 
A  written  permission  must  be  obtained  to  viiit 
this  splendid  establishment.  The  stone  buildings 
are  magnificent,  its  arches  and  columns  being  on 
a  gigantic  scale. 

The  rope- walk  extends  twelve  hundred  feetfn 
length,  and  is  supported  by  arches.  We  saw  tiie 
various  processes  of  the  rope-manufacture,  fron 
the  combing  of  the  hemp  to  the  forming  of  tie 
thick  cord.  One  side  of  this  immense  apartmeit 
was  covered  with  enormous  iron  cables.  Tie 
number  of  cannon,  from  eighty  to  thirty,  down  to 
twelve  pounders  was  incalculable  :  several  nev 
ships,  of  one  hundred  guns  each,  are  being  con- 
structed, with  perpendicular  sides  instead  of 
round.  There  was  only  one  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty  guns,  besides  the  Montebello.  The 
armoury  was  embellished  by  several  figures  in 
ancient  coats  of  mail.  The  model-room  contains 
handsome  models  of  remarkable  vessels,  both 
ancient  and  modern,  of  all  nations.  Bands  of 
galley-slaves  are  here  employed,  and  appeared  as 
comfortably  stationed  as  men  in  their  unfortunate 
situation  could  hope  for.  Some  were  sitting 
unemployed,  others  chained  two  and  two,  were 

TOULON.  57 

pointed  out  to  us  as  greater  criminals  than  such 
as  were  alone.  The  green  cap  marks  the  con- 
demned for  life.  After  the  hour  of  labour  they 
are  allowed  to  employ  their  time  to  their  own 
advantage.  We  made  some  trifling  purchases  of 
them  of  carved  wood  and  netted  twine.  One  of 
them  spoke  English  very  well,  and  said  he  was 
condemned  for  seven  years  for  dealing  in  slaves. 
At  half-past  four  the  work-people  left  by  the  gate 
at  which  we  had  entered,  the  only  one  to  the 

We  returned  our  admission-ticket  to  the  sen- 
tinel. A  file  of  soldiers  was  drawn  up  in  the 
outer  court-yard,  to  keep  order  as  the  people  left, 
no  one  being  suffered  to  remain  within  the  gate, 
except  the  prisoners  and  soldiers  to  guard  them. 
The  arsenal  is  said  to  be  more  extensive  than  the 
town  of  Toulon  ;  but  the  population  is  increasing, 
and  several  new  houses  are  being  constructed, 
especially  in  the  faubourg.  Our  valet  de  place, 
to-day,  was  a  brevet  major,  who  had  lost  his  right 
arm  in  the  battle  of  Navarino.  His  countenance 
was  open  and  agreeable,  and  we  found  him  very 
communicative.  Returning  along  the  fine  broad 
quay,  we  met  our  polite  friend,  the  officer  who 
yesterday  escorted  us.  The  fish-market  is  re- 
markable. It  is  covered,  and  supported  by  ten 
stupendous  pillars,  and  was  surrounded  by  fruit 


and  green  stalls.  The  chattering  of  the  women 
and  noise  of  the  purchasers  made  it  seem  a 
second  Babel. 

Friday,  December  21.  Toulon.  Hotel  la  Croix 
d'Or. — A  cold  windy  morning  prevented  our  ful- 
filling our  intention  of  breakfasting  at  Hyeres,  a 
pretty,  small  town,  two  leagues  distant,  famous 
for  orange,  lemon,  citron,  and  pomegranate  trees. 
The  salt-rocks  also  are  beautiful,  with  the  sun's 

The  number  of  diligences  in  the  square  affords 
constant  amusement ;  but  when  my  dear  M— 
is  well  and  happy,  and  I  hear  of  the  welfare  of 
my  friends,  I  want  little  else  to  make  me  perfectly 
so.  At  one  o'clock,  our  usual  hour  for  walking, 
we  went  to  the  quay,  and  took  a  boat  to  examine 
the  inscription  on  the  Muiron,  the  frigate  which 
brought  Buonaparte  from  Egypt ;  it  is  as  fol- 
lows : — 








Pyramids.  An  Eagle  with  Lightning.  An  Oak 

&  Palm-trees.  Emblematical  Figures.  with  Serpents. 

TOULON.  59 

Saturday  Evening,  December  22.  Toulon. — 
A  fine,  but  rather  cold,  day  :  it  is  fortunate  to 
have  some  cold  weather  and  wind  to  chase  away 
the  disagreeable  odours,  and  destroy  the  insects 
prevalent  in  warm  climates.  The  stream  of 
water  running  on  each  side  the  streets  is  also  a 
great  acquisition.  Several  handsome  fountains 
playing  in  the  squares  are  not  only  a  luxury,  but 
a  means  of  safety,  where  epidemic  diseases  have 
scoured  the  country  of  half  its  inhabitants. 
About  two  years  since  the  cholera  raged  here  to 
a  dreadful  extent.  Near  five  thousand  inhabit- 
ants perished  in  a  few  weeks.  May  the  Almighty 
guard  us  from  such  a  visitation  ! 

We  this  morning  walked  to  see  the  works 

erected  for  gas-lighting  by  Mr.  D .  They 

are  situated  outside  the  gates,  near  the  mountains, 
on  an  agreeable  spot  for  the  manager.  This 
town  is  very  quiet  at  an  early  hour  in  the 
evening.  The  bugle  sounds  soon  after  six,  for 
the  soldiers  to  retire  to  their  barracks.  The 
theatre  is  spoken  of  in  terms  that  do  not  excite 
a  wish  to  visit  it.  We  devoted  the  evening  to 

write  to  Mrs.  M and  Mr.  D .  The 

balcony  of  the  Hotel  de  Ville  is  supported  by  two 
marble  grotesque  figures  by  Puget,  said  to  be 
portraits  of  two  official  personages  who  had 
affronted  him,  and  recognised  by  everybody. 


Sunday,  December  23.  Frejus. — Left  Toulon  at 
half -past  seven,  after  a  sojourn  of  five  days  of 
content  and  happiness.  We  passed  the  ramparts 
and  strong  fortifications,  and  entered  on  a  fine 
level  road,  through  a  beautiful  plain,  planted 
with  the  olive  and  vine,  bounded  by  moun- 
tains, mostly  sterile,  but  here  and  there  covered 
with  cultivated  terraces.  An  old  sombre  castle, 
or  fortress,  crowns  some  of  their  summits,  or 
marks  their  centre  as  the  scene  of  actions  worthy 
of  historic  recollection,  and  stamped  with  the 
celebrity  of  Buonaparte,  Louis  XI V.,  or  some  more 
ancient  hero.  The  morning  was  cold  and  gloomy ; 
and  as  our  host  had  predicted,  it  commenced  rain- 
ing as  we  left  Le  Luc,  where  we  breakfasted. 
After  travelling  three  and  three  quarters  postes, 
we  were  rather  disappointed  in  the  appearance 
of  this  town,  and  the  accommodations  at  the  inn  ; 
but  they  did  their  possible,  and  we  could  but  be 
satisfied.  The  road  continued  in  the  best  order, 
winding  through  extensive  plains,  richly  cul- 
tivated, and  more  abounding  in  pasture  than  at 
the  commencement  of  the  day's  journey. 

The  scene  was  enlivened  by  several  flocks  of 
sheep  and  their  shepherds,  and  profusions  of 
emerald-pine  covering  the  heights.  Vidauban 
and  May  are  dirty  old  towns,  though  well  watered 
by  streams  and  fountains.  The  populace  were 

FEE  JUS  TO   NICE.  61 

thickly  assembled  in  the  market-places,  where 
stalls  of  vegetables,  fruit,  &c.,  were  on  show. 
Approaching  this  town,  we  were  struck  with  the 
appearance  of  some  fine  ruins,  vestiges  of  Roman 
architecture.  It  was  near  this  place  that  Buona- 
parte landed,  in  1799,  on  his  return  from  Egypt ; 
and  it  was  from  Frejus  that  he  embarked  on 
going  to  Elba,  after  his  abdication.  We  arrived 
at  half -past  five  o'clock. 

Monday,  December  24.  Frejus  to  Nice.  Ten 
Posies. — Left  Frejus  at  ten  minutes  past  seven, 
after  taking  some  very  nice  coffee.  The  bill  for 
the  night  at  the  Hotel  de  la  Poste  was  very  mo- 
derate. We  again  passed  some  imposing  ruins  of 
a  Roman  aqueduct  and  amphitheatre.  The 
ascent  over  a  steep  and  rocky  mountain  soon 
commenced,  and  as  the  road  wound  round  the 
tremendous  height,  our  fears  were  somewhat  in- 
creased by  the  violence  of  the  snow  and  wind, 
which  continued  nearly  the  whole  of  this  station. 
A  good-tempered,  chatty  postillion,  who  had  for 
forty  years  followed  his  present  avocation,  and 
had  the  honour  of  conducting  Buonaparte  on  his 
return  from  Elba,  informed  us  that,  either  by 
accident  or  design,  the  beautiful  plantations 
of  pine,  cork-trees,  and  olives,  which  cover  the 
mountains,  were  set  on  fire,  and  burnt  to  the  ex- 
tent of  nine  or  ten  miles.  In  many  parts  the 


effect  is  now  visible.  Only  black  trunks  are  re- 
maining in  the  direction  which  the  wind  took, 
making  the  uninjured  wood  more  beautiful  by 
the  contrast.  Arriving  at  the  summit,  the  Medi- 
terranean appeared  again  in  view,  between  the 
distant  mountains ;  and  glad  was  I  to  escape  from 
the  rather  piercing  wind,  to  the  more  sheltered 
plain.  As  we  proceeded,  divers  shrubs  and  trees 
excited  the  wish  that  a  scientific  botanist  were 
present  to  explain  their  various  properties ;  nor 
was  the  geologist  forgotten,  as  we  contemplated 
the  majestic  rocks,  their  various  colours,  and  gro- 
tesque forms.  We  stopped  to  change  horses  at 
Esterel,  at  five  minutes  past  ten,  so  that  we  were 
nearly  three  hours  going  two  postes,  or  ten  miles. 
The  road  afterwards  continued  nearly  level,  and 
in  the  finest  order,  to  the  end  of  the  day's  journey. 
Cannes,  a  beautifully  situated  town  on  the  sea- 
shore, is  fast  improving.  Blocks  of  stone  are 
being  collected  round  the  harbour  for  a  new  port, 
and  several  spacious  hotels  are  nearly  finished. 
We  passed  the  mansion  of  Lord  Brougham,  and 
that  of  Sir  Herbert  Taylor,  near  to  each  other,  on 
the  sea-shore,  surrounded  by  groves  of  orange, 
olive,  &c.,  interspersed  with  vine.  It  being  now 
half-past  twelve,  we  thought  it  time  for  break- 
fast, and  repaired  to  a  cafe'  for  the  purpose. 
Here  a  gentlemen  was  seated,  who  spoke  English, 

NICE.  63 

and  on  M 's  asking  if  there  was  any  butter  in 

the  place,  he  replied,  "  Not  here,  but  there  is  one 
battery  in  the  island,  close  by!"  We  crossed, 
near  Antibes,  a  small,  elegant  suspension- bridge, 
then  a  long  wooden  bridge  over  the  Var,  in  the 
centre  of  which  stood  a  sentinel  and  post-mark, 
the  commencement  of  the  Piedmontese  territory. 

They  detained  us  some  little  time  at  the 
Douanes,  without  giving  us  any  trouble.  The 
foaming  billows  rushed  towards  the  rocky  and 
pebbled  shore  all  the  afternoon,  and  we  congra- 
tulated ourselves  that  we  were  on  dry  land. 
The  twilight  of  approaching  evening  impeded,  in 
a  degree,  the  sight  of  the  neighbouring  beauties 
of  Nice.  But  the  moon  favoured  us,  and  we 
caught  glimpses  of  some  handsome  houses  and 
delicious  orangeries.  Three  letters  awaited  our 
arrival ;  that  from  home  was  far  from  cheering, 
respecting  our  dear  invalids. 

Tuesday,  December  25.  Hotel  des  Etrangers, 
Nice. — Christmas  is  kept  in  this  town  with  great 
solemnity,  and  a  strict  observance  of  the  services 
of  the  church.  All  business  is  suspended,  the 
shops  are  closed,  except  those  of  druggists  and 
confectioners,  and  the  day  had  all  the  quiet  of 
an  English  Sunday,  unless  when  the  repose  was 
occasionally  broken  by  bands  of  music.  About 
ten  this  morning,  we  were  attracted  to  the  win- 


dow  by  a  procession  of  veiled  females,  followed 
by  priests,  each  carrying  a  lighted  wax- taper, 
then  a  statue  borne  by  four  priests,  followed  by 
four  others  bearing  a  coffin,  attended  by  a  num- 
ber of  other  females  in  black  veils  and  dresses, 
all  chanting  the  funeral  dirge.  The  wife  of  the 
Prefet  was  about  to  be  interred.  Peace  to  her 
manes !  In  our  morning's  walk  we  entered  the 
cathedral,  but  the  intense  heat  from  the  great 
assemblage  of  persons  and  number  of  lighted 
candles,  obliged  us  to  quit  instantly,  though  the 
music  and  service  would  have  induced  us  to  re- 
main. The  hills  and  rocks  near  the  sea  are  very 
imposing.  Terraces,  covering  the  houses  of  the 
lower  town,  afford  delightful  promenades.  The 
Corso,  bordered  with  rows  of  trees,  offers  another 
beautiful  walk.  Among  the  monuments  erected 
in  honour  of  a  visit  of  the  king  and  queen,  was 
one  with  Hebrew  characters  on  one  side  of  the 
pedestal,  which  supported  an  obelisk,  with  a 
sphinx  in  each  corner,  all  of  white  marble,  en- 
closed within  an  iron  railing.  It  was  erected  by 
the  Israelites  of  this  town.  My  dear  husband 
was  particularly  gratified  with  this  object. 

Wednesday,  December  26.  Nice. — This  day 
is  also  observed  as  a  fete,  the  shops  being  shut 
and  the  people  abstaining  from  work.  A  military 
band  is  playing  on  the  Corso,  where  they  as- 

NICE.  65 

semble,  and  afterwards  go  to  church.  We  walked 
by  the  sea-side,  and  in  our  way  passed  a  number 
of  country-houses,  fantastically  painted,  and  re- 
minding one  of  a  scene  in  a  play.  The  gardens, 
embellished  with  orange  and  lemon-trees,  loaded 
with  fruit,  and  the  delicate  acacia,  covered  with 
flowers,  are  beautifully  ornamental.  Some  of 
the  walks  are  bordered  with  aloes. 

M —  -  went  in  the  course  of  the  morning  to 

present  his  letters  to  Mr.  A ,  the  Prussian 

consul.  He  was  received  by  that  gentleman  with 
marked  courtesy  and  kindness,  and,  throughout 

our  stay  in  this  place,  both  he  and  Madame  A , 

an  amiable  and  accomplished  lady,  continued  to 
render  us  the  most  obliging  attentions.  In  the 
course  of  conversation  we  learnt  that  this  country 
is  greatly  wanting  in  liberality,  and  that  the 
members  of  our  community  are  subject  to  much 
oppression,  and  many  disadvantages.  How  long 
will  the  powerful  oppress  the  weak,  and  endea- 
vour to  stifle  the  energies  of  their  fellow  beings  ? 
One  consolation  remains  under  such  a  state  of 
things.  Conscientious  feelings,  well  maintained 
under  oppression,  ever  excite  the  sympathy  and 
admiration  of  independent  and  virtuous  minds. 

We  went  at  half-past  seven  to  the  opera. 
The  tragedy  of  Gemma  di  Vergy,  a  new  piece, 
was  performed.  The  house  is  pretty ;  the 


acting  not  of  the  first  rate,  but  very  tolerable. 
There  was  a  crowded  audience,  and  extremely 

Thursday,  December  27.  Nice. — I  wrote  a 

letter  to  my  sister  A .  At  one  o'clock  Mr. 

A paid  us  a  visit,  and  requested  us  to 

accompany  him  in  his  carriage  to  see  his 
country-residence.  Our  own  carriage  was  already 
at  the  door,  but  we  could  not  refuse  his  attention. 

The  drive  continued  for  a  mile  by  the  sea-side, 
and  having  reached  the  villa,  we  found  the  sur- 
rounding gardens  ornamented  with  orange,  lemon, 
and  fig-trees,  luxuriantly  covered  with  fruit  and 
foliage,  while  the  acacia,  rose,  wild  strawberry, 
palm  and  myrtle,  diffused  around  them  grace  and 
fragrance.  Walks,  adapted  to  summer  heat  or 
winter  cold,  are  selected  for  their  aspect.  A  cool 
grotto  and  pavilion  add  to  the  agreeable  retreat 
in  this  little  paradise.  The  house  was  neatly  fur- 
nished, muslin  bed  and  window-curtains  adapted 
to  the  climate.  The  ceilings  painted  iu  the 
Italian  style. 

Mr.  A.  politely  said,  that  he  wished  we  had 
taken  up  our  residence  here ;  that  we  should  find 
all  we  required  in  it,  except  wearing  apparel,  and, 
that  he  hoped  on  our  return  we  would  desire  the 
postillions  to  stop  at  this  abode.  On  our  way 
back  we  wished  to  see  the  column  erected  by  the 

NICE.  67 

Jewish  community,  that  we  might  give  an  order 
to  a  person  to  copy  it. 

To-day  the  shops  are  open,  and  the  town  ap- 
pears gay.  The  older  streets  are  narrow  and 
badly  paved,  and  the  population  dense.  In  the 
new,  handsome  buildings  are  fast  increasing. 

Friday,  December  28.  Nice.  Hotel  des 
Et rangers. — We  regretted  not  being  aware  that 
there  were  three  hotels,  the  H6tel  du  Midi, 
Hdtel  de  France,  and  Hotel  de  Londres,  com- 
manding a  view  of  the  Corso  and  sea,  while  our 
apartments  in  this  hotel  are  cold  and  dull,  and 

look  only  into  the  street.     M had  just  gone  to 

call  on  Mr.  A ,  when  that  gentleman  paid  us 

a  visit,  and  sat  a  long  time  chatting.  He  is  a  very 
agreeable  person,  and  appears  to  possess  great 

knowledge  of  the  world.     Madame  A and 

her  eldest  son  also  paid  us  a  visit :  she  is  a  native 
of  Bourdeaux,  and  has  evidently  a  great  pre- 
dilection for  her  own  country,  though  she  is  keep- 
ing up  a  round  of  gaiety  here,  having  her  weekly 
soirees,  and  her  box  at  the  opera ;  but  I  am  not 
astonished  ;  there  is  something  so  endearing  and 
sweet  in  one's  native  land,  especially  where 
equal  rights  prevail,  and  prejudice  does  not  disse- 
minate her  baneful  influence.  I  wrote  to  my  dear 
Sister  H ,  but  did  not  send  the  letter  to- 
day. M went  to  synagogue.  Mr.  A 

F  2 


was  there,  and  a  very  respectable  number  of 
attendants.  We  amused  ourselves  with  reading 
"  Corinne"  in  the  evening,  and  Galignani,  which 
contains  all  the  news  from  England  for  the  six 
preceding  days. 

Saturday  evening,  December  29.  Nice. — At 

eight  this  morning  I  accompanied  M to  the 

synagogue,  which  we  found  an  extremely  pretty 
building,  and  very  neatly  fitted  up  ;  the  prayers 
were  repeated  in  a  most  distinct  manner,  and 
with  much  devotion.  A  person  wearing  the 
Turkish  Costume  was  called  up.  Mr.  A in- 
formed us  that  he  was  from  Barbary,  and  an  ex- 
ceedingly learned  and  clever  man,  his  writings 
excelling,  in  his  opinion,  those  of  Shakspeare  and 

Only  two  females  were  present,  it  not  being  the 
custom  here  for  ladies  to  attend,  except  on  holi- 
days. One  addressed  me  in  Italian,  and  wished 
to  give  me  every  information.  She  said  there 
were  about  six  families  in  the  community  who 
could  not  maintain  themselves,  but  there  were 
only  three  or  four  rich  families  among  the 
seventy  or  eighty. 

Mrs.  B ,  formerly  Miss  S ,  of  London, 

daughter  of  the  late  doctor,  called  on  me : 
she  has  been  resident  in  this  town  about  twelve 
years,  but  does  not  appear  to  like  the  inhabitants. 

NICE.  69 

She  informed  me,  that  the  column  in  honour  of 
the  late  king's  visit  to  this  town  was  erected  by 
our  nation,  every  other  body  having  displayed 
some  like  testimony  of  loyalty.  The  Haham  also 
paid  us  a  visit :  he  seems  deeply  concerned  at  the 
oppression  to  which  our  community  is  subject ; 
and  thinks  of  leaving  the  place. 

He  appears  a  gentlemanly,  well-instructed  per- 
son, and  they  speak  of  his  son  as  an  accomplished 
teacher  of  Latin  and  Italian.  We  returned  Ma- 
dame A 's  call,  after  which  Monsieur  accom- 
panied us  in  a  pleasant  walk. 

Sunday,  December  30.  Nice. — Took  a  de- 
lightful walk  to  the  cemetery,  the  road  to  which 
is  a  broad  path  up  a  steep  mountain,  planted  on 
each  side  with  cypress,  and  various  other  trees 
and  shrubs.  The  aloes  grow  in  great  profusion 
and  luxury. 

On  the  summit  of  the  hill,  many  a  leaf  is  dis- 
tinguished by  the  name  of  some  fair  favourite 
being  marked  on  it.  I  gathered  some  plant  like 
the  heliotrope  in  flower  and  fragrance.  The  daisy 
and  butter-cup  are  already  in  bloom,  as  well  as 
numberless  heaths.  As  we  were  descending,  we 
met  families,  nicely  dressed,  walking  up,  with  all 
the  enjoyment  of  a  day  of  rest  in  their  counte- 
nances ;  indeed,  I  never  beheld  a  place  where 
the  sabbath  appeared  to  be  kept  more  properly — 


the  shops  closed,  and  the  people  in  the  peaceful 
enjoyment  of  exercise  and  air,  and  neatly  dressed. 
We  again  engaged  a  box  at  the  opera.  The  same 
piece  was  performed  as  before,  Gemma  di  Vergy. 

Mr.  A remained  some  time  with  us  :  his 

lady  was  opposite  in  her  own  box.  M went 

to  pay  his  respects. 

Monday,  December  31.  Nice  to  St.  Hemo. 
Ten  and  a  half  Posies. — A  delightful  morning  : 
took  leave  of  Nice  at  half -past  ten  o'clock.  Mr. 

A was  in  waiting  as  we  passed  his  house  to 

bid  us  farewell.  I  took  my  last  look  of  the  de- 
lightful promenade  with  admiration,  though  not 
with  regret,  never  considering  beauty  of  country 
a  compensation  for  the  want  of  liberality  in  its 
government.  Freedom  of  mind,  and  expansive 
views  of  duty,  these  only  can  teach  us  to  appre- 
ciate properly,  or  enjoy  consistently  the  blessings 
of  the  Almighty. 

We  soon  commenced  ascending  a  steep  and 
rocky  mountain,  which  was  to  continue  for  two 
hours.  I  pitied  the  poor  horses,  which  have  to 
complete  a  stage  of  six  postes,  or  thirty  miles, 
and  asked  the  postillion  why  they  had  not  a  poste 
establishment  on  the  summit  of  St.  Aubert  ?  "  Oh! 
Us  sont  trop  miserables  !  "  but  all  these  rich  olive- 
trees,  and  terraces  of  vines,  and  orange-trees  ! 
"  Ah,"  said  he,  with  a  shrug,  "Us  sontpauvres  gens! 

NICE  TO   ST.   REMO.  71 

The  views  became  grander,  and  more  sublime 
as  we  advanced.  Never  did  I  behold  more  ma- 
jestic scenery.  The  sea  breaks  suddenly  on  the 
view  between  the  rent  of  an  immense  mountain, 
covered  on  each  side  with  trees  and  vineyards, 
and  the  beholder  remains  lost  in  wonder  at  the 
mingled  works  of  nature  and  art.  Marvellous  is 
it  that  the  industry  and  science  of  man,  great  as 
they  are,  could  accomplish  the  design  of  piercing 
a  road  through  the  side  of  a  steep  rock,  wind- 
ing up  to  its  summit,  the  precipices  often  de- 
scending in  a  perpendicular  line  down  to  the  sea. 
At  every  turn  I  trembled  to  think  what  would 
become  of  us  should  the  horses  take  a  false  step. 
Wherever  a  spot  on  the  mountain  is  capable  of 
cultivation,  it  is  carefully  supported  by  stone 
walls  disposed  in  rows  one  above  the  other,  to 
support  the  earth  and  its  produce.  But  the 
labour  is  sometimes  destroyed  by  torrents  of 
rain,  and  vineyards,  walls,  trees,  and  flocks  are 
borne  away  by  the  mountain-cataracts  and 
storms.  Provident  nature  presents  abundance  of 
materials  for  repairs  of  roads ;  and  quarries  of 
stone  and  forests  of  trees  are  seen  in  quick  succes- 
sion. Glad  to  arrive  in  safety  at  Mentone,  the 
postillions  good-temperedly  brought  us,  after 
their  thirty  miles'  stage,  some  oranges  of  the 
country,  which  were  the  sweetest  we  had  tasted. 


The  passport  was  frequently  demanded  to- 
day, and  three  times  the  formality  of  search  in 
these  dominions  was  required.  The  same  moun- 
tainous country  and  sublime  scenery  continued 
during  the  remainder  of  the  day's  journey,  with 
a  sea-view  throughout.  From  Ventimiglia  to 
this  place  the  mountains  were  less  precipitous, 
but  the  road  much  neglected.  In  some  parts  we 
had  to  ford  torrents,  which  greatly  needed 
bridges :  we  saw  one  handsome  suspension- 
bridge  to-day.  For  the  last  fifteen  miles  we 
were  lighted  by  the  moon,  its  clear  beams  re- 
flecting on  the  sea,  like  diamonds  and  sheets  of 
pure  silver  rolling  towards  the  shore.  The 
brightest  planets  were  sparkling  around,  and  we 
might  truly  exclaim,  the  sun  gave  light  by  day, 
and  the  moon  and  stars  by  night :  both  shone 
with  a  lustre  I  had  never  before  beheld.  We 
thank  the  Almighty,  who  has  allowed  us  to  con- 
template this  glorious  and  resplendent  scene,  and 
brought  us  hither  in  safety.  Santo  Remo  is  a 
large  old  town,  the  streets  steep  and  narrow,  with 
lofty  houses  on  either  side.  Its  trade  is  prin- 
cipally in  oil,  oranges,  and  lemons ;  the  trees  bear- 
ing which  so  richly  and  gracefully  ornament  the 
vicinity.  We  found  accommodation  at  the  Hotel 
de  la  Poste.  A  room  large  enough  for  a  dozen  per- 
sons was  assigned  to  us.  I  was  glad  to  find  that 

ST.   REMO   TO  FINALE.  73 

Ann's  chamber  was  adjoining,  and  Armstrong's 
not  far  off. 

January  1,  1839,  from  San  Remo  to  Finale. — 
Another  year  has  passed  !  Oh  !  may  the  forth- 
coming be  attended  with  the  blessings  we  have 
hitherto  experienced,  and  may  the  Almighty 
continue  to  protect  us  from  whatever  is  harmful 
or  unholy  !  May  our  time  be  employed  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  merit  thy  protection,  O  Lord,  and  in 
the  pursuit  of  what  may  lead  to  our  own  true  im- 
provement and  the  benefit  of  our  fellow-creatures ! 
Another  difficult  day's  journey — mountains,  pre- 
cipices, and  rugged  roads !  We  had  to  ford 
several  torrents,  which  in  spring  I  should  suppose 
impassable.  A  new  road  is  almost  finished,  on  a 
level  with  the  sea.  It  is  now  in  a  state  for  foot- 
passengers,  but  not  yet  for  carriages.  This  will 
be  a  great  advantage  to  travellers.  In  order  to 
avoid  the  precipitous  turnings  in  the  mountain, 
unprotected  by  a  parapet,  but  presenting  a  preci- 
pice shelving  down  to  the  sea  many  hundred  feet 
deep,  and  a  narrow  and  rocky  road,  with  terrific 
rocks  on  the  other  side,  we  walked  for  about  an 
hour  and  a  half,  regardless  of  the  wounds  my  feet 
encountered  from  the  sharp  bulging  flints.  The 
wind  was  also  fierce  and  powerful,  and  we  were 
forcibly  reminded  of  David's  psalm,  "I  lift  up  mine 
eyes  unto  the  hills  whence  cometh  my  help.  My 


help  is  from  the  Lord,  who  made  heaven  and  earth. 
He  will  not  suffer  thy  foot  to  slip,  neither  will  thy 
keeper  slumber."  How  forcibly  was  the  truth 
presented  to  us!  It  is  in  viewing  the  wonders  of 
nature  that  we  can  best  admire  that  Omnipotent 
power,  who  alone  guides  us  in  the  proper  path. 
We  found  some  oranges  very  refreshing  in  the 
carriage.  Numbers  of  priests  and  students  were 
enjoying  the  fesfa,  promenading  in  the  environs 
of  the  different  towns  through  which  we  passed. 
There  were  also  groups  of  nicely-dressed  females, 
whose  costume,  a  white  thin  scarf,  descending 
over  the  head  to  the  waist,  was  very  becoming. 
Marble  begins  to  display  itself  in  the  ornaments 
round  the  doors  of  houses,  &c.  and  though  the 
streets  of  most  of  the  towns  we  passed  through 
were  extremely  narrow,  still  the  shops  of  some 
seemed  well  supplied,  and  the  people  were  re- 
spectably attired.  How  lovely  again  the  moon 
appeared  rising  from  the  sea,  while  the  stars  dif- 
fused a  more  than  usual  brilliancy — they  seemed 
to  console  us  for  the  fatigue  and  dread  we  had 
suffered  in  walking  up  and  down  this  difficult  and 
rugged  mountain  !  Arrived  at  forty-five  minutes 
past  six,  and  set  off  from  San  Remo  at  seven 

o'clock.    M calls  me  a  little  Napoleon !    What 

an  honour !  and  yet  I  would  not  be  so  ambitious. 
Wednesday,   January   2.       Finale   to    Genoa — 


Left  at  eight.  The  weather  still  propitious.  On 
leaving  this  town  we  passed  through  a  gallery 
pierced  in  the  rock.  The  road  much  improved 
along  the  seashore  ;  the  ascents  being  protected 
by  parapets,  while  plantations  of  pine  intermixed 
with  myrtles,  olives,  and  a  variety  of  shrubs, 
covered  the  hills  up  to  the  summit,  the  boundary- 
line  to  which  is  a  chain  of  snowy  Alps.  When- 
ever the  road  became  too  steep  for  our  nerves, 
we  took  advantage  of  the  bright  and  clear 
atmosphere,  and  found  the  exercise  of  walking 
extremely  beneficial.  The  majestic  aloes,  border- 
ing the  brows  of  mountains,  and  the  different 
species  of  weeping  plants  and  heath,  ornamenting 
the  banks,  often  created  the  wish  to  transfer  some 
to  our  friends  at  home.  Again  we  had  to  ford 
several  torrents :  the  women  washing  in  the 
streams  and  rivulets,  with  divers-coloured  hand- 
kerchiefs loosely  tied  under  the  chin,  had  a  most 
picturesque  appearance.  As  we  passed  through 
forests  of  olive-trees,  the  women  and  children 
collecting  the  fallen  fruit  in  baskets,  was  an 
equally  pleasing  sight.  In  several  of  the  towns 
the  men  were  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of 
white  pottery ;  while  women  and  children,  sitting 
on  the  shore,  or  outside  their  doors,  were  making 
fishermen's  nets,  or  turning  the  wheel  for  twine. 
At  Voltri  ship  and  boat-building  form  the  chief 


employment.  We  passed  under  three  galleries 
pierced  through  the  rock,  during  this  day's 
journey,  and  the  scenery  was  the  most  picturesque 
and  beautiful  I  recollect  ever  to  have  seen,  while 
it  was  happily  unattended  with  any  dread,  the 
roads  being  wider  and  better  protected  by  walls. 
As  we  wound  round  the  mountains,  the  prospect 
of  the  different  bays  and  several  towns,  at  the 
foot  of  the  Apennines, 

"  With  the  blue  above  and  the  blue  beneath," 
formed  an  ever-diversified  and  moving  panorama. 
Genoa,  with  its  superb  palaces  was  long  in  sight. 
In  its  immediate  environs,  orange-groves  and 
alcoves  of  vine,  gracefully  supported  by  marble 
columns,  ornamented  the  terraces  and  gardens  of 
the  country-houses. 

On  entering  the  town  we  found  signs  of  the 
busy  spirit  of  improvement.  This  was  chiefly 
evident  in  the  enlargement  of  one  of  the  principal 
streets,  the  alteration  of  which  can  only  be  effected 
at  very  considerable  expense.  The  Prince  of 
Oldenburgh  and  family,  who  left  Nice  the  evening 
before  we  started,  were  just  about  to  embark  for 
Leghorn  in  the  steam-boat,  which  leaves  at  six 
this  evening,  and  is  expected  to  arrive  at  six 
o'clock  to-morrow  morning.  They  have  four 
carriages,  and  were  detained  on  the  road  for 
horses  yesterday.  At  half-past  four  we  were  set 

GENOA.  77 

down  at  the  Hdtel  de  Quatre  Nations,  and  had  the 
pleasure  of  meeting  with  superb  apartments, 
with  a  view  of  the  port,  light-house,  and  shipping. 
Armstrong  immediately  went  to  the  post  to 

inquire  for  letters.     There  was  one  from  H , 

imparting   a   more   favourable   account   of   the 

health   of   our   dear   brother   B ,   who   was 

improving,  though  slowly. 

Thursday,  January  3.  Genoa.  Hdtel  de  Quatre 
Nations. — We  are  delighted  with  our  rooms ;  they 
command  a  fine  view  of  the  most  characteristic 
features  of  the  city,  are  lofty,  and  exhibit  along 
the  surface  of  the  domed  ceilings,  a  series  of  well- 
painted  mythological  fables.  A  massive  gilt  cor- 
nice, and  walls  en-suite.  A  chamber  furnished 
with  yellow  satin  damask,  the  saloon  with  light 
blue,  and  a  marble  balcony  admitting  us  to  the 
free  enjoyment  of  the  air  and  enlivening  pros- 
pect, are  some  of  the  many  luxuries  which  these 
elegant  apartments  afford.  The  only  inconve- 
niences are  those  of  descending  seventy-eight 
stone  stairs  every  time  we  go  out,  and  so  direct 
an  exposure  to  the  powerful  rays  of  the  sun, 
that  we  are  compelled,  while  writing,  to  have 
the  curtains  drawn.  Prince  and  Princess  Old- 
enburgh,  who  left  this  hotel  yesterday  evening  in 
a  steam-boat  for  Leghorn,  returned  this  morning 
at  two  o'clock,  and  have  again  set  off  by  land.  It 


was  stormy,  and  something  is  stated  to  have  hap- 
pened to  the  boiler, — no  very  pleasant  circum- 
stance with  a  retinue  of  four  carriages. 

We  dined  at  a  restaurateur's  of  our  own  com- 
munity ;  but  though  everything  was  clean  and 
good,  the  distance,  and  a  long  covered  narrow 
street,  consisting  of  blacksmiths'  shops,  through 
which  we  had  to  pass,  made  us  prefer  having 
our  dinners  at  the  hotel. 

In  the  evening  we  went  to  the  principal  thea- 
tre, Carlo  Felici,  a  handsome  building,  with  a 
richly  ornamented  fa9ade  of  white  marble 
columns,  and  five  tiers  of  boxes.  A  new  lyric 
tragedy,  called  Don  Gazzia,  was  performed.  The 
prima  donna  had  a  fine  powerful  voice  and  com- 
manding person,  and  the  stage  and  decorations 
were  on  a  grand  scale.  Two  ballets  were  also 
presented,  one  of  which  was  Elisabetto  al  Castello 
dl  Kenelworth.  The  house  was  not  thronged. 
Some  of  the  ladies  went  in  sedan-chairs,  attended 
by  two  footmen  in  livery,  besides  the  chair-men  ; 
but  the  carriages  were  not  very  numerous.  In 
one  of  the  upper  boxes  some  gentlemen  were 
seated  at  a  card-table,  engaged  apparently  at 
whist.  They  had  wax  lights,  and  seemed  as 
much  at  their  ease  as  in  their  own  drawing-rooms. 
Conversation  and  animated  gestures  were  general, 
and  we  were  led  to  conclude  that  warm  climates 

GENOA.  79 

must  have  a  great  effect  on  the  mind,  silence  or 
inaction  being  of  such  rare  occurrence.  The 
mezsaro,  a  long  piece  of  muslin  worn  over  the 
heads  of  the  Genoese  ladies,  is  extremely  be- 
coming. The  more  ordinary  class  wear  printed 
cotton  of  large  pattern;  in  other  respects  the 
wealthier  are  not  distinguished  by  any  particular 
costume,  but  wear  what  fancy  dictates,  as  in 
other  countries.  Fish,  fruit,  and  vegetables  are 
very  plentiful  here.  The  John-dory,  here  called 
St.  Pierre,  is  plentiful  and  much  esteemed. 

Friday,  January  4.  Genoa. — Went  to  the  Pa- 
lazzo Doria.  We  could  only  see  the  garden  to- 
day, but  were  promised  a  view  of  the  palace  on 
Sunday.  The  family  reside  in  Rome.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  so  magnificent  a  residence  should 
be  uninhabited.  The  situation  is  charming,  being 
opposite  the  bay,  and  though  the  garden  is  too 
precise  to  please,  the  marble  terraces  and  fresco 
paintings  richly  compensate  for  the  want  of  more 
uatural  beauty.  On  going  away  the  gardener 
presented  me  with  a  bouquet,  choice  and  fragrant. 
On  our  return  we  looked  in  at  the  church  of  the 
Annunciata,  rich  in  white  and  red  marble  columns. 
Mass  was  being  performed,  and  several  persons 
were  at  their  devotions.  The  master  of  our  hotel 
showed  us  several  other  suites  of  apartments,  some 
with  rich  damask  tapestry,  others  with  ancient 


Chinese  paintings  on  satin,  formerly  belonging  to 
the  doge.  We  preferred  our  own,  as  being  more 
lively  and  airy. 

Saturday,  5th  January,  1839.       Genoa. — It  re- 
quired some  resolution  to  be  ready  this  morning 

to  accompany  M to  synagogue,  it  being  on 

the  other  side  of  the  Mole,  and  he  always  desirous 
of  arriving  at  the  commencement  of  the  service, 
which  we  had  the  satisfaction  of  doing.  There 
were  only  four  ladies  present  besides  myself,  but 
the  assemblage  of  gentlemen  was  respectable, 

both  as  to  number  and  appearance.     Mr.  M , 

consul  and  charge'  d'affaires  for  Morocco,  is  one 

of   the   principal  members ;  also  a  Mr.  A : 

they  both  called  at  our  hotel,  but  we  were  out. 
We  returned  by  way  of  the  Mole,  which  is  a  work 
between  two  walls,  supported  by  arches,  with 
streets  beneath.  It  extends  round  the  har- 
bour, and  commands  a  busy  scene  and  salu- 
brious air.  We  were  amused  with  watching 
the  unlading  of  the  corn  and  other  goods,  the 
number  of  persons  employed,  and  the  general  in- 
dustry of  the  people.  Many  of  them  work  ex- 
tremely hard,  carrying  immense  weights  on  the 
head  or  back.  From  their  loud  mode  of  talking 
one  imagines  them  to  be  quarrelling.  We  went  in 
the  evening  to  the  theatre  St.  Augustin,  which 
was  very  well  attended,  and  is  a  good-sized  house 

GENOA.  81 

but  the  entrance  is  bad,  and  it  is  not  nicely  kept 
Most  of  the  boxes  and  pit  were  full.  The  Italians 
are  as  fond  of  theatres  as  their  neighbours,  the 
French.  The  population  of  Genoa  comprises 
about  one  hundred  thousand,  in  which  only  sixty 
or  seventy  families  belong  to  our  community. 

Sunday,  Qth  January.  Genoa. — We  engaged  a 
m let-de-place,  and  visited  some  of  the  principal 
palaces.  The.  city  abounds  in  the  riches  of 
architecture,  painting,  and  sculpture ;  and  as 
admission  into  the  noblest  mansions  is  readily 
allowed,  it  would  be  unpardonable  for  a  stranger 
not  to  visit  them,  though  the  number  of  stone 
stairs  (seventy-eight)  made  it  rather  fatiguing 
to  ascend.  Palais  Brignole,  Rue  Neuve,  is  one 
of  the  most  superb  for  its  marble  staircase  and 
columns,  and  possesses  one  of  the  choicest  collec- 
tions of  pictures  in  Genoa.  A  beautiful  full- 
length  painting,  by  Vandyke,  of  La  Marquise  de 
Brignole  ;  the  marquis,  by  the  same  artist,  in 
Spanish  costume,  and  Judith,  with  the  head  of 
Holofernes,  by  Paul  Veronese,  are  remarkably 
fine  works.  The  four  rooms  representing  the 
seasons,  and  several  other  apartments  are  filled 
with  rare  paintings,  busts,  and  other  magnificent 
curiosities.  We  next  visited  Palais  Serra ;  the 
decorations  of  the  principal  salle  are  the  most 
magnificent  I  ever  beheld.  The  walls  are  de- 



corated  to  imitate  lapis  lazuli ;  gold  and  marble 
columns  support  a  beautifully  painted  octagon 
ceiling,  while  immense  looking-glasses,  alter- 
nating with  the  pillars,  four  bas  reliefs  over  the 
doors  and  a  mosaic  pavement  of  the  finest  marbles, 
complete  the  ornaments  of  this  splendid  saloon, 
assuredly  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  Italy,  and 
costing  a  fortune  in  its  construction.  We  next 
proceeded  to  the  Palais  Ditrazzo,  Hue  Balbi ;  the 
marble  columns,  statues,  beautiful  staircase,  and 
fresco  walls  of  which  strike  the  visitor  with 
wonder.  The  several  rooms  are  filled  with  paint- 
ings by  the  old  masters  of  highest  fame.  Our 
next  and  last  visit  for  the  day  was  to  Palais  du 
Prince  d'Oria  Panfili.  As  it  was  situated  beyond 
the  gate  of  St.  Thomas  we  had  sufficient  exercise 
to-day,  but  our  gratification  in  witnessing  so 
many  astonishing  works  of  art  overcame  every 
feeling  of  fatigue.  There  we  saw  the  armour, 
chair,  and  sword  of  Charles  V.  of  Spain,  and  had 
the  honour  of  holding  the  formidable  weapon  in 
our  hands.  The  trophies  were  presented  by  the 
Pope  to  Andrea  d'Oria,  the  restorer  of  liberty  to 
his  country.  No  finer  view  of  the  gulf,  the  city, 
and  surrounding  Alps,  can  be  obtained  than  from 
the  window  of  this  palace.  The  marble  terraces 
and  fountains  in  the  garden  are  refreshed  by  the 
sea-breezes,  and  derive  a  romantic  beauty  from 

GENOA.  83 

the  delicious  shades  of  cypress  and  orange-trees. 
This  residence  has  been  honoured  by  the  sojourn 
of  Buonaparte  and  'other  royal  personages.  The 
prince's  secretary  was  extremely  polite,  showing 
us  all  the  objects  rendered  interesting  by  history, 
the  fine  arts,  talent,  and  past  ages. 

Numbers  of  well-dressed  persons  throng  the 
streets  in  the  afternoon,  and  on  account  of  the 
festa  this  day  the  city  was  particularly  gay.  Large 
cakes  and  confectionery  of  great  variety  were  on 
sale.  The  clergy  and  military  form  a  great  por- 
tion of  the  population.  We  again  attended  the 
performance  of  Don  Gazzia  at  the  opera,  where 
we  obtained  a  box  on  the  first  tier,  an  excellent 
situation,  for  twenty-five  francs  besides  entrance. 
Sunday  is  the  best  night. 

Monday,  January  7.  I  made  some  purchases 
of  silver  flowers,  a  velvet  dress,  &c.,  and  the  valet- 
de-place  procured  an  order  for  our  again  visiting 
the  Conservatoire  de  Fraschini,  founded  in  1790,  by 
Dominico  Freschi,  a  Genoese  nobleman,  for  the 
support  of  orphan  females,  who  learn  a  trade  and 
receive  a  marriage-portion  in  case  of  their  form- 
ing an  alliance  with  the  sanction  of  the  patrons. 
The  most  beautiful  artificial  flowers  are  manu- 
factured by  the  inmates  of  this  establishment,  and 
embroidery  in  muslin  and  cambric  forms  another 
part  of  their  employment.  As  we  purchased  some 
G  2 


on  our  former  visit,  we  did  the  same  on  this, 
reflecting  with  gratitude  that  the  Almighty  had 
graciously  permitted  us  to  survive,  and,  after  so 
long  a  period,  revisit  this  admirable  establish- 
ment in  health  and  comfort.  There  are  two  hun- 
dred girls  supported,  besides  matrons,  nurses, 
cooks,  &c.  A  handsome  chapel  attracted  our 
attention,  and  after  passing  the  lower  corridor,  we 
entered  the  flower-rooms,  where  cases  of  flowers, 
fruit  and  needlework  are  kept  on  show  for  sale. 
A  priest,  and  some  of  the  matrons  and  young  wo- 
men, all  neatly  dressed  in  the  same  style,  attended 
us.  Our  purchases  having  been  arranged,  we 
were  shown  the  different  dormitories,  every  apart- 
ment being  conspicuous  for  cleanliness  and  order. 
On  the  opposite  side  of  the  square  is  a  building 
appropriated  to  the  infirmary,  to  which  two  phy- 
sicians are  attached.  The  brightness  of  the  coppers 
in  the  kitchen  corresponded  with  the  nicety  of  the 
stone  floors  and  wooden  dressers.  The  tables  were 
laid  in  the  dining-room,  and  a  pint  glass-decan- 
ter of  wine  was  placed  for  each  person,  at  the 
side  of  the  knife,  fork,  spoon,  and  plate.  They 
have  three  meals  a  day.  The  breakfast  is  but 
spare,  merely  bread  and  water,  but  the  dinner 
consists  of  soup,  meat,  vegetables,  &c.,  and  in  the 
evening  they  have  soup,  bread,  and  vegetables. 
There  is  a  nice  garden  and  small  farm  attached ; 

GENOA.  85 

and  they  grind  their  own  flour,  make  their  bread, 
wine,  and  oil :  in  fact,  the  institution  is  a  little 
town  in  itself,  governed  with  admirable  order  and 
cleanliness.  Our  next  visit  was  to  Palais  Palla- 
vicini,  dit  delle  Peschiere,  a  country  residence  of 
the  Marquis  Pallavicini :  the  admirable  order  and 
taste  of  the  garden,  aided  by  numbers  of  foun- 
tains, grottoes,  statues,  and  pebbled  pavement, 
forming  various  devices,  display  a  combination  of 
art,  industry,  and  good  taste.  The  housekeeper 
presented  me  with  a  choice  bouquet ;  and  the 
gardener  displayed  a  variety  of  camellias,  pine- 
apple, pepper,  tea,  and  coffee-plants ;  orange, 
lemon,  and  citron-trees,  all  kept  and  preserved 
with  the  strictest  care.  The  designs  of  the  build- 
ing were  by  Galeas  Alessi,  one  of  the  best  archi- 
tects of  Genoa,  and  of  the  school  of  Michael 

Tuesday,  January  8.      Hotel  de  Quatre  Nations. 

—Walked  with  M round  the  walls  to  the 

synagogue.  This  edifice  has  been  erected  one  hun- 
dred and  eighteen  years,  and  one  of  its  founders 
was  a  Mr.  Mendes.  There  are  many  poor  here, 
as  elsewhere.  A  young  man  from  Tunis  asked 
assistance ;  the  rabbi  said  he  had  arrived  about 
three  days  ago  :  he  had  a  fearfully  emaciated  look, 
but  his  figure  and  countenance  were  superior  ; 
and  upon  receiving  a  trifle  he  eagerly  seized 


M 's  hand  and  mine  and  kissed  them.     Again 

we  observed  the  busy  scene  in  the  port ;  boats  of 
corn  being  unladen,  the  men  standing  on  it  with 
their  bare  feet.  A  beautiful  new  street,  to  be 
called  Alberto  Felice,  is  being  constructed.  The 
houses  will  be  of  immense  magnitude,  the  large 
blocks  of  plaster  and  stone  pilasters,  which  form' 
their  walls,  giving  proof  already  of  their  intended 
magnificence.  This,  and  the  beautiful  new  pro- 
menade, with  hedges  of  laurestinus  and  roses 
encircling  the  fountains,  will  be  an  immense 
improvement  and  advantage  to  the  inhabitants, 
and  form  a  contrast  to  the  narrow  ancient  streets 
impassable  to  carriages.  Genoa,  among  its  other 
splendid  objects  attracting  notice,  may  hope  soon 
to  boast  of  equipages. 

Wednesday,  January  9.  Genoa  to  Chiavari.— 
At  nine  o'clock  we  took  leave  of  the  Hotel  de 
Quatre  Nations,  where  we  had  passed  a  delight- 
fully happy  week,  finding  great  civility  from  the 
host  and  attendants.  In  passing  through  the 
streets  of  Genoa,  I  could  but  re-admire  the  mag- 
nificent palaces,  and,  perhaps,  form  a  wish  to  see 
them  again  :  it  would  not  be  amiss,  in  that  case, 
to  engage  un  etage  in  one  of  them,  as  it  is  no  un- 
common thing  for  a  part  or  the  whole  of  some  of 
them  to  be  let ;  the  proprietors  often  possessing 
others  at  Rome,  Milan,  or  some  other  city. 


A  delightful  morning  cast  a  brilliancy  on  the 
mountains,  orange-groves,  and  sea,  by  the  side  of 
which,  but  considerably  above  it,  ran  our  preci- 
pitous path.  The  road  was  in  the  best  order,  and 
not  alarmingly  steep,  but  winding  round  the 
sides  of  the  mountains,  sometimes  down  to  the 
sea-shore.  We  passed  several  villages  bordering 
the  bays,  and  hills  crowned  with  country-houses ; 
displaying  a  rich  population,  supported  by  the 
fruits  of  the  surrounding  fields,  well  and  indus- 
triously cultivated.  The  marble  and  stone  in  the 
environs  present  many  facilities  for  building  and 
decoration.  We  passed  under  three  galleries  cut 
through  the  rock,  and  bulging  into  the  sea.  In 
descending  into  Rapello  and  Chiavari  the  leaders 
were  sent  back.  Arrived  at  the  Hotel  de  la  Paste 
a  quarter  before  four  o'clock — strolled  down  the 
arcade,  where  the  shops  are  situated,  and  walked 
into  a  handsome  church  in  the  place. 

Thursday,  January  10.  Chiavari  to  La  Spezia. 
— The  night  was  stormy — shutters  blowing  back- 
wards and  forwards,  to  the  great  risk  of  the 
windows  and  the  certain  interruption  of  rest, 
which  was  rather  annoying,  as  we  had  ordered  the 
horses  at  six  o'clock,  by  which  time  we  were  in 
the  carriage.  The  moon  and  stars  were  still  dif- 
fusing their  placid  light  around,  and  reflecting 
their  silvery  brightness  in  the  water.  We  had  to 


cross  a  bridge  over  a  torrent  called  the  Lavagna. 
For  hal£-an-hour  the  road  continued  broad  and 
level,  lined  by  two  rows  of  trees,  succeeded  by  a 
bank  of  beautiful  aloes  close  to  the  sea.  Again  the 
mountains  reared  their  majestic  heads,  but  as  the 
road  was  not  generally  so  precipitous  they  lost 
somewhat  of  their  power  to  terrify.  When  the 
high  wind  made  the  windows  tremble,  we  judged 
it  prudent  to  descend.  On  gaining  the  summit, 
two  beautiful  bays — the  towns  of  Chiavari  and 
Sestri  on  their  borders ;  mountains  above,  with 
monasteries  and  campanelli,  presented  a  delight- 
ful coup-d'oei?. 

The  Brocco  and  Borghetto  mountains  appeared 
as  formidable  and  sternly  grand  as  ever.  We 
observed  some  new  houses,  and  traces  of  cultiva- 
tion wherever  human  industry  could  possibly  be 
brought  into  exercise.  The  shallow  soil,  sup- 
ported by  stone  walls,  shelving  up  immense 
heights,  appeared  almost  to  defy  the  efforts  of 
either  ingenuity  or  toil.  Sometimes  those  ardu- 
ous labours  are  rendered  unavailing  by  over- 
powering gales,  when  the  vines,  the  walls,  and 
the  soil  are  at  once  precipitated  into  the  deep 
abyss.  Icicles  and  ice  shining  on  the  rocks  were 
visible  to-day  more  frequently  than  hitherto.  In 
descending  into  this  town,  we  allowed  the  leaders 
again  to  be  taken  off.  Arrived  at  La  Spezia  at 
four  o'clock. 

LA    SPEZIA   TO    CARRARA.  89 

The  postillions  drove  to  I' Hotel  cV  Unirers  in- 
stead of  la  Croix  de  Matte,  the  one  we  had  formerly 
put  up  at,  without  our  observing  it  until  the 
luggage  was  taken  off.  This  was  a  source  of  some 

vexation  to  M ,  who  always  prefers  going  to 

the  same.  However  they  did  their  possible  to 
make  us  comfortable.  We  walked  on  the  pro- 
menade down  the  pier,  and  observed  the  beautiful 
and  spacious  pool,  and  the  new  public  gardens, 
with  rows  of  fruit-trees  and  shrubs. 

Friday,  January  1L.  La  Spezia  to  Carrara. — 
I  purchased  a  small  hat  of  straw,  a  part  of  the 
costume  of  the  country.  There  is  something 
gratifying  in  these  mementoes  of  a  journey,  re- 
minding us  of  the  characteristics  of  different 
countries.  The  grand  objects  of  nature  readily 
implant  their  images  in  the  mind,  but  those  of 
art  are  more  easily  forgotten,  proving  thereby 
their  comparative  insignificance. 

We  were  rather  amused  with  the  volubility  of 
our  last  waiter ;  among  other  circumstances  he 
recounted,  was  that  of  a  lady  and  gentleman 
being  at  the  hotel  who  were  but  recently  united 
in  the  holy  state  of  marriage,  but  in  whose  ages 
and  appearance  there  was  a  remarkable  disparity. 
The  lady  was  about  eighteen  years  old,  and  ex- 
tremely diminutive  ;  the  gentleman,  nearly  sixty 
and  very  tall.  At  nine  o'clock,  we  pursued  our 


journey  to  Carrara,  where  we  arrived  about  half- 
past  one.  The  accommodation  at  the  hotel  was 
very  indifferent ;  large  rooms,  bat  locks  that 
would  not  act,  and  which  obliged  us  to  sit  in  a 
draught,  whereby  I  increased  my  cough.  The  valet- 
de-place  immediately  offered  his  services,  of  which 
we  availed  ourselves,  and  repaired  for  a  couple  of 
hours  to  the  studii  of  various  sculptors,  among 
whom  the  best  is  Vincenzo  Borranni.  We  also 
walked  into  the  church,  a  handsome  building,  rich 
in  marble,  and  possessing  some  paintings.  But 
there  is  a  general  want  of  neatness  and  finish  in 
the  edifices  though  materials  are  so  abundantly  at 

Saturday,  January  12.  Carrara. — Soon  after 
breakfast  we  were  visited  by  an  elderly  gentleman 
and  his  two  nephews ;  the  first  having  been  a 

correspondent  of  M 's  late  father,  who  carried 

on  considerable  business  with  this  town  in  marble. 
It  was  as  interesting  as  affecting  to  hear  a  conver- 
sation marked  by  respect  and  friendship  on  the 
one  hand,  and  on  the  other  by  a  true  feeling  of 
filial  affection  towards  the  memory  and  character 
of  a  person  long  ago  deceased,  but  fresh  and  vivid, 
in  the  mind  of  the  son  and  the  friend.  A  letter  in 
his  handwriting  was  produced  and  read  by 

M with  a  degree  of  admiration,  which  the 

writing  and  language  fully  justified.    That  which 


in  this  instance  was  valuable,  time  seemed  re- 
luctant to  efface.  Would  it  were  always  so  ! 

We  employed  the  day  in  viewing  works  of  art, 
and  in  visiting  the  Musee,  an  establishment  for  the 
instruction  of  youth  in  the  arts  and  sciences.  It  is 
supported  by  the  government.  There  are  at 
present  about  two  hundred  pupils,  among  whom 
is  one  young  man,  now  about  eighteen,  who  has 
succeeded  in  obtaining  several  prizes  for  the  best 
drawings  and  designs.  His  talent  manifested 
itself  at  an  early  age,  his  first  prize  having  been 
awarded  at  nine  years  old.  We  observed  two 
children  amusing  themselves  in  the  street,  one 
with  a  piece  of  marble  resembling  a  little  block, 
the  other  measuring  it  with  a  paper  compass. 
Thus  does  imitation  steal  into  the  infant  mind,  and 
become  matured  with  age  either  for  good  or  evil. 
The  day  has  been  extremely  hot ;  the  sun  setting 
between  the  mountains,  diffusing  its  golden  tints, 
and  sinking  below  the  horizon  in  glowing  majesty- 

Sunday,  January  13.  Carrara  fo  Leghorn. — 
M—  -  wishing  to  pass  the  anniversary  of  his 
father's  death  at  Leghorn,  we  arose  this  morning 
at  the  early  hour  of  two  ;  and  were  en  route  by  a 
quarter-past  four,  the  horses  having  been  ordered 
at  three.  To  our  great  annoyance,  we  had  to  wait 
their  arrival  from  Massa  more  than  an  hour.  In- 
quiry or  reproof  as  to  this  neglect  was  futile  :  it 


is  better  to  bear  patiently  that  which  is  incurable, 
particularly  in  a  foreign  country,  than  with  cho- 
leric dispositions.  However,  the  men  proved  care- 
ful drivers,  and  the  rich  plains  of  Tuscany  had 
sufficient  beauty,  even  at  this  season,  to  inspire 
us  with  gratitude  and  satisfaction ;  for  though 
the  vines  and  elms  were  divested  of  their  foliage, 
still  their  graceful  forms,  with  their  promised 
worth,  and  the  green  flax  and  young  wheat  spring- 
ing up  between  gave  birth  to  a  thousand  sweet 
associations.  Handsome  country-seats  embel- 
lished the  hills,  with  woods  of  olives,  thickly 
planted  up  to  the  summits.  The  roads  in  excellent 
order,  broad,  and  protected  by  parapets.  It  is 
now  the  season  for  pruning  the  vine  and  gathering 
the  olives.  The  sun's  genial  warmth  induces  the 
people  to  be  much  out  of  the  house  ;  they  not  only 
sit  on  the  road-side  at  work,  but  dress  their  hair 
out  of  doors  :  it  is  often  a  Sunday's  pastime  to 
have  the  head  of  one  young  woman  in  the  lap  of 
another,  arranging  the  hair,  &c.  We  breakfasted 
at  an  excellent  hotel,  at  Lucca,  the  Pelican,  and 
then  pursued  our  route  through  a  continued  rich 

Leghorn  presents  itself  to  view  long  before 
the  traveller  arrives  there.  Several  canals  aid 
the  communication  of  the  city  with  the  neigh- 
bouring districts,  and  mules  and  donkeys  are 


everywhere  seen  laden  with  barrels  of  oil  or 
wine,  &c.,  which  articles  form  the  principal 
branches  of  commerce  between  this  and  Lucca. 
We  arrived  at  the  Locanda  San  Marco  at  half- 
past  three.  M proceeded  instantly  to  syna- 
gogue to  offer  his  prayers  in  memory  of  his  de- 
ceased parent.  This  procured  us  the  early 

visit    of    Mr.  L M ,    who    came    about 

seven  to  the  hotel.  The  host,  Mr.  Thompson, 
also  came  to  pay  his  devoirs  :  he  stated  that  Leg- 
horn had  suffered  materially  by  the  cholera,  but 
more  by  the  fear  excited  than  by  its  actual 
ravages.  The  steamboats  bring  many  visitors, 
but  commerce  had  declined,  though  at  this 
moment  there  was  a  great  deal  doing  in  corn, 
and  cargoes  of  that  article  were  now  ready  and 
waiting  the  arrival  of  vessels,  which  have  been 
engaged  from  England  to  export  it. 

Monday,  January  14.  Leghorn. — I  availed 
myself  of  a  breakfast  sola,  to  indulge  until  a  late 
hour  for  the  benefit  of  repose,  finding  my  cold 
rather  troublesome.  I  was  honoured  with  visitors 
before  I  had  commenced  my  toilette  ;  Madame 
J and  Mr.  P were  announced  :  it  de- 
volved on  M to  keep  up  a  conversation  until 

I  could  make  my  appearance.  Eleven  years  had 
effected  but  slight  alteration  to  the  prejudice  of 
either  father  or  daughter-in-law.  His  son  was 


confined  with  the  gout ;  thus  every  country  is 
subject  to  diseases.  I  had  just  commenced  writing 
to  my  dear  sister  A ,  when  another  gentle- 
man was  introduced,  a  Mr.  B ;  he  con- 
tinued for  nearly  an  hour  in  conversation,  describ- 
ing the  situation  of  our  brethren  in  this  city. 
Many  improvements  have  been  effected  in  the 
buildings  and  streets,  and  by  the  general  enlarge- 
ment of  the  town,  by  throwing  back  the  walls 
and  gates.  He  confirmed  our  opinion,  that  com- 
merce was  not  so  flourishing  at  the  present  junc- 
ture ;  for  property  which  formerly  was  appro- 
priated to  foreign  enterprise,  now  became  in- 
vested in  these  new  buildings,  thereby  confining 
the  circulation  and  returns. 

Tuesday,  January  15.  Leghorn,  Locanda  San 
Marco. — Finding  myself  better,  I  accompanied 

my  dear  M in  an  open  carriage  to  pay  visits  ; 

among  the  rest  was  one  to  Count  and  Countess 

L ,  who  have  a  magnificent  residence  in  Via 

Nuova.  This  gentleman  purchased,  not  long 
ago,  some  land,  which  was  discovered  to  pos- 
sess valuable  chemical  properties ;  he  now  em- 
ploys about  one  thousand  persons  on  the  estate, 
and  sells  the  article  at  a  great  profit. 

They  say  he  has  amassed  a  large  fortune  ;  cer- 
tainly his  house  is  most  splendidly  decorated 
with  marbles,  paintings,  antiquities,  and  elegan- 

LEGHORN   TO   MASS  A.  9o 

cies  of  every  description.  The  Grand  Duke  has 
conferred  upon  him  the  title  of  count,  in  addition 
to  that  of  chevalier,  which  he  previously  pos- 
sessed ;  and  his  eldest  daughter,  a  handsome 
young  lady,  is  married  to  a  baron.  The  poor  man 
who  sold  the  estate  committed  suicide,  broken- 
hearted and  distracted,  at  having  sacrificed  for 
a  comparative  trifle  that  which  was  soon  after 
proved  to  be  of  so  much  value.  The  popu- 
lation of  Leghorn  amounts  to  about  seventy  thou- 
sand, from  seven  to  eight  thousand  of  which  are 
of  our  community.  The  character  of  the  people 
seems  similar  to  that  of  the  Genoese ;  they  delight 
in  gesticulation  and  clamour,  and  are  cheerful 
and  industrious.  The  men  spread  out  the  corn 
with  their  feet,  and  several  other  disgusting 
habits  prevail  while  they  are  loading  the  sacks, 
which  makes  one  reflect  that  even  bread,  the 
staff  of  life,  is  not  the  nicest  article  of  food. 

Wednesday,  January  16.  Leghorn  to  Massa. — 
In  consequence  of  not  having  completed  our  pur- 
chases at  Carrara,  we  have  resolved  to  return. 
M—  -  having  a  severe  head-ache,  I  walked  out 
attended  by  Armstrong  before  breakfast,  to  see 
some  collections  of  marble  and  alabaster,  and  pur- 
chased a  small  model  of  the  leaning  tower  of  Pisa. 

I   found  on  my  return  M busy  answering 

notes,  and  Mr.  L.  M waiting  to  say  farewell. 


We  left  Leghorn  at  eleven,  after  calling  to  see  the 
handsome  synagogue,  which  is  about  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  years  old.  A  numerous  throng  of 
people  stood  gazing  at  the  carriage  until  we  again 

drove  off.  The  day  being  fine,  M soon  found 

himself  restored  by  exercise  in  the  pure  atmo- 
sphere. The  detention  for  examining  the  pass- 
port at  the  different  confines  is  somewhat  tedious, 
in  Tuscany,  Lucca,  and  Modena,  and  we  did  not 
reach  the  summit  of  Montramedo  until  dusk. 
Whatever  dread  some  caverns  in  the  rocks  might 
have  created,  the  soft  and  glittering  stars  speedily 
dissipated.  The  country-people  conducting  the 
yoked  oxen  with  loads  of  dried  leaves  and  prun- 
ings  of  vines  and  elms,  tranquilly  passing  to 
their  night's  rest  after  the  labours  of  the  day, 
.were  all  we  encountered  on  the  mountain,  and  at 
six  o'clock  we  were  seated  at  the  very  comfort- 
able fireside  of  Fra^ois  Esmecol,  Hotel  de  Quatre 
Nations,  Massa. 

We  recognised  several  names  in  the  visitor's 
book,  and  many  were  the  eulogies  justly  passed 
on  the  civility  and  cleanliness  of  this  establish- 

Thursday,  January  17.  Massa. — We  had  a 
small  carriage  with  a  pair  of  post-horses  to  take 
us  to  Carrara,  about  one  poste,  along  a  rough  and 
mountainous  path.  This  is  the  feast  of  St. 


Antonio,  and  all  the  horses  in  the  district  were 
being  taken  to  receive  their  annual  blessing  from 
the  saint.  On  approaching  the  town  we  were 
saluted  by  our  Friday's  guide,  who  again  accom- 
panied us  to  the  various  studios;  at  several  M 

made  purchases,  and  gave  an  order  for  our  arms 
to  be  executed  in  basso-relievo.  The  sculptors 
are  employed  at  this  place  in  supplying  marble 
columns,  friezes,  and  other  decorations  for  a  new 
royal  palace,  which  is  in  progress  of  erection  at 
St.  Petersburgh,  in  place  of  that  burnt  last 

There  were  many  articles  very  tempting :  works 

of  art  are  dangerous  and  seductive  ;  M says 

I  shall  ruin  him  by  this  day's  purchase.  The 
artists  are  eager  to  dispose  of  their  works,  and  do 
not  appear  to  be  surrounded  by  great  luxuries. 
It  is  no  small  satisfaction  to  be  enabled  to  en- 
courage industry,  securing  at  the  same  time  the 
gratification  of  one's  own  taste.  Returned  from 

Carrara  at  six  o'clock.  A  Mr.  D ,  an  artist 

of  this  town,  called  on  us,  and  stated  that  he  had 
just  sent  a  large  vase  to  England,  an  order  for  the 
Queen,  and  offered  his  services. 

Friday,  January  18.  Massa  to  Florence. — 
We  were  again  detained  half  an  hour  for  the 
horses,  having  ordered  them  at  four  o'clock,  at 
which  early  hour  we  were  in  readiness,  and  set  off 



at  half-past.     Our  carriage-lamps  burnt  well,  and 
numbers  of  stars  illumined  the  firmament. 

The  sound  of  church-bells  falls  solemnly  on  the 
ear,  when  the  busy  world  is  sunk  in  slumber. 
How  beautiful  it  is  to  watch  the  advance  of 
dawn,  the  first  break  of  light  along  the  horizon, 
the  mild  waning  of  the  stars ;  and  the  peasant 
commencing  the  early  toils  of  the  day  !  The 
smiling  valleys  of  Tuscany,  even  when  the  trees 
are  bereft  of  their  foliage,  exhibit  the  bounty  of 
nature,  and  the  industry  of  the  human  race. 
Small  squares  of  land,  divided  by  trees  supporting 
festoons  of  vine,  seem  like  so  many  sets  of  qua- 
diilles  marked  out  on  green  carpets  of  flax,  hemp, 
and  wheat.  The  ground  is  neatly  trenched,  and 
readily  lets  off  the  water  from  the  Apennines, 
forming  streams  on  each  side  the  road.  We 
breakfasted  at  Lucca,  and  found  the  meal 
extremely  salutary  after  a  very  cold  morning's 
drive,  the  frost  and  ice  in  many  parts  exhibiting 
winter  under  a  sterner  aspect  than  I  had  supposed 
he  would  assume  in  the  plains  of  Italy.  At 
Pistoja  an  extra  horse  was  taken  for  the  ascent  of 
the  mountains.  We  passed  many  villages  and 
towns,  some  of  which  hang  beetling  on  the  brow 
of  lofty  hills.  The  female  peasantry  near  Florence 
wear  unbecoming  black  beaver  hats,  more  proper 
for  their  husbands,  the  head-dress  of  some,  how- 


ever,  was  a  scarlet  cloth  cap,  with  a  blue  tassel 
a  la  Grecque,  others  had  merely  their  hair  neatly 
dressed,  and  were  sitting  outside  their  doors, 
plaiting  straw,  spinning,  or  turning  the  wheel. 
The  employment  of  the  people  is  a  great  bless- 
ing. Wherever  industry  is  to  be  found,  cheer- 
fulness, health,  and  good  temper  are  generally 
the  accompaniments.  The  postes  seem  much 
longer  in  this  part  of  the  country  than  heretofore, 
and  we  were  later  than  we  expected  and  than  our 
informant  led  us  to  believe.  We  at  length,  how- 
ever, thanks  to  the  Almighty,  reached  Florence  in 
safety,  and  after  renewed  examinations  of  the  pass- 
ports, drove  to  the  Hdtel  Schneider.  The  apart- 
ments near  the  river  are  extremely  cold,  but  after 
seeing  rooms  on  the  other  side  of  the  house,  we 
remain  in  the  first  shown  to  us,  neither  being  well 
adapted  to  a  cold  season.  Some  chambers  are 
even  without  fire-places,  and  their  lofty  stone 
walls  and  stone  floorings  little  agree  with  our  ideas 
of  comfort.  Indeed,  we  had  promised  ourselves  a 
delightful  week's  sojourn  at  this  celebrated  hotel, 
but  either  the  house  or  the  climate  we  think 
must  be  altered.  Poor  Mr.  Schneider  himself  is 
no  more.  How  glaringly  manifest,  wherever  we 
go,  are  the  ravages  of  time  !  Most  travellers  are 
gone  to  Rome,  the  centre  of  attraction  for  the 

H  2 


Saturday,  January  19.  Florence. — M went 

to  synagogue,  the  weather  was  extremely  cold, 
and  we  suffered  in  the  house  far  more  than  in 
our  comfortable  English  home.  I  cough  and 
sneeze  in  consequence.  We  had  the  gratification 
of  receiving  several  letters  from  our  friends,  with 
the  pleasing  intelligence  of  our  dear  brother 

B 's  gradual  improvement.  My  sister  A 

is  also  better,  but  poor  L has  not  recovered 

her  voice.  May  the  Almighty  grant  them  all  a 
speedy  and  perfect  restoration  !  The  north  side 
of  the  Arno  is  rendered  warm  and  salubrious  by 
the  reflection  of  the  southern  sun,  and  it  is  ac- 
cordingly greatly  frequented  by  promenaders  of 
every  class.  I  should  advise  any  one  subject  to 
cough  or  pulmonary  complaint  by  all  means  to 
avoid  the  northern  aspect  in  winter. 

We  walked  into  the  church  of  8.  Maria  del 
Fiore,  which  Michael  Angelo  called  Sua  sposa. 
It  is  a  spacious  edifice,  and  was  commenced 
in  the  thirteenth  century.  The  cupola  is  remark- 
able for  its  height,  and  for  being  covered  with 
various  coloured  marbles.  The  interior  was 
painted  by  Vasari  and  Zucchero,  and  the  pave- 
ment, formed  of  different-coloured  marbles,  is 
extremely  beautiful.  8.  Giovanni,  or  the  Bap- 
tistry, has  three  bronze  doors  in  superb  basso- 
relievo,  one  by  Andrea  Pisano,  the  other  two  by 


Lorenzo  Ghiberto,  the  subjects  are  from  the  Old 
Testament,  and  so  admirably  executed  that 
Michael  Angelo  said  they  were  fit  for  the  gates  of 

Sunday,    January  20.     Florence. — One   degree 
warmer  to-day,  the  thermometer  in  our  chamber 

at  forty-four.     A  Mr.  P paid  us  a  visit.     He 

gave  us  a  gratifying  account  of  the  Tuscan  go- 
vernment, of  the  liberal  disposition  of  the  Grand- 
duke  towards  all  creeds,  and  the  satisfactory  situa- 
tion of  our  brethren  in  this  city.  The  number 
amounts  to  about  three  thousand,  of  whom  several 
are  extremely  well  off,  and  keep  their  carriages 
and  country-houses.  No  profession,  however,  is 
open  to  them  except  that  of  medicine.  Such  re- 
strictions must  necessarily  have  a  tendency  to 
confine  the  mind ;  but  if  under  these  disadvan- 
tages, the  sublime  desire  of  pleasing  Him  to  whom 
the  most  powerful  must  bend,  be  never  lost  sight 
of,  and  our  actions  be  organized  and  regulated 
accordingly,  the  view  is  no  longer  limited,  but 
the  spirit  frees  itself  by  a  bold  effort,  from 
the  shackles  imposed  by  mistaken  zeal  or  selfish 
policy.  Commerce,  the  road  to  wealth,  is  yet 
left  open.  Several  houses  have  made  a  tobacco- 
contract  with  the  government  for  seven  years- 
The  Grand-duke  imagining  that  the  offer  of  the 
contractors  might  prove  inimical  to  their  interest, 


inquired  whether  they  wished  to  reconsider  it. 
They,  with  submission,  thanked  him,  but  kept  to 
their  proposal,  and  it  proved  sufficiently  advan- 
tageous in  its  result.  This  was  alike  honourable 
and  generous  to  both  parties.  We  walked,  and 
passed  the  evening  at  the  opera.  The  perform- 
ance was  Chiara  di  Eosemberghe  and  TIdolo  del 

Monday,  January  21.  Florence.  —  Weather 
extremely  cold  and  damp  :  my  cold  is  so  much 
increased  that  we  determined  to  leave  Schneider's 
Hotel,  and  have  engaged  rooms  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  Arno,  at  the  Hotel  de  la  Grande 
Bretagne,  excellently  furnished,  spacious  and 
warm.  Naturally  we  felt  reluctant  to  quit  a 
house  at  which  we  had  first  taken  up  our  abode ; 
but  we  found  it  at  this  season  perceptibly  cold 
and  damp  ;  and  dare  not  longer  risk  our  health. 
In  summer,  doubtless,  Schneider's  Hotel  would 
be  preferred.  Our  second  visit  to  Santa  Croce  was 
attended  with  renewed  delight.  Here  are  de- 
posited the  ashes  of  the  most  celebrated  geniuses 
of  the  land,  and  in  beholding  the  statues  and 
busts  of  Dante,  Alfieri,  Michael  Angelo,  Gallileo, 
Machiavelli,  and  others,  where  painting,  sculp- 
ture, and  architecture,  alike  vie  to  attest  their 
merit,  the  mind  rejoices  at  being  allowed  to 
meditate  among  so  many  relics  of  worth,  and 


feels,  in  its  momentary  excitement,  to  partake  of 
their  noble  impulses  and  exalted  views.  The 
monument  to  the  memory  of  Alfieri  was  executed 
by  Canova  at  the  expense  of  the  Countess  of 
Albany,  and  that  in  honour  of  Dante  was  the 
work  of  Stephen  Ricci,  done  in  1830.  The 
Niccolini  chapel  is  rich  in  rare  marbles  and 
exquisite  paintings.  The  Four  Sybils  in  the 
angles,  painted  by  Volterrano,  appear  like  life. 
Grotto-works  adorn  the  convent.  Santa  Croce 
may  truly  be  styled  a  sacred  depository  of  the 
combined  talent  of  ages  long  gone  by,  but  whose 
power  still  operates  to  adorn  and  exalt  human 
nature.  In  every  turning  of  a  street  or  square 
the  lover  of  the  arts  may  be  gratified  in  this  city ; 
columns,  statues,  campanilli,  churches,  palaces 
command  and  secure  attention.  I  found  myself 
towards  evening  greatly  indisposed. 

Tuesday,  January  22.    Florence. — This  morning 
I  feel  much  the  same,  but  with  the  kind  attention 

of  my  dear  M ,  a  warm  suite  of  apartments, 

and  keeping  at  home  to-day,  I  hope  soon  to  be 
perfectly  well.  The  sky  has  all  the  appearance 
of  that  of  England,  when  full  of  wintry  vapour. 
Letter-writing  and  reading,  with  the  purchase  of 
a  black  dress  for  the  Duchess  of  Wurtemberg,  and 

a  Leghorn  hat,  filled  up  the  morning,  till  M 

went  out  to  dinner.     He  returned  early,  and  we 


employed  the  evening  in  reading  and  writing.  I 
find  silks  and  millinery  extremely  expensive  here, 
perhaps  strangers  are  imposed  on.  We  had 
taken  tickets  for  a  very  select  concert,  but  did  not 
go,  on  account  of  my  health.  It  is  more  difficult 
I  think  to  get  rid  of  a  cold  here  than  in  England. 
January  23.  Hotel  de  Grande  Bretagne. 
Florence. — A  oUill  and  rainy  day:  my  cold  is  rather 
better,  but  I  prudently  keep  within.  I  have  little 
for  my  journal  to-day.  M went  out  for  exer- 
cise about  two  o'clock,  dined  at  three,  and  then 
went  to  the  Cafe  S.  Martina,  to  read  Galignani. 
In  the  mean  time  I  commenced  a  letter  to  my 

dear  sister  J ,  and  could  not  help  expressing 

how  deeply  I  felt  the  affectionate  attentions 
which  soothed  my  hours  of  indisposition.  My 
table  is  graced  by  a  beautiful  bouquet,  presented 
to  me  by  my  dear  M .  Would  I  could  trans- 
port some  of  the  delicious  flowers  sold  in  every 
street  through  which  we  pass,  to  our  dear  friend 
and  parent !  It  is  the  custom  here  to  place  straw 
under  the  carpets,  I  suppose  in  order  to  prevent 
the  stone  floors  from  injuring  them,  and  also  to 
render  them  warmer  and  softer  to  the  feet.  I 
observed,  in  the  Life  of  Michael  Angelo  Buona- 
rotti,  which  formed  this  evening's  amusement, 
that  the  arts  and  literature  flourished  most  con- 
spicuously about  the  same  epochs  in  different 


countries.  An  interesting  anecdote  is  related  of 
Giotto,  an  eminent  artist  of  the  twelfth  century : 
he  was  a  shepherd  boy,  and  being  observed  by 
Cimabue,  while  tracing  the  figure  of  a  lamb  on  a 
piece  of  stone,  the  latter  was  so  struck  with  the 
perfection  of  the  attempt,  that  he  immediately 
engaged  him  in  the  study  of  painting,  which  he 
prosecuted  with  such  success  that  his  works 
became  models  for  other  artists,  and  ornaments 
to  his  country. 

Thursday,  January  24.  Florence. — We  had 
a  close  carriage  in  order  to  visit  the  several 
celebrated  churches  of  this  city.  Among  the 
more  remarkable  of  these  edifices  are  the  San 
Lorenzo,  and  8.  Maria  de  Nouvelle,  commenced 
in  the  year  1221,  under  the  direction  of  the 
Campi,  two  Dominican  brothers.  They  contain 
paintings  of  Cimabue,  Giotto,  and  other  highly 
esteemed  masters  of  the  early  schools. 

Surrounded  by  such  objects  the  poet  sang  : 

"  Look  around ! 

And  know  that  where  we  stand,  stood  oft  and  long, 
Oft  till  the  day  had  gone,  Raphael  himself, 
He  and  his  haughty  rival  : — patiently, 
Humbly,  to  learn  of  those  who  came  before, 
To  steal  a  spark  from  their  authentic  fire, — 
Theirs  who  first  broke  the  universal  gloom,  — 
Sons  of  the  morning," 

We  also  revisited  the  convent  of  Dominican 
monks,  who  have  a  fine  establishment  for  drugs, 


chemistry,  perfumery,  and  liqueurs.  Being 
tempted  by  the  celebrity  of  this  manufactory,  as 
well  as  by  the  admirable  order  and  nicety  of  the 
different  objects,  we  purchased  some  perfumery 
and  chocolate.  The  friar  who  served  us  was  re- 
markably mild  and  civil  in  his  manner.  We  also 
rode  round  the  public  gardens,  which  are  well 
planted  with  trees  and  shrubs.  A  casino  and 
country  houses  vary  the  scene,  bounded  by  the 
Apennines  on  either  side,  with  the  Arno  beneath. 

This  river  in  many  parts  is  extremely  shallow  ; 
a  handsome  suspension-bridge  is  constructed 
over  it,  but  the  curious  old  stone  bridge,  with 
shops  above,  and  a  subterranean  passage  leading 
from  the  Pitti  Library  to  the  Lorenzo  Chapel,  is 
one  of  the  most  remarkable  objects  in  Florence. 
It  somewhat  reminded  us  of  the  Rialto  at 
Venice,  though  not  so  handsome.  We  made  a 
stop  at  the  Cafe  the  refreshment  at  which,  with 
a  sight  of  Galignani,  containing  news  within  six 
days  from  London,  was  very  acceptable.  The 
promenade  on  one  side  the  Arno  is  thronged 
from  two  till  four  with  passengers  on  foot  or 
riding,  and  flower-girls,  with  choice  bouquets, 
thrust  the  flowers  into  the  hands  of  people 
passing,  with  or  without  their  will. 

Friday,  January  25.  Florence.  Hotel  Grande 
Bretagne. — It  is  delightful  to  revisit  objects 


which,  from  their  own  merit  and  excellence, 
have  made  a  deep  impression  on  the  imagination. 
Such  is  the  Palazzo  Pitti.  The  massive  stone  walls 
of  this  magnificent  structure  are  surrounded 
with  gay  and  smiling  gardens,  viewed  in  their 
full  extent  from  the  large  windows  of  the  palace. 
Its  interior  decorations  are  of  the  noblest  kind, 
the  lofty  ceilings  being  covered  with  frescoes  by 
the  most  renowned  masters,  and  bordered  with 
splendid  gilding ;  while  the  walls  are  richly 
hung  with  the  works  of  Michael  Angelo,  Raphael, 
Titian,  Vandyke,  Carlo  Dolci,  Salvator  Rosa, 
Bartholomew,  Murillo,  Leonardo  da  Vinci, 
Andrea  del  Sarte,  Perugini,  &c. 

There  were  tables  of  the  most  beautiful  mosaic, 
in  oriental  marbles  and  precious  stones ;  and  a 
cabinet  of  ebony  inlaid  with  lapis-lazuli,  agate, 
&c.,  on  which  were  painted  historical  subjects 
drawn  from  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  to 
imitate  mosaic ;  while  the  opposite  side  being 
let  down,  discovered  carved  figures  of  saints  and 
apostles  in  different  shades  of  amber :  then  an 
organ,  secret  drawers,  writing  implements,  all  of 
the  most  costly  materials  and  curious  work- 
manship. This  was  all  shown  to  us  with  the 
greatest  politeness  and  attention,  by  the  person 
who  had  the  keys.  He  then  led  us  to  the  bath 
of  Carrara  marble,  contained  in  a  room  the  walls 



of  which  are  covered  with  fluted  blue  satin  and 
looking-glasses,  each  corner  being  occupied  by  a 
beautiful  statue  of  white  marble.  Canova's 
Venus,  and  a  Bather  in  bronze,  were  among  the 
objects  which  solicited  our  admiration. 

Saturday,  January  26.  Florence. — This  being  a 
rainy  morning  M deferred  going  to  syna- 
gogue till  noon.  Yesterday  evening  we  went 
to  the  Italian  synagogue,  which  was  also  well 
attended  to-day.  The  ark  is  richly  carved  in 
metal.  Afterwards  we  visited  the  Gallery  ;  but 
as  it  closes  to  the  public  at  three,  we  had  not 
sufficient  time  to  devote  even  to  the  corridors. 
The  hour  glided  away  imperceptibly;  and  statues, 
busts,  and  sarcophagi:  and  other  noble  ornaments 
of  the  vestibule  of  the  Medici  and  Roman  em- 
perors,— the  two  Wolves,  the  Horse,  the  Hercules, 
and  the  Fawn, — served  but  to  stimulate  a  pas- 
sionate desire  for  long  and  patient  observation. 
A  glance  at  a  few  paintings  and  the  Medician 
Venus  was  all  that  we  could  obtain,  but  we  pro- 
mise ourselves  another  day  for  the  enjoyment  of 
this  rich  intellectual  treat.  Artists,  allowed  as 
they  are  to  sit  and  copy  anything  they  choose,  in 
the  midst  of  these  warm  and  magnificent  rooms, 
enjoy  an  inestimable  advantage.  With  such  in- 
citements the  fine  arts  can  never  droop  or  decay. 

The  carriages  of  the  Grand -duke  passed  us  in 


the  streets  ;  two  were  drawn  by  six  horses  each, 
with  outriders  and  attendants  at  the  sides  of 
the  carriage.  His  Royal  Highness  is  spoken  of 
as  being  extremely  kind-hearted,  and  solicitous 
for  the  happiness  and  contentment  of  his  sub- 
jects. But  it  is  not  always  that  our  wishes 
have  free  scope  for  action,  though  disposed  to 
the  most  laudable  and  advantageous  views. 

Lady  Augusta  and  Mr.  F left  their  cards. 

Sunday,  January  27.  Florence. — The  first  day 
of  the  Carnival.  Everybody  is  out,  but  the  wea- 
ther is  cold  and  windy.  We  drove  in  a  close  car- 
riage to  the  gardens,  but  fearful  of  the  snow  on 
the  mountains,  returned  before  three.  Numerous 
carriages  thronged  the  roads,  conspicuous  among 
which  were  the  royal  cortege,  with  six  horses  to 
each  carriage,  followed  by  a  guard  of  ten  horse- 
men, dressed  in  scarlet  and  gold,  and  that  of  the 
Neapolitan  minister,  whose  phaeton  and  four, 
with  postillions  and  attendants,  presented  a  very 
smart  appearance.  Many  masks  passed  along  the 
crowded  streets,  lively  and  full  of  gambols,  but 
not  unruly — perhaps  kept  in  awe  by  the  military 
who  guarded  the  avenues.  We  again  attended  the 
opera.  Salvini,  with  a  repetition  of  the  last  ballet, 
were  performed  ;  the  pit  was  crowded,  and  the 
boxes  tolerably  so.  Towards  the  middle  of  the 
performance  several  masks  entered  the  pit.  I 


imagine  they  were  not  of  the  most  respectable 
class  of  society,  but  their  behaviour  was  quiet  and 
inoffensive.  I  do  not  think  the  dancing  equal  to 
the  French,  although  their  tableaux  are  graceful 
and  elegant.  There  are  many  English  here.  The 
absence  of  Lords  Burgersh  and  Normanby  is 
extremely  regretted. 

Monday,  January  28.  Florence. — Having  seen 
an  artist  at  the  gallery  copying  a  beautiful  little 
painting  of  Carlo  Dolci,  I  obtained  his  address, 
and  agreed  for  the  purchase  of  several  other 
copies  from  great  masters — Poetry,  Judith  with 
the  head  of  Holofernes,  and  Murillo's  Virgin  and 

Child.  M being  satisfied  with  the  choice, 

paid  for  them.  I  feel  great  satisfaction  in  this 
acquisition,  which  I  hope  to  behold  in  Park-lane 
and  East-cliff,  as  agreeable  mementos  of  worth 
and  talent.  We  had  purposed  leaving  this  city 
to-morrow  morning,  and  had  made  our  arrange- 
ments accordingly ;  but  the  increased  desire  of 
revisiting  the  Gallery  and  the  Medici  Chapel 
delayed  our  departure  for  a  few  days.  I  hope 
we  shall  not  be  disappointed  in  obtaining  apart- 
ments at  Rome,  having  deferred  our  visit  to 
this  late  epoch  of  the  Carnival. 

Tuesday,  January  29.  Florence. — The  Royal 
Academy  is  a  noble  institution,  formed  for  the 
benefit  of  young  artists.  There  are  different  rooms 


of  paintings,  sculpture,  casts,  and  drawings,  and 
the  attendants  are  most  civil  and  polite.  A  beau- 
tiful picture  by  Carlo  Dolci  is  remarkable  for  its 
delicacy  and  perfection  of  colouring  and  form. 
The  manufactory  of  inlaid  agate,  jasper,  and 
precious  marbles  is  peculiar  to  this  establishment 
and  city,  and  exhibits  conspicuously  the  power 
of  ingenuity  and  perseverance. 

We  saw  a  table  being  made  which  employs 
eighteen  men,  and  will  take  ten  years  to  finish.  It 
is  for  the  ducal  palace.  A  small  round  table  cost 
£2,500.  Several  urns,  capitals  for  the  famous 
Medici  Chapel,  were  in  hand.  The  person  who 
showed  us  the  manufactory  took  us  into  the  va- 
rious rooms  where  the  whole  process  of  cutting 
the  stones,  and  forming  them  into  various  flowers, 
fruits,  and  devices  was  exhibited ;  nor  would  he 
accept  any  remuneration  for  his  trouble.  Another 
look  into  Santa  Croce  engaged  our  attention  in 
going  home.  We  had  a  heavy  shower  of  rain  this 
evening.  M gave  me  a  handsome  bouquet. 

Wednesday,  January  30.  Florence. — As  we 
remain  a  few  days  longer  here,  in  order  to  see  the 
paintings  and  other  works  of  art  more  leisurely, 
we  passed  the  forenoon  at  the  Royal  Gallery,  one 
of  the  most  interesting  places  that  can  be  visited. 
The  genius  of  sculpture  and  painting  has  enriched 
it  with  its  noblest  efforts,  while  gems,  medals, 

112  NOTES    FROM   A   JOURNAL. 

bronzes,  Etruscan  vases,  and  Egyptian  antiquities 
fill  up  every  vacant  interval.  The  rooms  lined 
with  portraits  of  the  most  celebrated  masters, 
painted  by  themselves,  are  particularly  interesting. 
Madame  le  Brun  and  Angelica  Kauffman  attracted 

M 's  fancy,  and  he  engaged  an  artist,  F.  Vin- 

censio  Corsi,  to  copy  them.  We  purchased  two 
others  of  the  same  artist.  A  heavy  shower  of 
rain  obliged  us  to  take  refuge  in  a  cafe,  where  we 
expected  to  find  the  English  paper ;  but  a  gentle- 
man kept  Galignani  till  he  would  have  quite 
worn  out  our  patience,  but  for  the  amusement 
afforded  us  by  several  persons,  some  of  whom 
offered  for  sale  small  alabaster  and  marble  figures, 
while  others  solicited  our  attention  to  specimens 

of  the  most  beautiful  plants  and  flowers.     M 

purchased  a  large  assortment  of  geraniums,  and 
some  camellias.  There  is  a  grand  ball  this  even- 
ing at  the  Palazzo  Pitti. 

Thursday,  January  31.  Florence. — We  passed 
the  whole  forenoon  at  various  picture-shops,  and 
made  several  purchases  at  S.  Gaetano  Botticelli's 
and  others.  The  price  of  the  mosaic  tables  was 
much  too  high — some,  made  to  order,  were  shown 
to  us.  They  were  small  round  tables,  with  a  black 
ground,  a  narrow  border,  and  small  centre-piece, 
and  three  or  four  figures, either  butterflies  or  birds, 
formed  of  different-coloured  stones.  The  price  of 


these  tables  was  sixty  or  seventy  pounds.  We  had 
difficulty  in  finding  the  person  with  whom  the 
key  of  the  Medici  Chapel  is  deposited,  but  at  last 
obtained  access  to  this  superb  monument  of  the 
most  renowned  of  Florentine  families.  The  tombs 
designed  by  Buonarotti,  the  walls  inlaid  with  jas- 
per, agate,  lapis-lazuli,  and  other  precious  stones, 
by  turns  attracted  and  rivetted  attention. 

The  ceiling  is  painted  by  Benvenuto,  the  pre- 
sent President  of  the  Academy  des  Beaux  Arts.  It 
has  been  finished  about  two  years,  and  was  nine 
years  in  progress.  They  are  still  working  at  the 
inlaid  marbles,  forming  urns  and  pilasters,  but  it 
can  only  be  finished  at  an  immense  expenditure 
of  both  wealth  and  time.  We  paid  a  last  visit 
to  Santa  Croce,  offering,  at  the  same  time,  a  tribute 
of  respect  to  departed  greatness,  and  delighting 
our  minds  with  those  solemn  meditations,  which, 
though  so  rarely  to  be  enjoyed  in  the  world, 
afford  the  best,  the  most  permanent,  and  the 
noblest  of  our  gratifications. 

"  In  Santa  Croce's  holy  precincts  lie 
Ashes  which  make  it  holier  ;  dust  which  is 
Even  in  itself  an  immortality, 
Though  there  were  nothing  save  the  past,  and  this 
The  particle  of  those  sublimities 
Which  has  relapsed  to  chaos  :— here  repose 
Angelo's,  Alfieri's  bones  ;  and  his, 
The  starry  Galileo,  with  his  woes  ; — 
Here  Michiavelli's  earth,  return'd  to  whence  it  rose. 


These  are  four  minds,  which,  like  the  elements, 

Might  furnish  forth  creation  :  Italy ! 

Time,  which  hath  wrong'd  thee  with  ten  thousand  rents 

Of  thine  imperial  garment,  shall  deny, 

And  hath  denied,  to  every  other  sky, 

Spirits  which  soar  from  ruin  :  thy  decay 

Is  still  impregnate  with  divinity, 

Which  gilds  it  with  revivifying  day  ; 

Such  as  the  great  of  yore,  Canova  is  to-day." 

Friday,  February  \.  Florence. — We  have  delayed 
our  departure  for  Rome  a  week  longer  than  we 
intended  ;  but  I  trust  that  the  letters  which  we 
expect  to  receive  will  sufficiently  compensate  for 
this  sacrifice  of  time.  We  went  in  search  of  a 

mosaic  table :  Dr.  U accompanied  us  to  some 

of  the  best  artists,  but  we  did  not  succeed  in 
meeting  with  one  to  our  taste.  Many  fine  pic- 
tures were  shown  to  us,  but  the  price  of  professed 
originals  is  exorbitant ;  we  therefore  contented 
ourselves  with  the  acquisitions  already  made.  It 
requires  great  judgment,  as  well  as  a  good  purse, 
to  undertake  the  purchase  of  anything  which 
bears  the  character  of  originality. 

We  obtained  a  view  of  several  old  newspapers, 
(the  Times],  and  with  infinite  regret  heard  of  poor 
Edmund  Goldsmid's  death,  which  occurred  at 
Rome  the  1st  of  January.  May  his  soul  rest  in 
peace  !  This  is  the  second  young  friend  lately 
taken  away  from  the  midst  of  earthly  prosperity, 
but  translated,  let  us  hope,  to  that  of  an  immu- 


table  and  unclouded  state.  The  most  favoured  in 
this  world  find  their  happiness  blended  with 
anxieties  and  inevitable  heart-writhings,  against 
which  the  hope  of  the  future  only  can  present  a 
sufficient  shield  and  support.  The  Lord's  will  be 
done,  and  may  He  indue  us  with  strength  for 
every  coming  trial ! 

Saturday,  February  2.      Florence. — Went  with 

M to  synagogue.      Several  German  females 

were  present,  and  they  wished  to  be  very  con- 
versant ;  but  I,  as  usual  at  a  place  of  devotion, 
was  as  resolved  to  be  taciturn.  The  shops  were 
all  closed  to-day,  and  the  streets  were  crowded 
in  consequence  of  the  fete  of  Candlemas.  Several 
persons  and  children  were  carrying  wax  candles 
to  present  to  different  churches  on  the  occasion. 
Posts  were  placed  at  the  ends  of  the  quay,  to  pre- 
vent carriages  from  incommoding  the  pedestrians 
who  thronged  the  promenade.  .  We  this  evening 
prepared  for  our  departure  early  to-morrow  morn- 
ing. Dr.  U came  to  take  farewell,  and  offer 

his  services,  and  we  sent  for  M.  A 's  book,  and 

were  sorry  to  learn  he  was  indisposed.     M 

kwent  to  read  Galignani  at  the  cafe,  as  they  will 

not  send  this  paper  out.    D ?s  is  an  excellent 

establishment,  very  spacious,  and  supplies  supe- 
rior refreshments  at  moderate  charge.      Three 
carriages  are  to  leave  the  hotel  to-morrow,  we 
I  2 


therefore  purpose  being  early.  Several  singing 
parties  passed  under  our  windows  during  the 
night.  Their  harmonious  melodies  reminded  me 
of  the  serenades  of  old  times.  I  have  a  very  bad 
cold,  but  hope  it  will  vanish  as  we  proceed  on 
our  journey. 

Sunday,  February  3.  Arezzo. — The  stars  and 
moon  shone  bright  as  we  left  the  Hotel  de  Grande 
Bretagne,  at  six  this  morning  :  cloaks,  shawls, 
and  boas  were  put  in  requisition  to  exclude  the 
cold,  which  I  found  increase  my  cough  ;  but  to- 
wards noon,  as  the  sun  diffused  its  cheering  rays, 
I  found  myself  relieved,  and  we  did  justice  to  a 
cold  fowl,  provided  for  the  journey,  with  a  bottle 
of  excellent  Muscat  of  the  country. 

Ice  lay  in  considerable  quantities  on  the  sides 
of  the  road,  but  the  valleys  and  hills,  though  di- 
vested of  their  brilliant  clothing,  looked  graceful 
and  smiling,  the  road  winding  in  a  pleasing  and 
easy  manner,  and  numerous  villages  and  towns 
enlivening  the  scenery. 

We  arrived  at  this  town  about  half -past  three 
o'clock,  and  seeing  the  streets  filled  with  gaily- 
dressed  persons,  and  some  masks,  M asked 

the  waiter  if  there  was  any  performance  at  the 
theatre.  Yes,  was  the  reply,  there  is  an  opera  and 
a  drama.  We  chose  the  former  on  account  of  the 
character  which  he  gave  it,  and  he  immediately 

FOLIGNO.  117 

went  to  fetch  the  book.  It  was  Beatrice  di  Tende, 
a  tragedy.  The  performance  commenced  at  eight 
and  finished  at  eleven;  but  we  retired  at  ten.  On 
my  return  I  missed  my  lace  veil,  and  sent  the  ser- 
vant to  see  if  I  had  left  it  in  the  box.  It  was  not 
to  be  found,  but  I  offered  a  reward  in  case  of  their 
forwarding  it  to  Rome,  should  it  be  found  here- 
after. Patience !  M good-temperedly  agreed 

with  me,  that  if  no  worse  misfortune  should  occur 
during  our  journey,  we  might  well  bear  quietly 
with  this. 

Monday,  February  4.  Foligno. — We  were  this 
morning  again  in  the  carriage  by  six  o'clock.  It 
was  extremely  cold,  and  much  ice  was  lying  about 
the  country;  but  an  excellent  road,  and  extensive 
valleys  richly  cultivated  and  wooded,  with  the 
frequent  occurrence  of  villages,  picturesque  old 
castles  and  monasteries,  tended  greatly  to  distract 
our  thoughts  from  the  severity  of  the  weather. 
Mendicity  is  as  prevalent  as  ever,  poor  old  people 
and  cripples  surrounding  our  carriage  at  every 
post-house.  We  were  three  times  obliged  to  add 
a  pair  of  oxen  to  our  horses,  besides  on  two 
occasions  a  fifth  horse ;  and  on  ascending  the 
rising  ground  on  which  Perugia  stands,  it  was  so 
extremely  slippery  that  we  considered  it  prudent 
to  walk,  and  it  was  fortunate  we  did  so,  for  soon 
one  of  the  horses  slipped  down  with  the  postil- 


lion :  thanks  to  Heaven !  no  worse  consequence 
attended  the  accident  than  alarm  to  ourselves, 
the  man  thinking  nothing  of  it,  and  the  poor 
horse  being  soon  lifted  up,  and  again  en  route. 

We  passed  Incisa,  the  birth-place  of  Petrarch, 
and  the  beautiful  and  extensive  lake  of  Thrasi- 
mene,  celebrated  for  the  fatal  battle  between 
Hannibal  and  the  Romans  under  Flaminius. 

"  Far  other  scene  is  Thrasimene  now  ; 
Her  lake  a  sheet  of  silver,  and  her  plain 
Rent  by  no  savage,  save  the  gentle  plough ; 
Her  aged  trees  rise  thick  as  once  the  slain 
Lay  where  their  roots  are  :  but  a  brook  hath  ta'en — 
A  little  rill  of  scanty  stream  and  bed — 
A  name  of  blood  from  that  day's  sanguine  rain  ; 
And  Sanguienetto  tells  ye  where  the  dead 
Made  the  earth  wet,  and  turn'd  the  unwilling  waters  red." 

Several  small  islands  covered  with  trees,  and  ap- 
parently inhabited,  gemmed  the  bosom  of  this 
noble  sheet  of  water,  and  which  was  further  en- 
livened by  the  appearance  of  fishing-boats. 

The  plantations  of  olives  and  vines,  fig  and 
mulberry  trees,  which  enrich  the  plains,  must 
afford  profitable  employment  to  the  population 
of  the  several  towns  and  villages  through  which 
we  passed.  After  a  long  but  delightful  journey 
we,  with  God's  blessing,  arrived  safely  at  this 
town,  about  six  o'clock. 

Tuesday,  February  5.  H6tel  di  Campana.  Narni. 
— Left  Foligno  a  quarter  before  nine ;  a  lovely 

ROME.  119 

winter  morning,  the  sun  reflecting  on  the  drifted 
snow,  the  green  box-hedges  peeping  between, 
with  glittering  icicles  hanging  from  the  rocks, 
and  the  fine  circular  chain  of  snow  round  the 
Apennines,  reaching  to  the  blue  firmament,  alto- 
gether formed  an  exhilarating  scene, the  liveliness 
of  which,  however,  was  in  some  degree  injured 
by  the  condition  of  the  numerous  poor  which 
surrounded  us  at  every  post-house.  We  had  some 
excellent  fruit  handed  to  us  several  times  by 
decent-looking  young  women,  who  were  eager  to 
dispose  of  the  produce  of  their  fields  and  gardens. 
From  Spoleto  to  Strettura  we  had  six  horses  and 
two  oxen.  This  one  poste  occupied  more  than 
three  hours,  the  ascents  and  descents  being  ren- 
dered laborious  and  difficult  by  the  snow  and  ice. 
There  was  a  gradual  thaw,  but  the  postillions  in 
this  country  appear  to  think  very  much  of  a 
fall  of  snow.  Another  pair  of  oxen  was  required 
before  we  reached  Terni.  The  Valderno  in  spring 
and  summer,  when  foliage  covers  the  extensive 
plains  of  oaks,  mulberries,  and  vines,  and  the 
banks  of  the  rivers,  the  Arno,  the  Lavina,  &c., 
are  enriched  with  growing  corn  and  flax,  must 
indeed  present  a  succession  of  the  most  delight- 
ful scenes.  We  arrived  at  this  very  comfort- 
able hotel  at  half -past  five. 

Wednesday,  February  6.    Hotel  de  Russie.    Rome. 


—Thanks  to  the  Almighty  for  our  safe  arrival 
in  this  city,  though  we  have  not  been  able  to 
obtain  comfortable  apartments  at  any  of  the 
hotels,  being  at  last  obliged  to  put  up  with  a 
third  story  at  Hotel  de  Russie,  the  Carnival  at- 
tracting so  much  company  that  there  is  not  a 
room  disengaged. 

We  left  Narni  at  seven  o'clock  this  morning. 
The  weather  was  extremely  cold  and  dull,  and 
the  ice  and  snow  on  the  ground  seemed  to  alarm 
the  postillions,  if  we  may  judge  from  the  terrible 
noise  they  made  at  setting  off.  We  had  six  horses 
and  a  pair  of  oxen  up  the  ascent.  The  views  were 
extremely  picturesque  and  sublime.  From  Civita 
Castettana  we  had  eight  horses,  two  of  which 
were  unharnessed  on  gaining  the  summit.  At 
Baccana  there  were  several  soldiers  on  the  way, 
both  horse  and  foot.  We  afterwards  understood 
that  a  robbery  had  yesterday  been  committed  by 
ten  men  on  a  French  count,  at  two  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon.  At  this  spot  I  perceived  the  men  looked 
at  us  very  significantly.  The  roads  are  being 
Macadamized  near  Rome,  and  the  land  is  enclosed 
and  better  cultivated  in  many  parts,  though  much 
remains  in  an  apparently  neglected  state.  On 
our  entering  the  Porta  del  Popolo,  masks,  scaf- 
folding for  spectators,  and  horse-racing,  with 
numbers  of  vehicles  of  all  sorts,  presented  them- 

ROME.  121 

selves,  and  while  Armstrong  went  to  look  for 
rooms,  we  were  amused  in  the  carriage  by  the 
gay  scene.  In  the  meantime  a  courier,  who  some 
years  ago  attended  us  to  England,  recognised  us, 
and  offered  his  services. 

Thursday,  February  7.  Rome. — M returned 

to  breakfast  after  a  fruitless  search  for  other 
apartments.  He  brought  with  him  a  large  packet 
of  letters,  and  Galignani's  papers  of  a  month's 
standing.  The  perusal  of  the  letters  caused  some 
melancholy  reflections.  They  contained  sad  ac- 
counts of  the  illness  and  death  of  some  of  our  dear 

We  ascertained  last  night  that  Mr.  A.  A.  G- — 
quitted  this  city  for  Naples  the  day  before  our  ar- 
rival. It  is  our  wish  to  join  him  there,  and  offer  all 
the  condolence  in  our  power  under  his  afflicting 
bereavement.  After  brooding  and  philosophising 
on  the  instability  of  life,  the  events  of  which  alter- 
nate with  each  other,  like  night  and  day,  or  the 
storms  and  calms  of  the  ocean,  we  proceeded  to 
the  Corso  to  dissipate  care,  in  the  gay,  frolicsome, 
and  crowded  scene  which  there  presented  itself. 
A  clear  and  bright  sun  made  the  carriages,  masks, 
and  company  appear  as  though  the  world  had 
never  known  distress.  The  retaliated  attacks  with 
confitti,  by  all  panks  and  nations,  young  and  old, 
rich  and  poor,  masked  and  unmasked,  must  tend 


to  the  benefit  of  tailors  and  marchands  des  modes, 
for  at  the  end  of  the  day  the  black  dresses  were 
completely  whitened,  and  the  white  made  black. 
We  obtained  a  very  good  room  in  the  Corso,  and 
saw  the  horses  set  off  and  run  in  good  style.  The 
governor  in  his  state -carriage,  attended  by  a 
military  escort,  was  preceded  by  two  other 
state  carriages,  and  official  personages  in  all  the 
pomp  of  office. 

Friday,  February  8.  Rome. — This  is  a  quiet 
day  in  the  Carnival  festivities — no  masks  or 
parade.  We  walked,  however,  through  the  Corso, 
looked  at  the  shops,  and  entered  the  Cafe  Nuovo, 
and  inquired  after  little  Baiocchi,  who,  poor  fel- 
low, had  died  of  the  cholera. 

To  be  for  the  fourth  time  in  Rome,  after  an 
interval  of  eleven  years,  appears  indeed  like  a 
dream  ;  but  the  fountains,  columns,  obelisks,  &c. 
of  this  city  of  many  ages  and  of  wonders,  so  people 
this  land  of  dreams  with  realities,  that  time  seems 
almost  to  have  lost  its  power.  Reflection  how- 
ever, soon  reawakens  the  heart  to  the  sense  of 
many  sad  events  ;  but  may  we  never  fail  to  keep 
in  recollection  the  blessings  which,  throughout 
the  vicissitudes  of  life,  have  continued  to  mani- 
fest the  mercy  of  a  heavenly  Providence  !  Then 
will  our  hearts  not  cease  to  overflow  with 
acknowledgments  of  the  bounty  of  God. 

EOME.  123 

Saturday,  February  9.  Rome. — M went 

to  synagogue,  the  distance  preventing  my  ac- 
companying him.  The  president  and  secretary 
previously  called  upon  us  and  manifested  great 
politeness.  How  painful  it  is  to  find  our  people 
under  so  many  disadvantages  here !  Three  thou- 
sand five  hundred  souls  are  obliged  to  maintain 
themselves  by  shops,  and  in  a  confined  part  of  the 
city.  Arts,  sciences,  mechanism  are  prohibited. 
Four  times  in  the  year  two  hundred  are  obliged  to 
attend  a  sermon  for  their  conversion.  It  is  said 
that  no  proselytes  are  made,  except  occasionally 
from  among  the  most  destitute,  Leo  XII.  de- 
prived them  of  the  privilege  granted  by  Pius  VII. 
of  keeping  shops  out  of  the  Ghetto.  The  present 
pontiff  has  permitted  them  to  have  warehouses  in 
the  city.  He  is  favourably  disposed,  and  kind  in 
his  conduct,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  cardi- 
nals and  the  government  will  soon  become 
equally  so. 

We  went  to  the  room  we  had  engaged  in 
the  Corso,  to  witness  again  the  lively  and  varied 
amusements  of  the  day.  Open  waggons,  decorated 
with  festoons  of  flowers  and  flags,  were  filled  with 
parties  of  about  a  dozen  persons  in  the  same  cos- 
tume, and  who  were  the  most  active  in  their  as- 
saults with  confitti.  The  Duchess  of  S was 

among  them. 


Sunday,  February  10.  Rome. — We  this  day 
visited  the  Via  Sacra,  the  Colosseum,  the  Pan- 
theon, the  Church  of  S.  Giovanni  Laterano,  the 
Scala  Santa,  and  St.  Peter's.  These  magnificent 
and  admirable  structures  and  works  of  art,  when- 
ever viewed,  inspire  veneration  and  wonder  at 
the  capabilities  of  human  genius.  Rome  ex- 
hibits the  most  striking  contrasts  of  splendour 
and  misery.  Some  of  the  old  streets,  through 
which  we  passed,  were  thronged  with  a  population 
overwhelmed  with  care  and  poverty,  while  the 
next  turning  led  to  squares  and  streets  filled  with 
palaces,  statues,  and  monuments.  The  Pincian 
Hill  was  the  resort  of  all  the  fashionables  this 
afternoon  till  dark,  and  the  situation  of  this 
splendid  drive  gave  due  effect  to  the  innumerable 
equipages,  and  throngs  of  elegantly-dressed  per- 
sons, who,  leaving  their  carriages,  filled  the  pro- 
menades of  this  beautiful  resort.  We  finished 
the  gaieties  and  amusements  of  the  day  by  going 
to  the  Opera,  which  was  crowded. 

Monday,  February  11.  Rome. — We  considered 
ourselves  fortunate  in  seeing  St.  Peter's  illumi- 
nated. It  is  certainly  a  brilliant  and  magnificent 
spectacle  ;  the  whole  of  the  colonnade,  as  well  as 
the  cupola  and  church  reflecting  myriad  streams 
of  light  on  the  beautiful  fountains  and  statues 
below.  It  was  in  honour  of  the  presence  of  the 

ROME.  125 

Grand  Duke  of  -  — ,  who,  it  is  said,  has,  since 
his  sojourn  here,  been  wounded  by  the  darts  of 
Cupid,  but  the  fair  one  being  of  plebeian  parents, 
dare  not  aspire  to  the  hand  of  a  sovereign  prince, 
fearful  of  such  a  country  as  Siberia.  She  is  said 

to  be  a  Miss  G ,  daughter  of  an  English 

gentleman  of  small  income,  and  one  of  eight 
sisters.  The  young  hereditary  duke,  it  is  re- 
ported, was  sent  on  his  travels  on  account  of  his 
susceptibility  to  the  tender  passion. 

We  have  engaged  a  very  nice  barouche  for  the 
time  of  our  stay  here,  and  a  valet-de-place. 

M at  last  presented  his  letters  to  Duke 

T—  -  and  others.  The  Duke  sent  us  an  invita- 
tion to  a  select  ball  to-night,  to  meet  the  Grand- 
duke,  which  we  declined.  Having  purchased  a 
supply  of  flowers  and  superior  bon-bons,  to  return 
hostilities,  we  found  these  sweet  and  fragrant 
weapons  most  useful  in  answering  the  attacks  we 
received,  while  a  mask  was  found  to  be  no  less 
essential  as  defensive  armour  against  the  handf uls 
of  confitti,  aimed  with  no  very  light  hand  by  some 
masked  antagonist.  The  bouquets  were  thrown 
and  received  in  a  more  graceful  manner.  About 
four  the  Corso  was  cleared  of  carriages  for  the 
races,  and  we  entered  our  room,  No.  22,  II  Corso. 

Tuesday,  February  12.  Rome. — We  purchased 
a  fresh  supply  of  elegant  flowers  and  confitti  to 


return  the  numerous  challenges  which  we  knew, 
from  the  experience  of  the  previous  days,  we 
might  expect  to  receive.  The  Corso  was  thronged ; 
cars,  as  before,  decorated  with  artificial  flowers, 
and  each  containing  a  little  band  of  mimic 
warriors,  poured  forth  perpetually  thick  showers 
of  bouquets  and  sweetmeats. 

In  the  interval  of  these  amusements  we  drove 
to  Meloni's  to  take  leave  of  Baron  James  de 

R ,  and  his  family.  We  then  went  to  our 

room  in  the  Corso  to  see  the  races,  and  met  there 
an  English  family,  consisting  of  a  lady  and  gen- 
tleman, and  their  daughter.  They  knew  us,  as 
they  seemed  to  do  everybody  in  Rome,  and  soon 
entered  into  conversation.  After  the  races  the 
wax  tapers  were  lighted,  and  all,  whether  at  the 
windows  or  in  carriages,  were  immediately  em- 
ployed in  blowing  out  or  re-lighting  them,  and 
with  mirth,  wit,  and  nonsense,  the  amusements 
continued  till  past  eight  o'clock,  when  the  crowd 
gradually  dispersed,  some  hastening  to  dinner, 
and  others  to  masked  balls  and  other  parties. 
Thus  ended  this  year's  carnival  at  Rome.  So 
much  does  it  engross  the  attention  of  many,  that 
from  the  finale,  of  one  to  the  commencement  of 
another  the  mind  is  filled  with  anticipations  of 
its  gaieties. 

Wednesday,  February  13.     Velletri. — We  have 


again  quitted  Rome,  after  a  second  time  witness- 
ing the  carnival,  a  festivity  only  calculated  for 
the  lively  and  readily-excited  spirits  of  the 

In  passing  the  fountain  di  Trevi,  it  appeared 
to  me  more  imposing  and  magnificent  than  be- 
fore. So  do  objects  truly  great  increase  in 
grandeur  by  a  more  familiar  acquaintance. 

But  in  Rome,  as  I  have  before  observed,  splen- 
dour and  misery  force  themselves  upon  the 
attention,  in  the  way  of  contrast,  more  frequently 
than  in  almost  any  other  city  of  the  world,  for 
there  the  mouldering  magnificence  of  many  ages 
appears  side  by  side  with  modern  palaces.  Some 
in  the  glory  of  rich  maturity,  and  others  wanting 
still  the  wealth  of  ages  to  complete  them: 

"  Great  and  glorious  Rome,  queen  of  the  earth, 
So  far  renown'd,  and  with  the  spoils  enriched 
Of  nations  ;  there  the  capitol  thou  seest, 
Above  the  rest  lifting  his  stately  head 
On  the  Tarpeian  rock,  her  citadel 
Impregnable  :  and  there  Mount  Palatine, 
The  imperial  palace,  compass  huge,  and  high 
The  structure,  skill  of  noblest  architects, 
With  gilded  battlements  conspicuous  far, 
Turrets,  and  terraces,  and  glittering  spires !  " 

At  a  quarter-past  eleven  we  were  on  the  Via 
Appia  towards  Naples.  On  changing  horses  at 
Torri  di  Mezzalia  we  had  an  escort  of  two  sol- 
diers, the  road  having  lately  been  infested  with 


robbers.      Prince    P was    stopped   at    La 

Storta  on  his  way  to  Rome,  by  six  men,  who 
demanded  his  purse  and  watch.  The  contents 
of  the  former  not  satisfying  them,  they  made  a 
demand  on  the  servants,  one  then  quietly  left  the 
party.  This  happened  only  the  day  before  our 
arrival,  and  we  observed  several  gens-d'armes 
on  the  spot,  while  the  two  soldiers  rode  in  full 
gallop  by  our  carriage,  looking  at  us  with  more 
than  usual  earnestness,  intending,  as  we  after- 
wards were  informed,  to  become  our  escort  in  case 
of  need.  We  continued  to  be  protected  up  the 
hill  from  Albano  to  Genzano,  which  post  required 
two  extra  horses.  The  trees  are  already  bud- 
ding, and  the  corn  appearing  above  the  ground 
gives  promise  of  the  autumn's  plenty.  Green  flax 
affords  another  species  of  luxuriant  clothing  for 
the  land,  and  the  country  near  Albano,  beauti- 
fully diversified  with  hill  and  dale,  presents  a 
rich  succession  of  vineyards  and  olive-groves. 
Far  in  the  distance  arose  the  snow-capped  Apen- 
nines, while  near  at  hand,  in  strange  contrast 
with  the  life  and  brilliancy  of  the  sun-lit  scene, 
appeared  many  an  ancient  sepulchre,  the  tomb, 
perhaps  of  some  poet,  warrior,  or  philosopher. 

After  an  exceedingly  agreeable  journey  we 
reached  Velletri  a  quarter  before  five.  While  tea 
was  being  prepared  we  walked  in  the  garden, 

MOLA   DI   GAETA.  129 

where  we  were  greatly  delighted  with  the  an- 
tique busts  and  statues  with  which  it  was  adorned 
nor  less  with  the  fine  orange  and  lemon- trees 
heavy  with  clusters  of  golden  fruit.  Some 
families  who  arrived  after  us,  brought  the  infor- 
mation that  four  of  the  banditti  had  been  taken, 
and  that  their  chief  was  killed  by  the  soldiers  on 
whom  he  had  fired.  An  exhibition  was  after- 
wards made  of  his  body  in  every  town  through 
which  they  passed  on  their  way  to  Naples. 

Thursday,  February  14.  Mola  di  Gaetd, 
Locanda  di  Cicerone. — Leaving  the  very  com- 
fortable post-house  at  a  little  past  six,  the  morn- 
ing beaming  with  all  the  animation  of  spring,  we 
soon  found  ourselves  recompensed  for  stealing  a 
few  hours  from  the  couch,  by  the  pleasure  at- 
tendant upon  passing,  with  good  horses  and 
postillions,  over  a  fine  level  road,  through  a 
richly-cultivated  and  extensive  plain.  The  Pon- 
tine  Marshes  appear  better  drained  than  formerly, 
and  the  water  on  the  sides  of  the  road  has  been 
cleared  of  reeds  and  mud.  Droves  of  horses, 
oxen,  cows,  and  buffaloes  overspread  the  wide 
pastures,  nor  were  there  wanting  the  gentler 
ornaments  of  a  pastoral  scene,  numerous  flocks 
of  sheep  and  lambs. 

At  Terracina  the  sea  looked  so  blue  and  clear, 
and  the  stupendous  rocks  hung  over  it  with  so 


awful  a  grandeur,  that  to  enjoy  the  full  view 
we  descended  from  the  carriage  while  changing 
horses,  and  walked  on.  Beyond  Fondi  the  depth 
of  the  caverns  in  the  rocks  might  well  shake  the 
nerves  of  less  experienced  travellers,  but  even 
their  apprehensions  must  soon  be  superseded  by 
admiration  of  the  beauty  of  the  olive,  palm, 
and  fig-trees  which  crown  the  summits. 

Before  five  we  arrived  at  this  place,  the  name 
of  which  is  consecrated  in  the  feelings  of  those 
to  whom  the  memory  of  genius  is  dear,  by  the 
recollection  of  that  most  distinguished  of  ancient 
orators,  the  great  and  virtuous  Cicero. 

The  hotel  at  which  we  stopped  is  said  to  have 
been  his  residence,  and  it  required  but  a  trifling 
effort  of  imagination  as  we  walked  along  the 
garden,  full  of  orange  and  lemon-trees,  with  their 
golden  fruit,  and  dark  green  leaves,  to  conjure 
up  the  shade  of  the  eloquent  and  philosophic 
Roman,  and  to  give  life  to  the  ancient  busts  and 
statues  which  decorated  the  avenues  and  ter- 
races. Two  old  gardeners  were  seated  at  the  end 
of  the  walk,  watching  the  curling  waves  making 
towards  the  shore.  They  showed  us  some  olives 
just  gathered ;  a  good  quality,  but  few.  Most  of 
the  fruit  is  sent  to  Rome. 

February  15.  Hotel  de  la  Vitte  de  Rome. 
Naples. — At  six  o'clock  we  left  Mola  di  Gaetd. 

NAPLES.  131 

The  hedges  were  formed  of  a  continued  row  of 
rich  green  and  fragrant  shrubs,  but  the  speed  of 
the  postillions  precluded  all  chance  of  botanizing. 
We  passed  over  a  handsome  new  suspension 
bridge,  across  the  river  Garigliano,  anciently  the 
Liris.  An  excellent  road,  with  groves  of  trees, 
rich  plains,  sublime  mountains,  marble-quarries, 
ruins  of  amphitheatres,  and  lofty  aqueducts  in 
turn  struck  our  attention,  but  again  the  number 
of  the  blind,  maimed,  and  other  wretched  objects 
craving  charity,  distressed  and  harrowed  our 
feelings.  At  half -past  three  we  thankfully  arrived 
at  this  city,  and  immediately  proceeded  to  the 

apartments  secured  for  us  by  Baron  J.  de  R . 

Like  Rome,  the  city  was  inundated  with  visitors. 
Every  room  at  the  Vittoria  and  Crucelle  was 
occupied,  and  the  apartments  which  had  been 
engaged  for  us  were  the  best  which  could  be 

Saturday,  February  16.  Naples. — We  walked 
together  in  the  Villa  Reale.  The  promenade  is 
well  attended  from  four  till  half -past  five ;  the 
salubrity  of  the  air,  with  the  refreshing  shade  of 
the  trees,  and  the  beauty  of  the  bay,  affording 
an  attraction  in  no  slight  degree  heightened  by 
the  grandeur  of  Vesuvius  and  Capri. 

Sunday,  February  17.  Naples. — Mr.  M , 

the  agent  of  Messrs,  de  R ,  having  engaged  for 

K  2 


us  a  very  convenient  open  carriage,  and  a  valet  de 
place,  we  accompanied  him  and  family  to  Mount 
St.  Elmo,  and  to  St.  Martin,  at  the  Chartreuse 
monastery,  but  our  attempt  to  enter  was  made 
in  vain ;  the  reply  to  the  application  being,  that 

no  females  could  be  admitted.     M said,  that 

as  strangers  we  desired,  out  of  curiosity,  to  see 
the  church,  having  heard  much  of  its  riches 
in  agate,  lapis-lazuli,  pictures,  &c.  The  man 
answered,  that  if  we  would  give  him  a  thousand 
pounds  to  allow  us  to  advance  one  pace,  he  dare 

not.     Mr.  G and  his  son  entered,  and  M — 

remained  with  the  ladies.  They  soon  returned, 
extolling  the  magnificence  of  the  place  of 
sanctity,  which  not  to  have  seen,  when  on  the 
spot,  would  have  been  to  them  a  source  of  regret. 
While  waiting  for  them  we  paused  an  instant  to 
look  about  us,  but  the  guard  called  out,  directing 
us  to  walk  on,  intimating  that  it  was  not  per- 
mitted to  stop,  fearing  perhaps  that  we  were 
enemies,  and  scientific  enough  to  take  a  sketch 
of  the  fortress. 

Monday,  February  18.  Naples. — Wrote  letters, 
and  afterwards  accompanied  our  friends  to  the 
principal  magazine  for  coral  and  lava  ornaments, 
of  which  I  made  a  few  purchases.  The  Queen- 
mother,  the  King  and  Queen,  and  others  of 
the  royal  family  were  driving  on  the  Chiaja  in 

NAPLES.  133 

open  carriages.  They  bowed  very  graciously  to 
every  one  in  passing.  Several  gentlemen  were 
on  horseback,  but  only  one  lady.  Part  of  the 
Villa  Reale  has  been  taken  in  to  form  a  safer 
ride  than  that  afforded  by  the  lava  pave,  on 
which  horses,  when  riden  or  driven  fast,  are  often 
known  to  slip.  We  went  to  see  the  pictures  of 
a  Saxon  artist,  residing  here,  and  whose  painting 
of  the  interior  of  the  royal  chapel  at  Palermo 
struck  us  as  a  noble  specimen  of  art. 

Tuesday,  February  19.      Naples. — Went   with 

some  friends  to  the  Museum.    Mr.  A met  us 

at  the  door,  and  we  proceeded  to  view  the  curio- 
sities found  at  Pompeii  and  Herculaneum.  The 
paintings  still  retain  their  brilliancy  of  colouring 
after  having  been  exposed  to  the  darkening  influ- 
ence of  two  thousand  years.  Equally  fitted  to 
excite  astonishment  and  admiration  were  the 
manuscripts.  The  utmost  ingenuity,  with  much 
learning,  is  employed  in  unfolding  them,  and 
supplying  the  lost  characters,  which  in  the  copies 
and  printed  books  are  marked  with  red  ink. 
Among  the  other  objects  soliciting  our  attention 
was  the  beautiful  agate  dish,  the  figures  on  which 
represent  an  old  man  holding  a  cornucopia  in  his 
hand,  and  surrounded  by  his  family.  On  the 
reverse  is  a  finely-carved  head  of  Medusa.  This 
splendid  cameo  was  found  at  the  baths  of  Adrian 


at  Rome.  The  museum  closing  at  two,  we 
repaired  to  an  excellent  cafe,  and  after  the  feast 
of  the  mind  gladly  partook  of  chocolate  and 
cakes.  A  drive  round  the  bay  finished  the 
morning's  amusement. 

Wednesday,  February  20.  Naples. — We  re- 
ceived an  invitation  from  the  Duke  of  Saraca- 
priolo,  president  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music. 
The  first  concert  to-morrow  evening.  It  is  ex- 
pected to  be  well  attended.  The  climate  and 
environs  render  Naples  a  charming  residence,  as 
far  as  a  place  can  be  made  so  by  the  rich  gifts  of 
nature ;  but,  alas !  where  "  all  but  the  spirit  of 
man  is  divine,"  every  other  beauty,  or  excellence, 
loses  more  than  half  its  value. 

Thursday,  February  21.  Naples. — We  took  a 
drive  this  morning,  and  stopped  to  make  a  few 

purchases.  Mr.  A ,  who  was  on  horseback, 

came  round  to  speak,  and  as  the  space  between 
the  carriage  and  the  shop  was  not  very  wide,  the 
horse  backed  up  against  the  wall,  affixed  to 
which  was  a  glass  show-frame.  Down  it  fell  on 

Mr.  A 's  shoulders,  and  partly  on  the  animal. 

The  rider  managed  him  extremely  well,  but  the 
owner  rushed  out  of  the  shop  to  claim  remunera- 
tion for  the  glass  broken,  and  the  misplacing  of  the 
objects  it  contained.  A  crowd  soon  collected,  and 
M desired  our  servant  to  hold  the  reins  of 

NAPLES.  135 

the  still  rather  restive  horse,  while  Mr.  A 

dismounted,  with  no  other  damage  than  atom 
coat,  and  his  pocket  relieved  of  a  few  ducats. 
My  uneasiness  at  this  occurrence  was  increased 

by  being  partly  the  cause  of  it.     M called  at 

the  Belle  Vue  on  our  return  to  inquire  after  him, 
but  found  him  out.  Mademoiselle  S accom- 
panied us  to  the  Academy  of  Music  at  St.  Carlo. 
The  concert  was  attended  by  the  King  and  Queen, 
the  Duchess  of  Salerno  and  daughter,  the  Princes 
of  Salerno  and  Syracuse,  the  King's  uncle  and 
brother,  the  foreign  ambassadors,  and  others  of 
the  court,  besides  most  of  the  foreigners  of  dis- 
tinction at  Naples.  The  salon,  &c.,  was  most 
brilliantly  lighted  with  large  and  innumerable 
wax  candles  in  chandeliers,  and  which  were 
rendered  still  more  dazzling  by  the  looking- 
glasses  that  covered  the  walls  of  the  room.  Ices, 
&c.,  were  handed  round  between  the  acts.  The 
Queen,  who  is  only  nineteen  years  old,  is  exceed- 
ingly agreeable  in  person  and  manners,  convers- 
ing in  turn  with  those  composing  her  circle,  as 
also  did  the  King  and  others  of  the  royal  family. 
Madame  Ronzi  de  Begnis  is  the  prima  donna. 

Friday,  February  22.  Naples. — As  the  Locanda 
della  Villa  di  Roma  was  not  considered  the  most 
healthy  situation,  and  we  found  ourselves  not 
altogether  unaffected  by  it,  we  yesterday  engaged 


apartments  at  La  Vittoria,  commanding  a  full 
view  of  the  Villa  Reale,  the  bay,  and  the  hills. 
We  should  gladly  have  remained  at  our  former 
hotel,  had  the  air  been  as  good  as  the  rooms,  and 
the  attention  of  the  people.  La  Yittoria  is  quite 
full,  and  our  apartments  became  vacant  only 
within  the  last  day.  My  maid  informs  me  that 
more  that  fifty  servants  belonging  to  the  visitors 
sit  down  to  table,  the  master  of  the  house  pre- 
siding. The  Prince  Royal  of  Bavaria  is  here. 

Saturday,  February  23.  Naples. — Being  ex- 
tremely pleased  with  the  prospect  from  our 
windows,  we  remained  at  home  all  the  forenoon 
to  enjoy  it.  Every  royal  carriage  that  passes  is 
saluted  by  the  sound  of  the  bugje,  and  presenting 
of  arms  by  the  guards  stationed  at  the  gate  of 
the  gardens.  Mr.  A.  G and  Mr.  M — 

called  upon  us,  and  brought  the  information  that 
Lord  Glenelg  has  resigned  his  situation  of  colonial 

minister.     We  dined  at  Mr.  G 's,  and  a  most 

lovely  moonlight  night  shed  all  its  beauty  upon 
us  in  our  short  walk  back  to  the  hotel. 

Sunday,  February  24.       Naples. — Mr.    M 

having  kindly  procured  orders  for  us  to  see  the 
palaces,  Mr.  G—  —  and  family  accompanied  us  to 
Portici,  about  four  miles  distant.  The  palace, 
gardens,  wild  animals,  and  other  objects  of  curi- 
osity well  repaid  our  trouble.  The  agate  banis- 

NAPLES.  137 

ters  are  extremely  handsome,  and  a  room  filled 
with  china  in  various  devices  of  flowers,  animals, 
musical  instruments,  and  arabesques,  usually 
excites  especial  admiration.  Another  apart- 
ment is  covered  with  portraits  of  the  Buonaparte 
family,  among  which  is  that  of  Napoleon, 
crowned  and  in  his  robes,  by  Gerard,  a  work  of 
great  merit.  The  garden  is  pretty,  and  the 
gardeners  are  not  sparing  of  their  bouquets. 

Monday,  February  25.  Naples. — The  day  was 
dull,  cold,  and  wet ;  we,  however,  availed  our- 
selves of  a  cessation  of  rain  to  take  an  airing  for 
a  couple  of  hours,  during  which  we  made 
another,  and  probably  a  last  visit  to  the  Grotto 
of  Pausilippo,  which  appeared  lighted  with  a 
greater  number  of  lamps  than  formerly.  Many 
carriages,  carts,  donkeys,  and  foot-passengers 
were  passing  to  and  fro,  the  traffic  between 
Naples  and  Pozzuoli  affording  great  occupation 
to  the  industrious  classes.  We  observed  many 
cottages  in  an  improved  state,  and  the  country 
people  are  generally  rather  more  neat  in  appear- 
ance than  the  lazzaroni  of  the  city  of  Naples. 
We  had  fixed  this  day  for  an  excursion  up 
Vesuvius,  but  fortunately  the  portentous  lower- 
ing of  yesterday's  setting  sun  induced  us  to 
postpone  the  project. 

Tuesday,  February  26.     Naples.    La  Vittoria. — 


An  English  physican,  at  present  attending  Miss 

G ,  and  who  has  resided  in  the  town  thirty 

years,  observed  to  us  this  morning,  that  he 
thinks,  within  the  last  four  years  the  climate  of 
Naples  has  undergone  a  material  change,  the  cold 
winds  being  more  prevalent,  and  alterations  of 
the  atmosphere  more  frequent  than  formerly. 
We  visited  to-day  a  manufactory  of  porcelain, 
where  we  saw  many  specimens  of  medallions 
and  Etruscan  vases,  and  copies  of  figures  from 
Pompeii.  I  made  several  purchases.  Dur- 
ing a  delightful  ride  up  Mount  Pausilippo  we 
passed  various  villas,  and  the  school  of  Virgil ; 
while  the  beautiful  bay,  with  the  islands  of  Ischia 
and  Capri,  the  towns  of  Baija,  Portici,  &c.,  pre- 
sented the  noblest  scenery,  rendered  still  more 
beautiful  by  the  vineyards,  hanging  shrubs,  and 
almond-trees  breaking  forth  with  the  brightening 
hues  of  spring.  On  descending  to  the  Chiaja  we 
met  several  of  the  royal  carriages,  and  as  we 
approached  the  hotel  saw  a  troop  of  horse  lining 
the  walls  of  the  Larga  Reale,  drawn  up  in 
expectation  of  the  arrival  of  his  Majesty  the 
King  of  Bavaria.  About  two  hours  after,  the 
beat  of  drums  and  sound  of  trumpets  announced 
the  approach  of  the  royal  cortege,  and  several 
carriages  and  four  drove  into  the  court-yard  of 
this  hotel,  where  the  royal  party  were  expected. 

NAPLES.  139 

The  Prince  Royal  of  Bavaria  yesterday  morning 
set  out  for  Psestum. 

Wednesday,  February  27.  Naples. — The  fast  of 
Esther.  This  era  always  brings  with  it  melan- 
choly reflections — the  death  of  my  father  can 
never  be  remembered  without  sorrow,  but  it  is 
wrong  and  selfish,  because  the  hope  that  the 
Almighty  has  granted  my  dear  parents  a  happy 
futurity,  one  free  from  pain  and  full  of  bliss, 
ought  to  reconcile  one  to  the  privation.  We 

called  for  Miss  G ,  and  drove  to  the  port  to 

see  the  two  Sicilian  steam -boats  lying  in  the 
harbour;  but  they  are  both  extremely  small 
vessels,  and  on  board  of  which  we  should  not 
have  courage  to  take  our  passage  for  Malta. 
They  touch  at  Messina  and  Palermo,  making  it  a 
six  days'  and  six  nights'  voyage.  We  afterwards 
went  through  Portici  to  visit  the  ruins  of  Hercu- 
laneum.  Many  discoveries  have  been  effected 
since  our  former  visit,  several  streets  being  now 
uncovered ;  houses,  painted  walls,  mosaic  floor- 
ings, Corinthian  columns,  baths,  and  what  is 
more  observable,  a  prison  with  the  ancient 
gratings  and  two  flights  of  narrow  stone  stairs, 
the  lower  one  leading  to  a  dungeon.  The  paved 
narrow  streets  and  footpaths  on  both  sides  are  in 
good  order. 

Thursday,  February  28.     Naples.     La   Vittoria. 


— During  the  night  we  were  surprised  by  a  noise 
in  the  adjoining  chamber,  which  we  appropriated 

for  our  luggage.     M arose,  and  on  opening 

the  door  a  strange  man  made  his  appearance. 
This  was  somewhat  startling,  but  on  inquiring 
his  business  there  he  replied  that  he  was  a 
servant  belonging  to  the  house ;  and  as  all  the 
beds  were  occupied  with  strangers,  he  thought, 
as  there  was  one  at  liberty  in  that  room,  he 
might  take  advantage  of  it  for  the  night.  He 
apologized  for  the  alarm  he  had  created.  Mr. 
G called  to  invite  us  to  dinner  next  Satur- 
day. We  accompanied  him  in  a  drive  past 
Albergo  dei  Roviri,  the  Strada  Nuova,  the  beauti- 
ful wide  road  made  by  Murat,  but  the  coldness 
of  the  wind  induced  us  to  return  to  the  Chiaja. 
We  met  several  carriages  and  four,  those  of  Lord 
Craven,  the  Duke  of  Buccleuch,  and  royal  family 
of  Naples.  The  King  of  Bavaria  is  said  to 
possess  very  superior  abilities  as  a  poet,  and  to 
be  a  great  patron  of  learning  and  the  fine  arts. 
The  Ferdinand  the  Second  arrived  this  morning. 
She  is  stated  to  be  a  large  vessel,  but  the  weather 
prevented  our  going  on  board,  as  we  intended,  to 
see  her  equipments. 

Friday,  March  1.  Naples. — Commenced  writ- 
ing to  Mrs.  L.  R ,  but  was  prevented  finish- 
ing the  letter.  Went  to  see  several  churches. 

NAPLES.  141 

The  cathedral  is  being  repaired,  and  the  hand- 
some marble  columns  repolished,  but  we  post- 
poned seeing  the  chapel  of  St.  Januarius  till  Miss 

G could  be  of  our  party.     The  church  of 

Marie  de  la  Peite'  has  three  beautiful  statues, 
worthy  the  attention  of  strangers,  from  the 
exquisite  manner  in  which  they  are  executed. 
That  of  a  veiled  female,  representing  Modesty,  is 
the  finest  piece  of  sculpture  I  ever  beheld.  The 
veil  is  so  transparent  that  all  the  features  are 
discernible  through  it,  the  whole  being  of  one 
piece  of  marble.  Opposite  to  this  is  the  figure  of 
a  man  covered  with  a  net,  which  is  being  lifted 
up  by  a  cherub,  emblematical  of  Vice  discovered. 
The  third  is  a  dead  Christ,  enveloped  in  a  thin 
covering.  We  passed  through  the  old  city,  the 
streets  of  which  are  extremely  narrow,  but  con- 
taining very  good  shops.  It  was  in  the  old 
market-place  that  Masaniello  was  murdered.  We 
purchased  some  flowers  in  Strada  Toledo,  and 
after  driving  to  the  Strada  Nuova  and  the  Chiaja, 
returned  home.  Armstrong  went  on  board  the 
Ferdinando  Secondo.  He  says  it  is  an  excellent 
vessel,  and  if  we  could  obtain  her  for  our  passage 
to  Malta  we  could  not  desire  a  better.  It  rests 
with  the  King  to  grant  permission. 

Saturday,    March    2.       Naples.      Hotel  de   la 
Victoire. — Walked    for    some  time  in  the 


Reale,  where  we    were  joined  by   Mr.  G 's 

family,  who  took  chocolate  with  us  at  our  hotel. 
We   afterwards   continued   our  walk    till  four 

o'clock,   and   dined    at   Mr.    G 's.      Stories, 

charades,  &c.,  in  Italian,  French,   and  English 
occupied  the  hour  of  social  leisure. 

Sunday,  March  3.  Naples. — We  took  a  turn 
in  the  gardens,  where  a  great  many  prom enaders 
were  assembled,  and  at  one  left  for  the  Campo 
Marzo.  Vehicles  of  every  kind  were  proceeding 
to  the  race-course,  on  the  fine  paved  road  whence 
may  be  seen  the  Bay  and  Vesuvius.  A  gradual 
ascent  leads  to  the  Campo  Marzo,  an  extensive 
green  for  the  exercise  of  troops,  surrounded  by 
magnificent  scenery.  The  assemblage  of  carriages 
was  already  so  numerous  as  to  oblige  us  to  take 
the  third  line.  We  had,  however,  a  very  good 
sight  of  the  building,  at  the  head  of  which  was 
a  booth  appropriated  for  the  royal  family,  who 
were  attended  by  a  full  court.  About  three  o'clock 
the  amusements  commenced,  and  the  novelty  of 
female  horse-racing,  and  the  skill  of  charioteers, 
in  imitation  of  the  ancient  games,  were  highly 
diverting.  The  lady  equestrians  were  dressed  in 
black  hats  with  plumes  of  white  feathers,  scarlet 
spencers  and  white  long  skirts,  others  in  splendid 
Amazonian  style.  Some  of  the  jockeys  managed 
seven  hoises  each- 

NAPLES.  143 

Monday,  March  4.  Naples. — A  beautiful  day  ! 
We  visited  St.  Chiaro,  where  the  kings  of  Naples 
are  buried.  Robert  of  Anjou  lies  interred  there. 
The  chapel  adjoining  belongs  to  the  convent  for 
noble  ladies,  some  of  whom  we  saw  through  the 
gratings  at  their  devotions.  We  then  went  again 
to  view  the  statues  at  St.  Severus,  then  to  St. 
Apostoli,  and  St.  Annunciata ;  afterwards  to  la 
Strada  Toledo,  to  take  chocolate,  and  lastly  to  la 
Strada  Nuova,  and  to  the  summit  of  Mount  Pausi- 
lippo.  The  view  of  the  Bay  seemed  more  lovely 
than  ever ;  the  immense  space  of  blue  waters, 
white  stone  buildings,  and  majestic  mountains, 
islands,  villas,  and  gardens  forming  a  magnificent 

Such  was  the  feeling  as  we  viewed  again  and 
again  this  delicious  scene,  that  we  could  readily 
have  exclaimed  with  the  poet — 

This  region,  surely  is  not  of  the  earth. 
Was  it  not  dropt  from  heaven  1    Not  a  grove, 
Citron,  or  pine,  or  cedar  ;  not  a  grot, 
Sea-worn  and  mantled  with  the  gadding  vine, 
But  breathes  enchantment.     Not  a  cliff  but  flings 
On  the  clear  blue  wave  some  image  of  delight, 
Some  cabin  roof  glowing  with  crimson  flowers, 
Some  ruined  temple  or  fallen  monument. 

We  have  heard  this  evening  that  the  govern- 
ment steam-boat  leaves  this  port  on  Monday  or 
Tuesday  next  for  Palermo  and  Malta.  She  is  a 
vessel  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  horse  power.  We 
hope,  please  God,  to  go  with  her. 


Tuesday ', March  5 .  Naples.  Hotel de  laVictoire. 
— Went  on  board  II  Ferdinando  Secondo,  an  ex- 
cellent steamer  belonging  to  the  Sicilian  govern- 
ment, one  hundred  and  sixty  horse  power,  and 
one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  long.  We  could 
gain  no  information  respecting  her  departure  for 
Malta  or  Sicily,  but  she  is  a  vessel  well  calculated 
for  the  excursion.  We  afterwards  went  to  la  Fa- 
brica  di  Bragio  Justioriani  e  figli,  where  we  pur- 
chased several  articles  for  our  garden  at  East  Cliff, 
in  Porcella  e  terraglia.  We  then  drove  up  and 
down  the  Chiaja  and  Strada  Nuova,  and  passed 

an  hour  at  la  Belle  Vue  with  Mr.  G and  his 

family,  who  expressed  themselves  as  not  much 
fatigued  after  their  excursion  to  Mount  Vesuvius. 

Wednesday,  March  6. — Mademoiselle  S 

called  at  twelve,  and  accompanied  us  to  the 
Grotto  Pausilippo  Pozzuoli,  and  to  see  the  re- 
mains of  a  temple  dedicated  to  Jupiter  Serapis, 
which  is  well  worth  visiting.  Many  of  the  colos- 
sal columns  are  in  fragments,  but  others  remain 
entire  ;  chapels  where  the  priests  performed  their 
sacrifices,  and  addressed  the  people,  are  very  in- 
teresting remains  of  pagan  worship.  The  sea  has 
made  great  inroads  about  this  spot,  and  worms 
have  eaten  away  the  marble.  In  many  places  the 
sulphur-baths  are  yet  used  in  cases  of  rheumatism, 
and  they  have  been  found  efficacious  in  diseases 

NAPLES.  145 

of  the  eye.  We  could  trace  along  the  road  a  line 
of  lava  from  the  ancient  crater  of  Sulferterra. 
The  different  villas  and  objects  in  the  bay  ren- 
der this  a  most  pleasing  excursion. 

Thursday,  March  7.  Naples. — Mr.  G and 

his  family  accompanied  us  to  see  Virgil's  tomb. 
There  were  several  other  parties  going  up  to  visit 
the  spot  where  the  great  poet  is  said  to  have  been 
interred.  A  small  dome,  supported  by  arches,  is 
pointed  out  as  the  remains  of  the  mausoleum, 
and  a  marble  tablet  with  a  Latin  inscription  on 
the  outside,  a  copy  of  one  now  in  the  museum. 
We  obtained  some  cuttings  of  the  fig  and  vine 
from  the  garden,  as  a  substitute  for  a  branch  of 
laurel  from  the  classic  spot.  The  laurel,  alas  !  is 
no  more  :  the  ravages  of  time  and  strangers  have 
not  suffered  a  vestige  to  remain  !  We  continued 

riding  till  four  o'clock,  and  met  Mr.  A ,  who 

had  very  kindly  troubled  himself  in  looking  out 
for  a  Florentine  mosaic  table.  He  had  found 
one  which  he  thought  might  suit,  and  wished  me 
to  accompany  him  to  look  at  it.  As  it  was  but  a 
small  one  I  purchased  three  others  also,  which  I 
consider  handsome. 

Friday,  March  8.  Naples. — E.  G accom- 
panied us  to  Strada  Nuova,  and  passing  the  beau- 
tiful palace  of  Anqri,  we  enquired  of  our  valet-de- 
place,  Charles,  if  admission  to  see  it  could  be 



obtained.     He  gravely  shook  his  head,  saying  it 

was  requisite  to  have  an  order.      M thought 

a  piastre  would  have  the  effect,  and  Charles  soon 
returned  with  the  custode,  who  led  the  way  up  a 
broad,  gradual  ascent,  bordered  on  each  side  by 
flowers  and  busts,  and  winding  round  till  we 
reached  the  house,  which  commands  a  most  de- 
lightful view  of  the  bay,  Vesuvius,  the  interest- 
ing isles  and  towns,  with  hills  whose  vegetation 
is  now  breaking  forth  with  all  the  beauty  of 
spring.  The  interior  of  this  tasteful  dwelling 
excited  equal  admiration  by  the  beauty  of  its 
architecture,  the  magnificence  of  its  furniture, 
interspersed  with  various  decorations  of  art,  and 
affording  all  the  enticements  of  luxury  and  com- 
fort which  may  be  looked  for  in  a  modern 
palace.  We  felt,  however,  the  deficiency  of  car- 
pets, which,  though  they  might  have  hidden  the 
beautiful  diversified  floorings,  would  have  pro- 
tected us  from  taking  cold,  of  which  I  now  feel 
the  effects.  A  billiard  table  engaged  our  particular 
notice.  It  was  of  handsome  polished  wood,  richly 
carved,  and  the  lions'  heads  on  the  sides  were 
made  to  open  their  mouths  on  receiving  the  ball. 
Saturday,  March  9.  Naples. — The  early  part 
of  this  day  was  chiefly  spent  in  a  walk  to  the 
Villa  ReaZe,  and  the  evening  was  passed  at  Mr. 
G 's,  where  we  pleasantly  amused  ourselves, 

NAPLES.  147 

and  taxed  our  ingenuity  to  the  utmost  in  untying 
the  knotty  points  of  some  charades,  both  French 
and  English. 

Sunday,  March  10.  Naples. — The  races  on 
the  Campo  Marzo  were  to  have  been  resumed  to- 
day, but  the  inauspicious  state  of  the  weather  (it 
being  dull  after  the  wind  and  rain  which  prevailed 
during  the  night)  impeded  those  amusements. 
The  King  was  again  driving  the  Queen  in  a  phae- 
ton and  pair.  It  is  extremely  gratifying  to  observe 
the  amiable  attention  of  these  young  sovereigns 
towards  each  other ;  the  King  being  twenty-nine, 
the  Queen  nineteen  years  old.  Their  manner  is 
gracious  and  condescending.  I  entered  the  read- 
ing-room with  M to  see  a  painting  of  Vesu- 
vius. This  establishment  is  only  accessible  to  the 
English  who  subscribe  for  the  English  journals 
and  various  publications  which  are  prohibited  to 
others.  We  find  II  Ferdinando  Secondo  is  ap- 
pointed for  Thursday  next  to  convey  his  Bavarian 
majesty  to  Palermo,  and  will  not  touch  at  Malta  ; 
all  hope,  therefore,  of  our  having  the  advantage  of 
this  commodious  vessel  is  vanished. 

Monday,  March  11.  Naples. — I  have  a  se- 
vere cold,  caught  on  Friday  last  at  the  palace  of 
Angri,  from  the  stone  floors.  Well,  we  must  pay 

for  curiosity  and  pleasure !  M wishes  me 

to  consult  Mr.  B ,  though  I  feel  that  with  a 

L  2 


little  more  care  I  shall  not  need  medical  advice. 
As  it  was  a  fine  mild  day  I  judged  an  airing 

would  be  beneficial.  Mr.  G and  his  two 

eldest  daughters  rode  with  us  till  four  o'clock. 

"We  then  called  for  Mdlle.  S ,  who  returned 

with  us  to  dinner,  but  I  could  not  remain  at  table, 

finding  myself  still  more  indisposed.  M 

expected  the  doctor  all  the  evening,  and  we 
waited  for  him  till  ten,  thinking  he  might  have 
expected  a  soiree.  We  afterwards  understood, 
that  his  having  had  a  more  than  ordinary 
number  of  patients  to  visit,  and  thinking  our 
invitation  merely  for  tea,  was  the  reason  of  his 
disappointing  us.  I  passed  a  very  disturbed  night. 

Tuesday,  March  12.  Miss  de  E rode  with 

us  for  two  hours  to  the  Strada  Nuova.  She  is 
full  of  intelligence,  and  is  remarkably  agreeable. 
A  Princess  Centola,  a  Neapolitan,  is  often  seen  on 
the  drive.  She  is  one  of  the  handsomest  ladies 
here,  and  appears  very  young,  though  the  mother 
of  ten  children.  She  is  the  wife  of  Prince  Angeli 
Doreci's  brother.  The  two  brothers  are  not  on 
friendly  terms,  some  dispute  existing  in  a  law- 
suit respecting  the  estate  left  by  the  late  prince 
their  father,  who  died  a  few  months  since  of  the 

Wednesday,  March  13.  Our  time  passes  here 
rather  monotonously  ;  calling  on  invalids,  taking 

NAPLES.  149 

a  walk  or  a  drive,  being  our  chief  occupation. 
Our  friends  at  the  Crucetta  were  in  a  more  favour- 
able state  to-day.  The  King  of  Bavaria  and  suite 
depart  to-morrow  morning  for  Palermo.  His  son 
has  just  taken  possession  of  the  apartments 
which  the  Duke  of  Oldenburg  quitted  yesterday 

The  steam-boat  conveyance  increases  the  num- 
ber of  travellers  to  this  city.  It  is  surprising  that 
so  many  distressed  objects  should  still  exist. 

Thursday,  March  14. — We  visited  Herculaneum 
to-day,  the  fineness  of  the  weather  precluding  fear 
of  damp,  a  danger  ordinarily  encountered  in  such 
subterraneous  visits.  I  was  well  pleased  in  this 
my  second  research  among  the  ancient  ruins  and 
streets.  The  guide  at  our  request  gave  us  a  piece 
of  the  painted  rouge  wall,  as  a  great  favour.  We 
stored  up  a  few  pieces  of  mosaic  from  the  flooring, 
and  intend  drying  a  little  bouquet  from  the  gar- 
den as  mementos  of  Herculaneum.  The  theatre  is 
larger  than  that  of  S.  Carlo,  the  two  inscriptions 
in  marble  of  the  consuls  Balbi,  at  each  end  of 
the  corridor,  being  still  as  distinct  as  if  only 
newly  sculptured. 

The  statues  found  in  the  edifice  are  at  the 
Museum ;  and  it  was  formerly,  we  are  told, 
covered  in  its  whole  extent  with  marble.  Its 
vast  dimensions  testify  the  immensity  of  the  city. 


Friday,  March  15. — Paid  our  usual  visits,  and 
found  the  invalids  improving.  A  windy  day,  but  I 

took  a  drive  with  M to  purchase  flowers  and 

perfumery,  and  change  some  mosaic  for  lava  or- 

ments.  Mr.  A the  Italian  master,  passed 

the  evening  with  us ;  we  found  him  an  entertain- 
ing, gentlemanly  person — he  related  many  anec- 
dotes of  great  personages  and  others.  We  have 
not  yet  been  to  S.  Carlo,  our  visits  having  been 
chiefly  to  the  sick  and  the  bereaved.  Strange  to 
say,  very  seldom  is  one's  attention  engaged  by 
the  sound  of  music  here.  Italy,  where  harmony 
and  sweet  sounds  once  prevailed,  now  leaves  to 
colder  realms  the  cultivation  of  that  science 
which  calms  and  soothes  the  ruder  passions  of 
human  nature.  May  it  only  be  neglected  for  a 
time,  not  discarded  for  ever  !  I  am  told  that  it 
is  seldom  introduced  in  parties  of  the  present  day. 
We  were  informed,  among  other  curious  little 
matters,  that  all  the  brothers  and  sisters  of  a  pope 
are  allowed  the  title  of  princes  and  princesses. 

Saturday ,  March  16.  Naples. — Our  friends,  the 

Misses  G having  called  for  us  to  take  a  walk, 

we  went  to  the  Chiaja  gardens,  and  thence  to  // 
largo  Spirito  Santo,  but  the  church  was  closed. 
There  is  a  noble  colonnade  with  shops,  newly 
erected.  We  passed  the  handsome  fountain  of 
Medina,  which  always  has  a  refreshing  supply  of 

NAPLES.  151 

waters.  We  then  ascended  the  height  of  Pezzo- 
falcone,  and  returned  by  the  steps  to  the  passage 
leading  to  Strada  Chiaja.  The  flowers  at  the 
Villa  Reale  are  embellishing  the  different  clumps 
and  fountains,  and  budding  forth  in  various 
forms  and  hues,  with  all  the  beauties  of  spring, 
while  the  birds,  chanting  their  hopeful  song, 
seem  to  fancy's  ear  emulous  of  the  praise  ever 
due  to  nature's  music. 

I  heard,  the  other  day,  of  a  melancholy  suicide 
committed  by  one  of  the  first  singers  here.  A 

Mr.  N ,  a  native  of  Paris,  who  from  not 

meeting  with  his  wonted  applause  in  a  single  air, 
felt  the  disappointment  and  chagrin  so  bitterly, 
that  he  put  an  end  to  his  life  by  throwing  him- 
self out  of  the  window. 

Sunday,  March  17. — At  eight  o'clock  M 

went  to  the  Belle  Vue,  to  bid  farewell  to  Mr.  G 

and  his  family,  and  found  him  in  time  to  see 
them  off,  and  to  offer  them  our  best  wishes.  The 
Grand  Duke  Charles  of  Austria's  arrival  here 
to-day  made  it  difficult  to  obtain  post-horses  for 
both  carriages,  but  at  last  they  succeeded.  Our 
intention  of  going  to  visit  Pompeii  to-day  was 
frustrated  by  a  gale  of  wind,  which  would  have 
rendered  that  excursion  almost  insufferable  from 
the  dust.  We  congratulated  ourselves  on  not 
being  at  sea  this  weather.  May  the  Almighty 


still  deign  to  protect  us  in  the  same  merciful 
manner  as  hitherto  !  Let  us,  O  Lord,  throughout 
life,  exert  ourselves  to  cherish  unceasingly  a  sense 
of  thy  Divine  goodness,  that  we  may  never  fail 
to  experience  thy  protecting  power  ! 

Monday,  March  18. — It  being  our  intention, 
with  the  blessing  of  the  Almighty,  to  depart  for 
Rome  on  Wednesday  next,  we  proceeded  to  the 
poste  aux  chevaux,  to  deliver  the  order  for  horses, 
that  we  might  not  be  disappointed  at  this  busy 
season.  We  then  went  to  the  post-office  for  our 
newspapers,  where  the  throng  of  persons  was  im- 
mense. The  office  closes  from  eleven  till  three 
o'clock.  We  found  a  close  carriage  more  desir- 
able than  an  open  one.  Puncenelli,  improvvisatori, 
and  eatable  stalls,  obtained  as  crowded  an  audi- 
ence and  attendance  on  the  Molo  as  when  the 
sun  is  shining  and  the  streets  are  dry.  All  seemed 
contented,  except  the  wretched  mendicants,  and 
the  poor  over-driven  horses  and  donkeys,  which, 
when  harnessed  beside  the  ox,  seemed  ready  to 
sink  beneath  their  burdens. 

I  this  morning  heard  some  anecdotes  of  Car- 
dinal Mezzofante,  who  speaks  fifty-eight  different 
languages  and  dialects,  all  with  the  greatest  pro- 
priety of  pronunciation,  as  well  as  grammatical 
accuracy.  He  was  formerly  librarian  of  the  Vati- 
can, and  was  made  cardinal  as  an  honour  due  to 

NAPLES.  153 

his  astonishing  talent.  It  is  said,  that  on  his 
obtaining  the  promotion,  the  Council  of  Cardinals 
resembled  that  of  Babel,  and  that  he,  Mezzofante, 
was  chosen  their  interpreter. 

Tuesday,  March  19. — This  being  the  fete  of  St. 
Joseph,  all  the  shops  were  closed  even  more 
strictly  than  on  Sunday,  and  the  people  were 
generally  well  dressed.  I  understand  that  alms 
are  given  on  this  day  to  the  poor,  and  that  many 
families  receive  presents  of  new  suits  of  clothes, 
to  the  funds  for  which  their  Majesties  contribute 

largely.  We  took  leave  of  the  Baroness  de  R , 

and  saw  the  Baron  for  a  few  minutes.  He  was 
very  pale  and  thin,  which  was  not  surprising, 
after  a  fortnight's  confinement  to  his  bed  and 
severe  remedies.  I  trust  we  shall  soon  hear  of  his 
recovery.  It  is  nearly  five  weeks  since  we  com- 
menced our  sojourn  at  Naples!  What  a  dream  is 
life !  We  came  with  the  expectation  of  meeting  an 
excellent  conveyance  for  Malta,  and  with  the  hope 
of  passing  the  ensuing  holidays  there,  or  still 
further  east,  but  no  opportunity  presenting  itself 
we  must  return  to  Rome.  May  it  prove  for  the 
best!  May  the  Almighty  direct  our  steps! 

Wednesday,  March  20.  Hotel  Cicerone.  Mola 
di  Gaeta. — At  eight  o'clock  we  left  the  Victoria 
and  having  stopped  at  the  Crucella,  we  had  the 
pleasure  to  find  that  the  Baron  had  passed  a  good 


night  and  was  better.  We  proceeded  through 
the  crowded  streets  of  Naples,  and  were  accosted 
by  the  poor  flower-vendors,  who  cheerfully 
wished  us  buon  viaggio,  as  did  many  others  in 
passing.  The  rain  that  had  fallen  in  the  night 
laid  the  dust,  and  we  found  the  air  pure,  but  the 
roads  heavy.  Many  post-horses  had  already  set 
off,  and  we  met  several  on  the  return.  The  Cam- 
pagna  was  perceptibly  improved  since  the  pre- 
ceding month,  the  fruit-trees  being  now  in  blos- 
som and  vegetation  in  great  progress,  while  the 
fields  were  enlivened  by  numerous  labourers  and 
flocks  and  herds.  We  had  an  extra  pair  of  horses 
at  St.  Agatha,  and  also  on  entering  the  town. 
We  reached  this  hotel  at  thirty-six  minutes  past 
five.  The  sun  set  majestically,  veiling  the  neigh- 
bouring mountains  in  the  most  luxuriant  colours, 
and  forming  round  the  beautiful  gulf  a  splendid 
picture ;  but  the  town  generally  has  a  desolate 
and  uncomfortable  appearance. 

Thursday,  March  21.  Velletri. — We  were  grati- 
fied with  the  sight  of  sun-rise  at  half -past  five 
this  morning.  How  majestic  and  still  was  the 
morning  dawn,  as  the  pale  yellow  deepened  into 
glittering  gold !  We  were  ready  at  six,  the  hour 
fixed  for  setting  off,  and  heard  the  approach  of 
post-horses,  but  they  were  for  a  family  from  the 
other  hotel.  How  vexed  was  M ,  who  is 


always  exact  to  time,  to  find  others  beforehand. 
Another  and  another  carriage  passed.  The  post- 
master was  questioned,  and  replied  that  the  fault 
did  not  rest  with  him,  for  that  they  who  order 
their  horses  first  are  always  first  served.  It  was 
as  well  to  be  cool  on  the  matter,  though  we  had 
hoped  to  have  reached  Albano  this  evening.  At 
length  the  horses  were  announced,  and  we  de- 
scended, but  found  suchfatiguedstrips  of  animals, 
with  two  boys,  not  regular  postillions,  that 

M would  not  set  off  with  them.     Another 

hour  elapsed,  when  the  sound  of  the  whip 
announced  a  regular  relay  from  Atri,  and  at  a 
quarter  before  eight,  with  a  fresh  supply  of 
patience,  the  old  stock  being  exhausted,  we  were 
again  en  route.  How  serene  the  Campagnafelice! 
Birds  were  singing,  numberless  blossoms  per- 
fuming the  air,  and  the  soil  promising  a  rich  har- 
vest, both  for  the  needy  and  the  luxurious.  Where 
is  the  heart  that  feels  not  grateful  for  the  bounty 
of  the  Deity  ?  We  met  numbers  of  droves  of 
horses,  buffaloes,  oxen,  and  sheep  to-day.  The 
Pontine  Marshes  seem  to  be  better  drained  and 
cultivated  than  heretofore.  Many  parts  are  being 
enclosed.  We  arrived  at  Velletri  six  minutes  after 
eight  o'clock. 

Friday,  March  22. — A  little  past  six  this  morning 
we  were  en  route  for  the  Eternal  City,  setting  off 


from  Velletri  with  six  horses,  it  being  rather  a 
rough  stage  to  Genzano.  The  country  people 
here  and  at  Albano  are  good-looking  and  cleanly, 
and  their  costume,  a  scarlet  jacket  and  neat  head- 
dress, is  extremely  becoming.  Indeed  they  seem 
better  clothed  than  any  of  the  peasantry  I  have 
hitherto  noticed  in  Italy.  We  observed  whole 
families,  consisting  of  young  and  grown  up  chil- 
dren, fathers  and  mothers,  some  on  donkeys  or 
mules,  others  on  foot,  repairing  with  their  imple- 
ments of  agriculture  to  their  daily  labour  in  the 
fields.  It  was  a  pleasant  sight,  because  they  all 
appeared  cheerful  and  happy,  none  of  them  ex- 
hibiting that  harassed  and  fatigued  aspect  which 
we  have  too  often  observed  elsewhere. 

We  arrived  at  the  Posta  at  half -past  eleven 
o'clock.      There  was   a  letter  for  us  at  the  gate 

from  Mr.  S ,  purporting  that  he  had  engaged 

apartments  for  us  at  Via  Fontenella  di  Borghese, 
54,  of  which  we  took  possession.  They  are  com- 
modious, but  not  the  most  cheerful,  having  but  a 
side-view  into  the  Corso.  Considering,  however, 
that  all  the  hotels  and  other  apartments  are  en- 
gaged for  the  holy  week,  we  may  think  ourselves 
well  off.  We  walked  in  the  Piaza  di  Spagna, 
engaged  a  valet-de-place,  &c. 

Saturday,  March  23.      Rome. — M went  to 

synagogue,  where  he  saw  Dr.  L.  Loewe,  who  had 

ROME.  157 

returned  from  the  Holy  Land,  Egypt,  and  Greece. 
We  walked  to  the  Corso,  to  the  Monte  Pincione, 
and  to  the  Forum,  and  also  visited  various 
churches  and  monuments,  not  returning  till  three 
o'clock.  We  read  till  dinner-time,  when  some 
gentlemen  paid  us  visits ;  they  conversed  on  the 
state  of  the  community,  and  the  disadvantages 
under  which  they  laboured,  though  their  situa- 
tion, under  the  present  pope,  is  somewhat  ame- 
liorated, his  holiness  being  more  favourably  in- 
clined towards  the  Israelites  than  former  apostolic 
potentates.  They  have  schools  for  various 
branches  of  education,  but  those  who  follow  pro- 
fessions cannot  practise  out  of  the  Ghetto  ;  such 
is  generally  the  existing  illiberality  in  this  cele- 
brated city.  Two  or  three  who  are  skilled  in  medi- 
cine and  surgery  are  visited  in  that  situation  by 
Roman  Catholics  for  the  ad  vantage  of  their  advice. 
Sunday,  March  24.  Rome. — This  morning  we 
had  the  gratification  of  witnessing  the  imposing 
ceremony  of  the  Pope's  blessing  the  palms.  We 
arrived  at  St.  Peter's  church  at  nine  o'clock. 
It  seemed  as  if  all  the  world  were  assembled  to 
behold  the  scene.  Among  the  concourse  of  spec- 
tators were  innumerable  English  of  distinction, 
as  well  as  foreigners  from  all  parts  of  Europe. 

M wore  his  uniform,  and  graced  the  dress 

as  well  as  any  of  the  numerous  military  officers 


present.  The  church  was  hung  with  rich  tapestry 
for  the  fete,  but  I  greatly  preferred  the  mosaic 
pictures  and  beautiful  monuments  and  statues. 
We  took  our  places  according  to  our  tickets,  the 
ladies  separate  from  the  gentlemen.  At  this 
early  hour  I  found  most  of  the  seats  engaged, 
and  but  for  the  polite  interference  of  a  Mons. 

B I  probably  should  not  have  obtained  one. 

The  numerous  clergy,  of  various  degrees  of  rank, 
the  sumptuousness  of  their  habiliments,  the  im  • 
posing  sounds  of  various  musical  instruments, 
aided  by  vocal  harmony,  had  a  most  thrilling 
effect,  even  on  those  of  a  different  belief.  The 
procession  of  his  holiness,  followed  by  the  car- 
dinals and  foreigners  of  rank,  all  attired  in  costly 
costume,  rich  clothes,  point-lace,  gold  and  silver 
embroidery,  and  uniforms  of  different  nations  and 
regiments,  commanded  general  admiration.  The 
pope  having  taken  his  seat,  each  gentleman, 
according  to  his  rank  and  station,  knelt  in  rota- 
tion, and  presented  his  palm-branch  to  receive 
the  benediction  of  his  holiness.  High  mass  was 
then  performed — the  pope  advancing  to  the 
baldachin  was  anointed  by  his  cardinals.  About 
one  the  grand  procession  departed  in  the  same 
state  as  at  the  commencement.  We  lunched  at 
Caft  Nuovo. 
Monday,  March  25.  Rome. — We  breakfasted  at 

EOME.  159 

Cafe,  Nuovo,  and  took  some  cold  refreshment  with 
us,  for  a  visit  to  Grotta  Ferrata,  distant  about  ten 
miles,  and  where  there  was  an  annual  fair  of 
wearing  apparel,  crockery,  bijouterie,  and  all  the 
usual  appurtenances  of  such  resorts. 

It  was  most  numerously  attended,  as  well  by 
country  folks  as  foreigners  of  all  nations.  The 
females  were  fat  and  well-favoured,  and  graced 
the  equestrian  attitude  in  which  many  of  them 
attended  the  rural  fete.  Their  dark  tresses, 
plaited  under  a  scarlet  or  white  head-dress,  looked 
extremely  becoming,  and  most  were  decorated 
with  gold  ear-rings,  and  rings  on  their  ringers, 
and  smartly  embroidered  muslin  aprons.  We 
entered  one  of  the  shows,  where  rope-dancing 
and  feats  of  strength  were  exhibited. 

The  church  of  S.  Maria,  belonging  to  the 
Greeks,  was  thronged,  and  we  heard  as  much 
English  spoken  as  Italian.  It  possesses  some 
good  frescos  by  Domenichino,  the  one  of  St.  Bar- 
thelemy  recovering  a  child  from  convulsions,  by 
putting  a  drop  of  consecrated  oil  into  its  mouth ; 
another,  that  of  King  Otho  III.  going  to  meet  St. 
Nil,  who  receives  him  at  the  head  of  his  commu- 
nity, merited  especial  notice.  We  afterwards 
proceeded  two  miles  beyond  to  see  Frascati, 
which  is  beautifully  situated  and  considered  ex- 
ceedingly healthy,  a  supposition  continued  by  the 


ruddy  complexions  of  the  inhabitants.  The  an- 
cient Tusculum  is  situated  on  the  brow  of  the  hill, 
about  a  mile  distant.  Several  parties  were  going 
to  this  spot,  rendered  so  famous  by  Cato,  Cicero, 
&c.  Our  compatriots  appeared  to  enjoy  the  rural 
treat,  many  of  the  gentlemen  partaking  of  the  hot 
fried  fish  from  the  pan,  without  regard  to  their 
new  kid  gloves ;  neither  bread  nor  fork  being  to  be 
had.  At  six  we  returned  home,  covered  with 
dust,  although  well  pleased  with  the  morning's 
amusement.  We  saw  Don  Miguel,  ex-king  of 
Portugal,  at  Frascati ;  he  bowed  to  every  one  as 
he  passed  on  horseback. 

Tuesday,  March  26.  Rome. — It  was  a  rainy 
day,  we  had  therefore  a  close  carriage  for  the 
day's  excursion,  and  were  accompanied  by  Dr. 

Loewe,  who  brought  M some  notes  for  our 

intended  Eastern  tour.  We  crossed  the  Tiber  over 
the  bridge  Molle,  constructed  in  the  seventh  cen- 
tury by  M.  Emilius  Scaurus,  celebrated  by  the  bat- 
tle of  Constantine  against  his  rival  Maxentius, and 
several  other  remarkable  events.  It  is  partly  an- 
cient and  partly  modern.  A  little  beyond,  on  a  hill, 
is  a  small  temple  erected  in  honour  of  St.  Andrew, 
by  Pope  Pius  II.,  in  memory  of  the  discovery  of 
the  head  of  that  apostle,  after  it  had  been  trans- 
ported from  Peloponnesus  to  Rome.  We  also 
stopped  at  the  church  built  in  honour  of  the  same 

ROME.  161 

saint  by  Julius  III.,  as  a  memorial  of  his  deliver- 
ance from  the  hands  of  the  Germans  on  St.  An- 
drew's day.  Vignole  was  the  architect.  A  little 
further  on  is  a  palace  erected  by  the  same  pope, 
and  also  by  the  architect  Vignole.  There  are  here 
a  handsome  fountain  and  some  fine  frescoes  by 
Thadee  Zuccare.  We  then  drove  to  the  Villa 
Borghese  to  see  the  handsome  Propylse,  and  after- 
wards to  the  church  of  S.  Maria  del  Popolo,  by  Vig- 
nole, from  the  designs  of  Michael  Angelo.  There  is 
a  chapel,  the  cupola  of  which  is  in  mosaic,  from 
the  cartoons  of  Raphael,  and  in  the  Chigi  chapel, 
called  Notre  Dame  di  Loretto,  are  four  statues  of 
which  Jonah  and  the  Whale,  from  the  designs  of 
Raphael,  is  particularly  admirable. 

Wednesday,  March  27.  Home. — Mons.  B 

politely  sent  us  a  written  account  of  the  clerical 

observances  of  the  week,  and  Mr.  J sent 

tickets  of  admission. 

We  to-day  visited  the  church  of  Santa  Maria 
Maggiore,  on  the  Esqueline  hill,  a  magnificent 
edifice ;  its  columns  and  baldachin  are  superb ; 
we  then  proceeded  to  that  of  8.  Pietro  in  Vinculis, 
remarkable  for  its  statue  of  Moses,  by  Michael 
Angelo,  which  decorates  the  tomb  of  Pope  Julius 
II.,  and  for  its  twenty  Doric  columns  of  Parian 
marble  ;  and  then  to  St.  Martin's.  We  afterwards 
proceeded  to  the  Ghetto,  and  having  taken  an 


early  dinner,  we  went  to  the  Sixtine  chapel, 
to  witness  the  ceremony  of  the  Miserere.  A  great 
number  of  carriages  were  assembled,  and  the 
chapel  was  thronged,  most  of  the  seats  being 
already  engaged,  but  an  ambassador  with  two 
ladies  entering  at  the  same  time  with  our- 
selves, we  obtained  excellent  situations. 

The  singing  was  very  fine,  and  I  was  well  en- 
tertained. M 's  uniform  made  him  bolder  than 

usual,  and  we  obtained  seats  close  to  the  screen. 
The  Lamentations  of  Jeremiah  were  sung,  accom- 
panied by  different  musical  instruments.  The 
ladies  were  mostly  in  evening  costume,  many 
having  their  hair  well  dressed,  and  a  black  lace 
veil  thrown  loosely  over  the  head,  black  being 
generally  worn.  The  pope  was  present,  also 
about  twenty  cardinals. 

Thursday,  March  28.  Rome. — The  ceremonies 
at  St.  Peter's  to-day  have  been  highly  interesting. 
At  the  early  hour  of  ten  we  were  at  the  church, 
to  witness  the  pope's  benediction  of  the  people. 
His  holiness  washed  the  feet  of  twelve  pilgrims, 
each  of  whom  received  a  new  suit  of  clothes  and 
a  medal.  His  holiness  then  waited  on  them  at 
dinner,  assisted  by  several  cardinals,  who  knelt  to 
the  pope  when  handing  him  the  dishes  to  serve  to 
the  poor  men.  These  acts  of  humiliation  may  be' 
well  intended,  and  doubtless  have  some  good  ten- 

HOME.  163 

dency,  teaching  the  individual,  however  exalted 
in  rank,  the  virtue  of  a  humble  spirit,  and  that 
religion  surpasses  every  other  distinction ;  but,  on 
the  other  hand,  the  accompanying  pomp  and  dis- 
play may  be  regarded  as  somewhat  lessening  the 
merit  of  the  action.  The  table  was  decorated 
with  all  the  magnificence  of  regal  state  ;  and  the 
pilgrims,  after  regaling  themselves  with  every 
luxury,  were  permitted  to  take  away  the  remains 
of  everything  that  was  served  to  them.  The 
splendid  hall  was  crowded  with  visitors  from  all 
countries  and  of  the  highest  rank.  The  rush  was 
so  great  at  one  time  that  the  screams  of  those 
who  could  only  succeed  in  making  half  way  into 
the  hall  were  truly  appalling. 

The  evening  was  passed  in  witnessing  the  wash- 
ing of  the  feet  of  female  pilgrims,  by  a  society  of 
ladies  of  the  first  quality,  who  afterwards  served 
them  at  supper.  The  ladies  wear  a  costume, 
consisting  of  a  scarlet  bib  and  apron,  with  a 
badge  on  the  right  side,  indicative  of  their  order. 
M —  -  went  to  the  hospital  of  male  pilgrims,  to 
witness  a  similar  ceremony,  at  which  Don  Miguel 

Friday,  March  29.  Rome. — Yesterday  I  re- 
ceived letters  from  the  Baroness  James  de  R , 

and  from  Emily  G ,  the  latter  apprising  us 

of  their  safe  arrival  at  Florence,  the  former  from 
M  2 


Naples,  expressing  a  hope  that  we  should  not  pur- 
sue our  projected  tour  in  the  East,  as  it  might  be 
attended  with  the  greatest  danger,  owing  to  the 
warlike  intelligence  which  had  lately  been  re- 
ceived from  Egypt,  leaving  no  doubt  that  hostili- 
ties with  the  Turks  would  shortly  commence.  We 
felt  somewhat  staggered  at  this  advice  from  such 
an  unquestionable  and  kind  authority ;  but  how 
difficult  is  it  to  lay  aside  plans  once  formed,  and 
in  part  commenced !  It  is  like  changing  a  long- 
cherished  opinion.  For  the  sake  of  novelty,  as 
well  as  to  visit  an  old  friend,  we  this  morning 
breakfasted  at  the  Cafe  Nuovo.  Poor  little  B — 
was  no  more  to  be  seen  there;  he  was  gone  to  that 
bourne  whence  no  traveller  returns  !  The  room 
was  filled  with  guests,  from  the  priest  to  the  young 
married  couple,  and  the  activity  of  the  attendants 
kept  pace  with  the  demand  for  colazione  of  various 
kinds.  Having  finished  our  repast  we  took  an 
hour's  amusement  in  the  Corso,  and  while  enjoy- 
ing the  exercise  of  walking,  gazed  at  the  various 
shops,  the  windows  of  which  were  attractively 
supplied  with  abundance  of  objects  to  please  the 
virtuoso,  the  votaries  of  fashion,  the  literati,  or 
the  artist.  On  our  return  we  wrote  letters  to  our 
friends  at  home,  and  prepared  for  the  approach  of 
Passover ;  but  how  different  were  the  prepara- 
tions to  those  I  have  been  accustomed  to,  when 

ROME.  165 

expecting  the  heart-cheering  society  of  the  dear 
and  near  relatives  who  usually  enliven  our  circle 
with  the  delights  of  friendship,  and  affectionate 
conviviality,  on  this  occasion  ;  and  when  we  to- 
gether endeavour  to  fulfil  our  sacred  duty,  and 
observe  the  holy  ordinances  enjoined  us !  May  the 
Almighty  permit  us  a  renewal  of  such  happiness 

in  future  years !  A  little  before  six  my  dear  M 

and  I  rode  to  the  synagogue.  It  was  beautifully 
decorated  with  rich  crimson  damask,  as  well  as 
many  extra  lamps  for  the  holidays.  We  walked 
home  ; — read  the  Hagada — the  first  time  with- 
out other  society  than  ourselves,  and  which  for 
the  first  time  caused  any  regret,  for  we  could  not 
prevent  a  degree  of  sadness  from  intruding  itself 
at  this  memorable  epoch,  when  thinking  of  the 
absence  of  those  we  loved. 

Saturday,  March  30.  Rome. — I  walked  with 
my  dear  M —  -  to  our  place  of  worship.  It  was 
crowded,  and  prayers  were  attended  to  in  a  devout 
and  satisfactory  manner.  One  or  other  of  the  gen- 
tlemen stood  behind  my  seat  the  whole  of  the  ser- 
vice, an  attention  which  was  persisted  in  against 
my  wish  and  entreaty.  We  returned  home  to 
breakfast,  and  afterwards  went  to  see  six  other 
synagogues.  They  all  possess  treasures  of  an- 
cient silver  ornaments,  of  crowns,  bells,  &c.,  two 
old  sepharim,  and  the  curtains,  cloaks,  &c.,  are 


magnificent,  embroidered  in  gold  and  silver.  It 
seems  the  ambition  of  every  member  of  the  con- 
gregation, as  far  as  means  will  permit,  to  present 
an  offering  in  honour  of  the  law  of  God.  The 
eagerness  to  attend  us  and  to  show  us  respect, 
is  beyond  description,  and  certainly  beyond  our 
desert.  During  the  forenoon  we  received  a  visit 

from  Lieutenant -Colonel  and  Mrs.  S and 

their  niece.  They  presented  us  a  letter  from 
Mr.  M ,  dated  as  far  back  as  1827,  having  re- 
served it  on  finding  us  absent  from  Park-lane, 
when  on  our  first  tour  to  the  Holy  Land.  Dr. 
Loewe  dined,  and  said  the  Hagada  with  us,  most 
satisfactorily  commenting  on  the  same. 

Sunday,  March  31.  Rome. — It  being  late 
last  night  before  we  had  completed  the  Pass- 
over service,  Dr.  Loewe  was  shut  out  of  his 
lodgings,  and  obliged  to  return  and  take  up  his 
night's  rest  on  a  sofa  in  our  drawing-room.  Mons. 

B called  during  the  time  of  our  prayers, 

we  therefore  could  not  receive  him.  We  again 
attended  synagogue,  and  were  received  in  state  by 
the  deputies,  a  vast  concourse  of  persons  gazing 
at  and  following  us.  Soldiers  were  stationed  at 
the  entrance  and  in  the  interior  of  the  building, 
and  presented  arms  at  our  approach.  We  went 
into  four  other  synagogues,  all  of  which  were 
splendidly  ornamented  with  tapestry  of  rich  bro- 

ROME.  167 

cade  and  fringe.  At  one  we  attended  to  hear  a 
discourse  delivered  in  Italian,  and  it  was  certainly 
of  a  most  impressive  character.  After  breakfast 
walked  till  half -past  one  on  Monte  Pincione.  Re- 
ceived an  invitation  from  the  Duke  Alexander 
Torlonia,  to  see  the  Girandola  from  his  beautiful 
little  palace  in  the  Strada  Tor  di  Mona,  opposite 
il  Castello  St.  Angela.  After  dinner  we  pro- 
ceeded to  St.  Peter's  to  witness  the  illumina- 
tion of  the  church  and  colonnade.  The  coup 
(Peril  was  magnificent,  and  the  celerity  with 
which  the  immense  blaze  of  light  appears,  sur- 
prises and  delights  the  beholder.  Chairs  are  let 
to  the  visitors.  Of  some  of  these  we  gladly 
availed  ourselves,  and  were  amused  till  half-past 
eight  with  the  splendid  and  lively  scene.  We 
afterwards  rode  to  Monte  Pincione,  from  whence 
the  effect  was  most  beautiful.  This  fete  seems  to 
give  universal  satisfaction  to  Romans  as  well 
as  foreigners.  The  streets  and  avenues  were 
thronged  with  people  and  carriages.  I  do  not 
observe  any  austerity  of  countenance  or  manner 
among  the  numerous  clergy  of  this  apostolical 
city.  They  appear  to  partake  of  the  amusements 
with  the  same  delight  as  the  other  inhabitants. 
Monday,  April  1.  Rome. — In  order  to  keep 

our  engagement  with  Colonel  and  Mrs.  S ,  we 

left  home  at  eleven,  accompanied  by  Dr.  Loewe, 


and  proceeded  to  the  church  of  St.  Ignatius,  which 
was  beautifully  illuminated,  and  much  crowded. 
Here  the  party  found  us,  and  we  proceeded  to  see 
the  tomb  newly  discovered  by  Signor  Campana, 
and  his  collection  of  antiquities.  This  gentleman 
engages  a  piece  of  ground  for  which  he  pays  the 
government,  and  has  now  been  excavating  for  ten 
years.  Some  degree  of  success  has  attended  his 
labours,  for  he  has  discovered  the  tomb  alluded 
to,  and  which  is  that  of  a  daughter  of  Octavius, 
called  Octavia.  You  descend  to  the  subterranean 
vaults,  till  you  arrive  at  several  circular  tombs, 
which  contain  earthenware  vases  with  covers, 
filled  with  bones  of  the  deceased  members  of 
the  family,  and  various  friends.  A  marble 
tablet  details  some  particulars  of  the  individual 
interred  below.  Busts,  statues,  sarcophagi,  and 
columns,  lie  scattered  round.  We  also  visited 
Scipio's  tomb,  and  saw  the  sarcophagus  and  some 
alto-relievo  figures,  supposed  to  represent  Moses 
and  the  children  of  Israel  in  the  Wilderness,  and 
Jonah  and  the  Whale.  We  then  parted  with  our 
new  acquaintances,  and  went  to  the  fountain  of 
Egeria,  where  we  again  obtained  a  piece  of  Venus's 
hair,  and  tasted  the  water  from  the  spring. 

"  Egeria ! 

The  mosses  of  thy  fountain  still  are  sprinkled 
With  thine  Elysian  water-drops  ;  the  face 
Of  thy  cave-guarded  spring,  with  years  unwrinkled, 

ROME.  169 

Reflects  the  meek-eyed  genius  of  the  place, 

Whose  green,  wild  margin  now  no  more  erase 

Art's  works  ;  nor  must  the  delicate  waters  sleep, 

Poisoned  in  marble  :  bubbling  from  the  vase 

Of  the  cleft  statue,  with  a  gentle  leap 

The  rill  runs  o'er,  and  round  fern,  flowers,  and  ivy  creep." 

Our  morning's  excursions  were  finished  by  a 
visit  to  the  burial-place  of  the  Israelites,  where 
we  saw  the  tombs  of  poor  Edmund  Goldsmid  and 
Mr.  Heine.  There  are  several  handsome  monu- 
ments and  inscriptions,  but,  strange  to  say,  the 
larger  space  is  planted  with  vegetables.  We 
returned  to  dinner,  and  then  dressed  to  go  to 
Duke  Torlonia's  beautiful  palace,  to  see  the  Giran- 
dola  at  St.  Angelo.  Prince  Coburg,  the  Duchess 
of  Sutherland,  and  all  the  beau  monde  were  there. 

Tuesday,  April  2.  Home. — Went  to  the  Museo 
nelle  Sale  del  Popolo,  and  then  rode  on  Monte 
Pincione.  The  evening  was  passed  at  Colonel 
— 's,  where  we  met  a  party  of  scientific 
persons  of  different  nations.  The  piano  and  sing- 
ing were  introduced,  and  afforded  great  amuse- 
ment, it  being  the  first  private  music  we  had 
heard  in  this  country.  Arabesque  writing  and 
Scarabei  with  hieroglyphical  inscriptions  were 
produced  and  translated  by  Dr.  Loewe,  Mr. 
Joseph  Bonomi,  and  a  gentleman  from  Lebanon. 
The  time  passed  most  agreeably  and  rationally. 

Wednesday,    April  3.      Rome. — I   went   with 

170        •  NOTES  FROM  A  JOURNAL. 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  S ,  her  mother  and  niece, 

to  Signer  Barbere's,  one  of  the  first  mosaic 
manufacturers,  and  a  very  accomplished  gentle- 
man. There  was  a  beautiful  mosaic  table  that 
could  scarcely  be  known  from  a  painting.  The 
Crown  Prince  of  Russia  has  ordered  one,  which 
is  to  be  decorated  with  figures  of  the  most 
interesting  monuments  of  ancient  and  modern 
Rome.  I  purchased  a  piece  for  thirty  scudi  for 
a  penholder.  We  then  went  to  Mr.  Severne's, 
a  British  artist,  who  has  just  finished  a  large 
painting  for  the  church  of  St.  Paul,  and  many 
of  whose  productions  we  viewed  with  much 
delight.  In  the  evening  we  took  a  drive  round 
the  Colosseum,  St.  John  di  Laterano,  and  St. 
Peter's.  Great  was  the  contrast  presented  by 
the  last-mentioned  edifice  when  illuminated  with 
thousands  of  lamps  and  torches,  and  when  the 
sky  itself  was  studded  with  its  resplendent  orbs, 
and  its  present  appearance,  when  the  heavens 
were  dark,  and  when  no  concourse  of  people, 
no  flambeaux,  or  carriages,  with  their  proud 
attendants,  filled  the  vast  surrounding  area. 

In  the  morning  M and  Dr.  Loewe  visited 

the  several  schools  and  libraries  belonging  to  our 
community.  They  were  accompanied  by  the 
deputies,  who  are  ever  eager  to  manifest  kind 
attention  and  respect. 

ROME.  171 

Thursday,  April  4.  Rome. — "Rode  to  Signor 
Rittig.  the  artist  who  painted  The  Study  of  the 
Painters,  a  picture  which  M admired  ex- 
ceedingly at  the  exhibition.  Having  looked  at 
many  designs  by  this  artist,  from  subjects  fur- 
nished by  the  Old  Testament,  we  at  last  agreed 
to  purchase  the "  Study "  for  one  hundred  and 
fifty  scudi,  the  sum  originally  asked.  The  rain 
poured  down  in  torrents  as  we  went  to  the 
Port  a  del  Popolo,  to  take  a  second  view  of  our 
new  purchase,  and  which  greatly  pleased  us. 

We  next  visited  the  studio  of  Signor  S , 

and  inspected  several  productions  of  this-  admir- 
able artist,  consisting  chiefly  of  females  in  Greek 

Monsignor  B paid  us  a  visit :  he  conversed 

in  a  most  agreeable  manner  on  several  subjects, 
and  spoke  more  particularly  of  our  brethren  in 
this  city.  His  sentiments  were  evidently  dictated 
by  a  kindly  feeling,  and  I  did  not  conceal  from 
him  the  indignation  with  which  I  should  be  ani- 
mated at  finding  myself  denied  all  opportunity 
of  acquiring  distinction  by  the  free  and  honour- 
able exertion  of  such  ability  as  might  be  con- 
ferred upon  me  by  the  Author  of  my  being. 

Friday,  April  5.  Rome. — Accompanied  my 

dear  M to  synagogue,  where  several  ladies 

awaited  me.  A  crimson  velvet  and  gold  chair 


was  placed  in  the  centre  for  me,  and  the  whole 
interior  of  the  building  was  illuminated  with  wax 
candles  and  lamps,  the  walls  being  hung  with  rich 
crimson  satin,  while  the  crowns  and  bells  of  the 
sepharim  were  of  chased  gold  and  silver,  and  the 
cloaks  of  rich  brocaded  silk,  embroidered  with 
flowers  and  various  devices,  and  with  the  arms  of 
the  donor  in  gold  and  silver.  At  the  conclusion 
of  the  service,  I  was  conducted  down,  and  re- 
quested to  walk  through  the  synagogue  and  sit 
in  the  chair  appropriated  to  the  Haham.  Embar- 
rassing as  was  the  proffered  honour,  I  did  not  like 
to  refuse  it,  lest  my  doing  so  might  have  offended 
the  kind  feelings  of  those  by  whom  it  was 
tendered.  The  prayers  were  said  in  a  very  de- 
vout manner,  and  without  the  introduction  of 
modern  airs  in  the  chanting.  After  the  service 
an  excellent  sermon  was  delivered  in  Italian,  by 
a  senior  student  of  the  Talmud  Torah  School, 
a  young  man  of  ability,  who  has  studied  medi- 
cine with  great  success,  but  his  practice  will  be 
limited  to  the  Ghetto,  his  religion  being  an 
effectual  bar  to  his  more  extensive  encourage- 
ment. We  were  afterwards  shown  a  superb  and 
numerous  collection  of  mantles,  curtains,  &c.,  be- 
longing to  another  synagogue. 

Saturday  April  6.     Rome. — A  Mr.  D. from 

Canada,  and  his  mother,  returned  with  M to 

ROME.  173 

breakfast.  We  were  informed  that  this  gentle- 
man's establishment  is  considered  one  of  the 
richest  and  most  respectable  in  Canada.  He  is 
travelling  for  his  health,  which  now  appears  re- 
stored. We  walked  up  the  Corso,  and  having 
looked  at  the  different  mosaic  and  cameo  shops, 
proceeded  to  the  exhibition  to  view  our  picture. 
Monsignor  B —  -  passed  an  hour  with  us  in  the 
evening.  He  said  it  was  to  be  a  grand  day  at 
one  of  the  churches  to-morrow,  and  that  his 
holiness  was  to  assist  in  the  ceremonies,  during 
which  a  number  of  young  girls  were  to  receive 
marriage  portions.  An  interesting  spectacle ! 
There  are  many  charitable  institutions  in  Rome. 
The  hospital  for  relieving  the  convalescent  is 
a  most  valuable  institution,  for  there  the  poor, 
when  recovering  from  severe  illness,  are  allowed 
to  remain  till  they  acquire  sufficient  strength  to 
enable  them  to  resume  their  habitual  labour. 
Sunday,  April  7.  Rome. — A  rainy  morning. 

My  dear  M has  a  severe  cold,  and  I  devoted 

the  forenoon  to  letter- writing,  till  I  was  obliged 
to  make  calls.  The  rain  poured  down  al  diluvio, 
the  short  time  that  I  was  out.  We  had  a  small 

dinner-party  of  gentlemen,  and  Monsignor  B 

favoured  us  with  his  company  in  the  evening. 
He  appears  to  be  a  prelate  of  liberal  ideas ;  cer- 
tainly his  conversation  and  manners  are  agree- 
able. He  is  quite  the  courtier. 


The  dinner  passed  off  very  well,  considering  the 
difficulty  of  making  the  cook  understand  our 
taste,  he  being  accustomed  to  use  so  much  oil  in 
all  his  dishes.  We  sent  some  presents  of  Pass- 
over cakes  to  several  of  our  friends.  They  are 
held  in  great  estimation  here,  though  in  my 
opinion  their  quality  is  not  equal  to  those  we 
obtain  in  England,  the  biscuits  being  much 
thicker,  but  of  a  lighter  nature.  The  holidays 
pass  on  much  more  cheerfully  than  the  first 
evening  led  us  to  anticipate. 

Monday,  April  8.     Rome. — Went  to  the  Ghetto 

to  look  at  some  brocades  belonging  to  Mr.  T , 

as  M wishes  to  make  choice  of  some  for  a 

mantle  for  a  sepher.  That  gentleman  had  pur- 
chased them  for  his  own  use  at  Naples,  and 

politely  offered  the  same  for  M 's  acceptance, 

but  that  was  out  of  the  question.  He  at  last 
agreed  to  part  with  them  at  the  price  which  he 
had  himself  paid.  I  made  a  present  to  their 
school  of  industry,  about  to  be  established  and 

sanctioned   by  his   holiness.     M presented 

the  congregations,  their  officers,  and  poor,  with 
handsome  donations,  in  return  for  their  great 
attentions  during  our  sojourn  in  this  city.  We 
received  at  dinner,  at  the  Hotel  de  Russie,  Colonel, 

Mrs.  and  Miss  S ,  the  Abb^  F ,  &c.,  &c. 

The    host    provided  a  very   handsome    enter- 

ROME.  175 

tainment.  We  ourselves  could  partake  only  of 
sweets,  ices,  wine,  and  fruit.  It  was  twelve 
before  we  returned  home. 

Tuesday,  April  9.  Rome. — We  visited  to-day 
the  studio  of  Messrs.  Gibson,  Macdonald,  and 
Wyatt,  and  saw  some  beautiful  pieces  of  sculp- 
ture. A  group  of  a  Shepherd  and  Nymph,  and 
a  Venus  and  Cupid,  by  Gibson,  ordered  for  the 
Duke  Torlonia's  gallery,  are  extremely  beautiful. 
Macdonald  excels  in  busts,  and  there  were  many 
of  the  English  nobility.  It  is  gratifying  to 
observe  the  success  of  British  artists  in  Rome. 

Mr.  M brought  me  a  small  broom  made  of 

the  palm,  called  the  asperella,  and  which  had 
received  the  blessing  of  the  pope  on  one  of  the 
fete  days,  having  been  sprinkled  with  wine,  and 
used  for  brushing  the  altar. 

Wednesday,  April  10.  Rome. — The  gentlemen 

from  the  congregation  called,  and  M received 

a  letter  in  the  name  of  the  community,  expres- 
sive of  thanks  and  gratitude.  Their  attention 
has  been  unusual  and  unlooked-for,  and  we  can 
but  wish  them,  in  return,  a  share  of  the  advan- 
tages enjoyed  in  other  countries.  It  is  a  sad 
thing  to  behold  the  energies  of  the  mind  cramped 
by  the  utter  discouragement  opposed  to  their 
development  and  exercise. 

We  visited  some  mosaic  shops,  and  I  purchased 


two  brooches,  and  M a  set  of  Herculaneum 

plates.  Four  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  deputation 
took  tea  with  us.  Dr.  Loewe  dined  with  the 
Prussian  minister,  who  started  some  difficulties 
respecting  his  passport,  he  having  been  absent 
from  Berlin  longer  than  the  stated  time. 

Thursday,  April  11.  Rome. — Prepared  for  our 

journey.  M went  with  Dr.  Loewe  to  Messrs. 

Freeborn  and  Jones,  to  obtain  a  signature  to  his 
passport.  It  has  also  been  vise  by  the  pope's  go- 
vernment. The  Prussian  minister  said  this  would 
be  sufficient,  but  he  regretted  the  rules  of  his 
government  would  not  permit  him  to  add  his 
signature,  a  return  to  Berlin  being  first  required. 
Dr.  Loewe  intends  proceeding  with  it  as  it  is. 
We  left  cards  at  Duke  Torlonia's,  &c.,  &c.,  and 
then  drove  round  the  Villa  Borghese.  The  trees 
are  now  displaying  a  rich  luxuriance  of  white, 
yellow,  and  purple  blossoms,  sweet  promises  of 
the  not  far  distant  summer.  Nothing  scarcely 
can  be  more  beautiful  than  these  grounds,  re- 
freshed as  they  are  by  bright  and  gushing  foun- 
tains, and  everywhere  ornamented  by  statues 
and  other  works  of  art.  The  prince  was  driving 
the  princess  in  an  elegant  curricle,  drawn  by  a 
pair  of  greys. 

Friday,  April  12.  Civita  Vecchia. — At  eight 
o'clock  we  again  bade  adieu  to  Rome,  accompa- 


nied  by  Dr.  Loewe,  from  whose  society,  intelli- 
gence, and  experience,  gained  in  a  recent  visit  to 
the  Holy  City  and  its  environs,  we  hope  to  derive 
great  advantage.  The  able  explanation  which 
he  gave  us  of  the  Psalms  appropriated  to  the  day, 
and  which  he  read  in  Hebrew  and  English,  was 
very  impressive. 

The  road  was  indifferent,  presenting  a  succes- 
sion of  ascents  and  descents.  Within  four  miles 
of  the  first  change  of  horses,  we  observed  on  the 
left  an  ancient  circular  building,  filled  with 
human  skulls,  exposed  to  the  view  of  passing 
travellers — a  sad  memento  of  our  common  mor- 

We  could  obtain  but  one  postillion  on  chang- 
ing horses ;  this  caused  a  slight  detention,  and  as 
we  proceeded  we  found  still  further  inconvenience, 
for  the  horses  became  unmanageable.  Armstrong 
descended,  but  could  render  little  help,  and  we 
thought  it  more  prudent  to  quit  the  carriage  and 
walk  forward  for  a  time.  The  wild  flowers  in 
the  hedges,  and  the  beauty  of  the  scenery  amply 
consoled  us.  Magnificent  also  was  the  distant 
view ;  on  the  one  side  the  sea  rolling  its  majestic 
waves,  while  on  the  other  huge  rocks  rose  beetling, 
like  a  gigantic  fortress,  erected,  as  it  might  have 
been  fancied,  to  protect  the  smiling  corn-fields 
and  valleys  that  lay  below. 


We  reached  Civita  Vecchia  at  half -past  three. 
The  town,  which  is  strongly  fortified,  though 
small,  enjoys  considerable  prosperity  from  the 
constant  influx  of  strangers,  brought  by  the  steam- 
boats from  different  places  on  the  Mediterranean. 

We  found  Mr.  T awaiting  our  arrival.  He  had 

travelled  from  Rome  during  the  night,  in  order 
to  make  preparations  for  our  passing  the  sab- 
bath here  ;  another  instance  of  his  indefatigable 
and  kind  attention  towards  us.  Having  dined 
together  we  returned  to  take  coffee,  and  pass  the 
evening  at  our  hotel,  where  we  enjoyed  better 
accommodation  than  could  have  been  expected. 

Saturday,  April  13.  Civita  Vecchia. — Some 

excellent  fish,  provided  by  Mr.  T ,  made  our 

breakfast  equal  to  an  English  one.  We  walked 
on  the  Bastion,  and  through  the  town.  A  new 
road  is  being  formed  from  this  place  to  Leghorn, 
and  from  which  both  towns,  it  is  expected,  will 
derive  no  small  advantage.  In  the  evening,  in 
consequence  of  several  new  arrivals,  we  changed 
our  sitting-room  for  an  upper  one,  of  which  we 
were  allowed  to  retain  sole  possession. 

Sunday,  April  14.  Civita  Vecchia. — A  lovely 
morning  !  The  steam-boats  from  Marseilles  are 
in  the  harbour,  and  we  are  again  about  to  trust 
ourselves  to  the  mercy  of  the  waves,  or  rather  to 
the  protecting  hand  of  Him  by  whom  not  only  the 


ocean  but  every  element  of  the  universe  is  ordered 
and  controlled.  After  writing  a  few  lines  in  my 

dear  M 's  letter  to  Mr.  G ,  all  was  ready 

at  one  o'clock,  and  having  taken  leave  of  our 
friends,  and  dispatched  the  servants  with  the 
luggage,  we  stepped  into  a  boat,  and  were  rowed 
to  the  Sesostris,  a  French  steamer,  a  beautiful 
vessel  of  one  hundred  and  sixty  horse  power, 

commanded  by  Captain  C .    At  half -past  one 

we  raised  anchor,  and  with  a  fair  wind  were  soon 
out  of  harbour. 

Mr.  T—  —  came  on  board  again  to  say  farewell. 
He  was  to  sail  in  the  afternoon  for  Marseilles. 
After  offering  up  prayers  for  our  safe  voyage,  we 
quietly  took  our  seats  on  deck.  There  was  only 
one  lady  on  board  besides  myself,  a  Greek,  who 
with  her  father,  brother  and  nephew,  were  return- 
ing from  Marseilles  to  Syra,  after  attending  the 
marriage  of  the  lady's  brother,  and  passing  six 
months  in  France.  Her  fine  dark  eyes  and  clear 
complexion  were  very  beautiful,  but  regret  was 
depicted  on  her  countenance,  the  effect  of  bidding 
farewell  to  the  gaieties  of  France,  or  perhaps  some 
object  of  peculiar  regard.  Several  English  gentle- 
men, with  some  French  and  German,  formed  a 
party  of  about  fifty  passengers.  The  commander 
and  other  officers  of  the  boat  were  of  the  royal 
navy  of  France.  The  ladies'  cabin  was  beautifully 
N  2 


fitted  up  with  oak  inlaid  with  rosewood,  and  a 
handsome  piano  and  music-books  formed  part  of 
the  furniture. 

The  dinner-bell  at  four  o'clock  cleared  the 
deck  of  most  of  the  gentlemen.  At  six  the  cap- 
tain's dinner  was  announced,  to  which  we  were 
invited.  A  great  variety  of  dishes  and  courses 
were  served.  Felt  very  sick. 

Monday,  April  15.  On  board  the  Sesostris. — 
Passed  a  tolerable  night,  considering  all  circum- 
stances. It  was  extremely  fortunate  that  the 
number  of  females  in  our  cabin  did  not  exceed 
three,  or  the  heat  would  have  been  intolerable. 
The  stewardess  made  the  third.  Ann  was  quite 
useless,  la  maladie  de  mer  rendering  her  incapable 
of  stirring.  She  might  truly  be  pronounced  not 
seaworthy.  The  scrubbing  of  decks  and  hourly 
ringing  of  the  bell,  the  creaking  of  the  rudder- 
chains,  and  heaving  the  lead,  did  not  admit  of 

uninterrupted  repose.  M ,  not  relishing  the 

double  row  of  cribs,  and  the  number  of  nocturnal 
companions,  was  dressed  by  six  o'clock.  The  wind 
was  against  us.  I  had  just  taken  my  seat  next 
the  lady  and  my  dear  M — — ,  at  the  captain's 
table,  and  made  an  eifort  to  break  the  shell  of  an 
egg,  when  I  was  glad  to  hasten  on  deck,  where 
the  air  and  a  reclining  posture  somewhat  restored 
me.  In  the  evening  I  took  a  glass  of  lemonade, 

MALTA.  181 

and  commenced  the  study  of  Arabic,  in  which 
Dr.  Loewe  encourages  me  to  hope  I  may  be,  in 
some  degree,  able  to  express  myself  on  our  arrival 
in  Syria. 

Tuesday,  April  16.  The  Sesostris. — The  predic- 
tion of  our  pilot,  when  he  quitted  the  vessel  on 
Sunday,  that  we  should  be  in  the  harbour  of 
Malta  at  eight  o'clock  this  evening,  will  not,  I  fear 
be  verified,  the  wind  still  continuing  against  us. 
The  weather  is  fine,  but  the  breeze  generally 
freshens  from  two  till  six,,  causing  a  swell,  and, 
as  a  necessary  consequence,  a  most  unpleasant 
motion  of  the  vessel.  Several  tunny -fish  were 
observed  swimming  about  the  vessel  to-day.  We 
proceed  at  the  rate  of  seven  knots  ;  yesterday,  at 
one  time,  as  fast  as  ten.  The  captain  expects 
that  we  shall  arrive  about  one  o'clock  in  the 
morning.  At  dusk  I  had  recourse  to  my  cot, 
and  found  quiet  the  best  remedy. 

Wednesday,  April  17.  Malta. — In  writing  the 
word  Malta  how  many  feelings  are  revived,  which, 
like  most  of  those  which  memory  excites,  are 
composed  in  an  almost  equal  degree  of  pleasure 
and  regret !  Friends  who  greeted  us  here,  on  our 
former  arrival,  with  the  warmth  of  affection,  are 
now  no  more  !  Many  events,  filling  up  the  inter- 
val of  years,  crowd  upon  the  mind  ;  nor  are  there 
wanting  sensations  produced  by  the  contrast 


between  the  present  voyage  of  three  days  and 
nights,  in  an  admirable  vessel,  and  that  encoun- 
tered in  our  previous  journey. 

The  captain  had  calculated  correctly  as  to  our 
arrival.  At  half -past  twelve  this  morning  I  j  udged, 
by  the  calling  of  the  seamen,  and  the  ceasing  of 
the  creaking  at  the  helm,  that  we  were  safe  in  the 
harbour.  This  was  confirmed  in  a  few  minutes 
by  M ,  who  tapping  at  the  cabin-door  an- 
nounced our  arrival.  The  pleasant  and  grateful 
feeling  such  intelligence  produces,  after  a  sea- 
voyage,  can  only  be  appreciated  by  those  who 
have  experienced  it.  The  cabin-maid  came  to  re- 
mind me  of  a  promise,  that  the  douceur  intended 
for  her  should  be  bestowed  separately,  and  not  be 
included  in  that  to  the  other  attendants,  who,  ac- 
cording to  her  account,  would  have  kept  it  all  to 

themselves.  Miss  F having  recommended 

us  to  Dimsford's  Hotel,  we  sent  Armstrong  to 
engage  rooms  there,  and  Dr.  Loewe  went  on 
shore  to  order  breakfast.  At  nine  o'clock  we 
found  ourselves  comfortably  seated  at  a  nice 
breakfast-table,  and  listening  again  to  the 
pleasant  sounds  of  our  own  language. 

Thursday,  April  18.  Malta. — At  this  place  the 
minds  of  most  travellers  are  principally  occupied 
either  with  plans  for  an  extended  tour,  or  with 
the  many  thoughts  which  arise  at  the  prospect  of 

MALTA.  183 

home.  We  learn  that  the  next  French  steam- 
boat will  take  its  departure  for  Alexandria  on  the 
27th  instant,  and  the  English  one  on  the  5th  of 
May;  a  long  detention,  but  we  find  the  air  cool 
and  salubrious,  far  more  so  than  I  ever  before 
experienced  it  in  the  month  of  April  at  Malta.  I 
have  ordered  some  white  morning  dresses,  and  a 
merino  riding-habit  for  the  journey  in  Egypt. 

Our  kind  friend,  Mrs.   C ,  has  just   called. 

She  is  as  cheerful  and  conversant  as  ever.    M 

has  been  to  deliver  his  letters  to  Admiral  Stop- 
ford  and  the  governor.  Sir  John  and  Lady  S 

have  left  the  island,  the  office  of  judge-advocate, 
which  that  gentleman  held,  being  abolished.  I 
very  much  regret  their  absence,  and  the  reduction 
of  their  income  from  fifteen  hundred  pounds  per 
annum  to  five  hundred,  the  effects  of  retrench- 
ment. What  changes  since  our  last  visit ! — how 
many  have  paid  the  debt  of  nature !  Poor  General 

P ,    Mary  S ,  and   her   brothers,    Lady 

E ,  &c.     May  we  in  thankfulness  devote  our 

future  time  to  the  Almighty,  who  has  graciously 
permitted  us  to  enjoy  life  still,  with  some 
honour  and  many  blessings  ! 

Friday,  April  19.      Malta. — Mrs.  C ,  who 

passed  yesterday  evening  with  us,  recounted  to 
us,  all  the  news  of  the  island,  which,  like  that  of 
most  other  places,  was  mixed  up  with  many  traits 


of  human  weakness  and  folly.  The  experiment 
of  the  silk  company  has  proved  a  failure,  and  the 
mulberry-trees  of  the  Boschetto  are  all  rooted 

up,  much  to  the  mortification  of  Mr.  M ,  who 

used  to  pride  himself  on  their  cultivation. 

We  have  received  a  card  of  invitation  to  dine 
with  the  governor  on  Saturday.  Mr.  Frere  called, 
as  did  also  Sir  H.  Grey,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bell. 
We  went  to  synagogue.  Several  Turks  from 
Morocco  were  there.  A  chair  was  brought  me 
as  preferable  to  a  seat  on  the  bench.  We  after- 
wards passed  a  very  agreeable  evening. 

Saturday,  April  20.  Malta. — At  eight  o'clock, 
after  taking  a  cup  of  coffee,  went  to  synagogue. 
The  building  is  situated  in  Strada  Reale,  and  is 
very  neat  and  clean.  About  six  families  of  our 
nation  reside  here,  and  the  congregation,  includ- 
ing strangers  and  children,  amounted  to  about 
thirty  persons. 

I  was  the  only  female  present.  In  the  course 

of  the  morning  Mrs.  P and  her  daughter  paid 

us  a  visit ;  also  Mr.  A —  —  and  his  sons,  Admiral 
Sir  Robert  Stopford,  Sir  Hector  Grey,  and  Mr. 
Frere  called.  After  hearing  Dr.  Loewe's  excel- 
lent observations  on  the  portion  for  the  day,  and 
the  Psalms,  we  walked  out  and  met  Mr.  MacGill, 
who  accompanied  us  round  the  Barracca  and 
the  bastions.  We  had  a  few  drops  of  rain, 

MALTA.  185 

but  the  dulness  of  the  sky,  in  a  climate  like  that 
of  Malta,  in  nowise  diminished  the  pleasure  of 
the  exercise.  At  seven  the  sedan  was  brought, 
and  we  proceeded  to  the  governor's.  On  arriving 
at  the  palace  we  passed  through  a  spacious  en- 
trance-hall, where  there  were  soldiers  and  ser- 
vants in  attendance.  Two  handsome  flights  of 
stairs  led  to  the  drawing-room,  where  we  were 
met  by  officers,  who  introduced  us  to  his  excel- 
lency, whose  reception  was  polite  and  agreeable. 
We  found  assembled  Admiral  and  Lady  Stopford, 

their  son,  and  two  daughters ;  Captain  P of 

the  Rodney  ;  and  Captain  S—  -  of  the  Minden ; 
Captain  L ,  and  several  other  persons  of  dis- 
tinction. Sir  J.  and  Lady  M ,  and  her 

sister  (Miss  J ),  and  Sir  H.  G followed. 

The  Duke  of  Devonshire  arrived  at  about  seven, 
his  grace  having  this  morning  received  pratique, 
after  his  visit  to  Constantinople.  There  was  a 
most  elegant  dinner,  though  no  display  of  orna- 
ment, the  dishes  being  all  served  from  the  side- 
boards, and  the  dessert  only  placed  on  the  table. 
Admiral  Stopford  took  me  in  to  dinner.  He  pro- 
mised to  do  what  lay  in  his  power  to  aid  our  ob- 
taining a  steam- boat  direct  to  Jaffa.  I  found  him 
a  most  agreeable  companion,  as  I  did  also  Cap- 
tain L ,  who  was  placed  on  my  left.  The 

Duke  of  Devonshire  had  been  highly  gratified 


with  Constantinople.  His  grace,  while  there,  re- 
turned every  evening  to  sleep  on  board  his  steam- 
boat. He  had  obtained,  with  his  party,  permis- 
sion to  visit  all  the  mosques.  In  the  course  of  the 
conversation  it  was  stated  that  war  would  even- 
tually take  place  between  the  sultan  and  the  vice- 
roy, but  that  Europe  was  exerting  its  best  energies 
to  ward  off  hostilities.  Some  mention  was  also 
made  of  the  silk  company  established  here.  The 
governor  said  it  could  never  succeed,  for  the  worm 
required  quiet  and  cleanliness.  The  establish- 
ment had  cost  the  government  some  hundreds,  and 
had  certainly  proved  equally  detrimental  to  the 
poor  directors.  Lady  Stopford  did  the  honours, 
the  governor  being  a  widower.  We  returned 
home  much  pleased,  a  little  past  ten  o'clock. 

Sunday,  April  21.  Malta. — After  the  Psalms 
for  the  day,  and  my  Arabic  lesson,  we  walked  for 
an  hour  on  the  Barracca,  but  the  sky  was  over- 
cast, and  the  sirocco  wind  was  up.  Having  entered 
St.  John's  church,  our  attention  was  directed  to 
the  beautiful  tombstones  of  the  knights,  which 
form  the  pavement,  their  arms  being  emblazoned 
upon  them  in  exquisite  mosaic  work.  In  this 
church  is  also  a  bronze  statue  of  Moses  bearing 
the  tables  of  the  law.  We  descended  to  the 
grating  of  the  subterranean  chapel,  where  some  of 
the  old  masters  lie  entombed.  Queen  Adelaide's 

MALTA.  187 

donation  of  eight  thousand  pounds  for  building 
a  church  was  greatly  extolled.  The  structure  is 
already  commenced,  and  will  be  a  superb  edifice. 
Her  Majesty  is  expected,  on  its  completion,  to 
renew  her  visit  to  the  island.  The  site  is  that 
of  the  late  residence  of  Sir  John  Stoddart.  For- 
merly the  streets  were  of  the  rudest  kind,  they  are 
now  Macadamized,  and  an  excellent  raised  pave- 
ment is  constructed  on  the  sides  for  foot-passen- 
gers. For  this  the  inhabitants  are  indebted  to 
the  present  governor,  Sir  Henry  Bouverie,  but 
the  Boschetto  is  now  divested  of  the  trees,  which 

were  its  greatest  ornament.      M is  anxious 

to  reach  Jerusalem  for  the  Pentecost  holidays. 
This  would  be  rapid  travelling. 

Monday,  April  22.  Malta.—  My  Arabic  lesson 
occupies  a  great  portion  of  the  forenoon,  added 
to  which  we  devote  no  slight  attention  to 
Hebrew,  and  to  Dr.  Loewe's  explanation  and 
comments,  which  are  most  interesting.  Lady 
Stopford  called,  and  we  received  an  invitation  to 
dine  with  her  ladyship  and  the  admiral  on  Wed- 
nesday next.  Mrs.  C having  recommended 

me  a  Maltese  embroidress,  who  had  received 
orders  from  the  Queen  for  five  muslin  dresses,  I 
ordered  one  myself,  and  also  a  pelerine  and  a 
mantelletta.  The  people  are  delighted  to  receive 
orders,  and  work  extremely  well.  In  our  prome- 


nade  we  visited  a  sculptor  of  the  Malta  stone, 
and  purchased  several  articles,  among  which  was  a 
portrait  of  the  governor,  a  very  excellent  likeness. 

We  paid  a  visit  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  A ,  who  take 

so  much  pains  in  providing  our  dinner.  They  re- 
side in  a  very  excellent  house,  delightfully  clean, 
and  the  rooms  are  ornamented  with  drawings  by 
their  son,  and  specimens  of  embroidery  by  their 
daughter.  They  had  cake,  wine,  and  liqueurs 
prepared,  and  were  delighted  at  our  visit.  M— 
and  Dr.  Loewe  dined  at  Sir  Hector  Grey's,  where 
they  were  extremely  well  entertained,  and  met 
fourteen  gentlemen,  including  the  Duke  of 
Devonshire,  the  governor,  and  admiral. 

Tuesday,  April  23.  Malta.— The  Winifred 
arrived  from  Naples,  bringing  sixty  passengers. 
All  the  hotels  are  full.  We,  therefore,  to  oblige 
the  landlady,  gave  up  one  of  our  rooms,  with  a 
proviso  that  we  were  to  use  it  when  required.  The 
country  is  now  ornamented  with  rich  clover,  beans, 
and  barley  almost  ripe.  The  roads  being  Mac- 
adamized renders  it  safe  for  the  horses,  and  not 
less  so  for  the  good-tempered  calassier.  The 
evening  was  passed  at  the  opera,  and  we  were 
well  pleased  with  the  performance  of  Gabrielle, 
but  the  house  was  not  crowded. 

Wednesday,  April  24.  Malta. — Mr.  Frere 
invited  us  to  dine  with  him  yesterday,  and  we 

MALTA.  189 

were  expected,  M 's  apology  not  having  been 

understood  by  that  gentleman. 

There  was  a  large  party,  including  the  Duke  of 
Devonshire.  We  visited  the  ornamental  marble- 
works  of  Darmaum  and  Sons.  They  appear  to  be 

imitations  of  the  Florentine  mosaic.  M 

ordered  a  small  round  table  of  the  horse  and  the 
palm-tree.  It  was  a  strange  coincidence  that  Dr. 
Loewe  should  have  translated  the  original  Car- 
thaginian inscription  for  Osman  Bey,  who  re- 
ceived the  piece  of  sculpture  found  at  Carthage 
as  a  present  from  Sir  W.  Temple.  We  dined  at 
Admiral  Stopford's.  The  party,  consisting  of 
about  twenty  persons,  was  extremely  agreeable 
and  elegant.  There  was  also  an  evening  party. 
Many  expressed  a  desire  to  make  the  tour  which 
we  ourselves  have  in  contemplation.  Dr.  Loewe 
was  requested  to  translate  some  Turkish  writing 
on  a  China  cup ;  and  Lady  Stopford  was  so  well 
pleased,  that  several  small  mummies  were  handed 
to  him  for  an  explanation  of  their  hieroglyphical 
inscriptions,  and  which  he  immediately  gave. 
Captain  Fisher  said,  if  I  would  obtain  the 
admiral's  permission  he  should  be  delighted  to 
take  us  in  his  ship,  the  Asia,  to  Syria,  and  ac- 
company us  to  Jerusalem. 

Thursday,  April  25.  Malta. — We  took  a  drive 
to  Civita  Victoriosa,  to  return  the  visit  of  Lady 


L and  her  daughters.  The  house  is  pleasantly 

situated  in  the  docks.  In  the  square  is  a  monu- 
ment surmounted  by  a  statue  of  victory.  But  an 
object  far  more  attractive  than  any  of  these  mute 
solicitors  of  attention,  was  a  beautiful  little  boy, 
who,  walking  on  the  terrace  with  his  Maltese 
nurse,  answered  in  his  countenance,  not  unfit- 
tingly, to  our  weak  notions  of  an  angel. 

Several  line-of-battle  ships  sailed  early  this 

morning.  Mr.  F ,  who  called  on  us,  while 

speaking  of  the  Campagna  di  Roma,  and  the  stag- 
nant waters  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  probable 
cause  of  the  malaria  in  hot  seasons,  observed, 
that  from  the  volcanic  nature  of  the  soil  the 
ditches  were  soon  filled  up  again,  after  the  most 
strenuous  efforts  had  been  made  to  drain  them. 

Mrs.  C dined  with  us,  and  accompanied  us  to 

the  opera.  II  Barbiere  de  Seviglia  was  very  well 
performed,  for  the  benefit  of  the  Basso  Cantante. 
The  house  was  crowded,  and  the  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire was  in  the  pit.  There  was  a  violent  storm 
of  thunder,  lightning,  and  rain,  on  our  return. 

Friday,  April  2(3.  Malta. — A  cloudy  morning. 
Dr.  Loewe,  on  leaving  the  opera  yesterday  even- 
ing, recognized  Mr.  Roquerbe,  the  Prussian  consul 
at  Alexandria,  and  whom  he  introduced  to  us 
to-day.  He  gives  us  very  tranquillizing  accounts 
of  politics  in  the  East,  and  says  that  the 

MALTA.  191 

Sultan  and  pasha  will  not  be  allowed  by  Europe 

to  commence  hostilities.     Mr.  B will  leave 

to-morrow  morning  by  the  Sesostris,  with  his 
wife  and  family  for  Marseilles.  The  Duke  of 
Devonshire  takes  his  passage  in  the  same  vessel. 
We  drove  to  St.  Antonio.  The  orange  and  lemon- 
trees  are  in  full  blossom.  Long  before  we  entered 
the  grounds  the  air  was  laden  with  their  perfumes: 
Nor  did  we  fail  to  recognise  the  pepper-trees  and 
beautiful  aloes.  The  gardener  presented  us  with 
excellent  oranges,  and  some  of  a  smaller  kind, 
called  the  mandoline,  and  also  with  exquisite 
flowers  and  leaves  of  the  India-rubber-tree. 
Having  returned  to  the  hotel,  dressed,  and  gone 
to  synagogue,  we  passed  an  exceedingly  agreeable 
evening,  Dr.  Loewe  translating  and  commenting 
on  that  part  of  the  holy  writings  in  which  the 
Almighty  appears  to  Moses  on  Mount  Sinai ; 
and  other  passages,  which  demonstrate  the 
peculiar  favour  exercised  by  him  towards  his 

Saturday,  April  27.      Malta. — Went  to  syna- 
gogue, and  on  our  return  called  on  Mr.  and  Mrs. 

P .     They  have  lived  twenty  years  at  Malta. 

Their  house  is  spacious  and  nicely  arranged. 
Indeed,  most  of  the  houses  in  Malta  are  hand- 
some, the  stone  affording  an  excellent  material 
for  building  purposes.  On  our  return  we  found 


a  gentleman  from  Tripoli  waiting  for  us,  and  soon 

after  Mr.  and  Mrs.  L ,  with  her  son,  paid  us  a 

visit.  In  the  evening  we  went  to  the  opera  to  see 
a  tragedy,  the  music  of  which  was  by  Donizetti. 
A  most  delicious  night !  the  lustre  of  the  moon 
reflecting  in  the  glassy  waters  with  silvery  bright- 
ness, induced  us  to  propose  a  drive  round  the 
harbour.  The  good-tempered  calassier  seemed 
pleased  attheproposal,and  disregardful  of  trouble. 
Sunday,  April  28.  Malta. — The  weather  con- 
tinues windy,  with  a  cloudy  sky,  and  I  am  agree- 
ably surprised  at  not  having  to  complain  of  any 
excessive  warmth.  It  is  a  wonderful  advantage 
to  me.  We  took  a  drive  to  Civita  Vecchia,  to  see 
St.  Paul's  Grotto,  and  the  churches  of  that  ancient 
town,  where  the  apostle  is  stated  to  have  been 
driven  on  shore  after  his  shipwreck,  and  where  he 
is  also  said  to  have  resided  some  time.  We  would 
not  descend  to  the  catacombs.  A  good-tempered 
priest  lighted  us  to  the  Grotto,  and  received  the 
preferred  douceur  as  a  most  welcome  tribute. 
The  immense  number  of  mendicants,  old  and 
young,  who  followed  us  from  a  place  down  the 
road  to  where  the  calasse  awaited  our  return,  be- 
spoke distressing  destitution ;  but  we  were  after- 
wards told  that  their  appearance  did  not  exactly 
represent  their  condition,  some  of  the  older  among 
them,  like  the  beggars  of  other  countries,  being 

MALTA.  193 

suspected  of  having  made  a  profitable  traffic  with 
their  lamentations  and  petitions.  The  cholera 
had  worked  fearful  ravages  among  these  unfor- 

The  French  consul  sent  Dr  Loewe  the  Smyrna 
newspapers,  and  it  distressed  us  to  observe  in  that 
of  the  14th  April,  a  report  that  the  plague  had 
broken  out  at  Jerusalem,  and  that  many  signs  of 
war  were  beginning  to  present  themselves.  The 
feelings  which  arose  at  the  contemplation  of  this 
intelligence  reminded  us  forcibly  of  former  anxie- 
ties excited  as  we  looked  towards  Eastern  climes. 

Monday,  April  29.  Malta. — Received  an  invi- 
tation to  dine  with  Sir  Robert  and  Lady  Stopford, 
which  we  declined.  The  Blazer  arrived  to-day 
from  Alexandria,  with  dispatches  from  India ;  but 
before  the  vessel  entered  the  harbour  the  letters 
and  dispatches  were  removed  into  another  ship, 
and  immediately  forwarded  to  Marseilles,  without 
waiting  for  the  Malta  letters.  A  conjecture  is  thus 
awakened  that  some  important  news  may  be  con- 
tained in  the  dispatches.  Lieutenant  W , 

commander  of  the  government  steamboat,  called, 
and  most  civilly  offered  his  services.  He  is  re- 
lated to  Mr.  S —  -  of  London. 

The  fall  of  rain  in  the  morning  prevented  our 
going  early  to  Mr.  Frere's,  which  we  had  wished 
to  do,  in  order  to  see  his  beautiful  garden  at  La 


Pieta,  where  that  gentleman  has  effected  many 
improvements.  We  met  at  his  house  an  agree- 
able party  of  fourteen,  and  the  urbanity  and  intel- 
ligence of  the  host  gave  an  additional  zest  to  the 
elegance  of  the  dinner,  which  was  served  on  plate, 
and  wanted  none  of  the  luxuries,  consisting  of 
wines,  fruits  of  every  kind,  and  ices,  so  accept- 
able in  this  near  approach  to  climes  glowing  with 
ardent  suns.  The  house  is  beautifully  furnished. 
Some  of  the  rooms  are  hung  with  rich  tapestry, 
and  among  the  busts  we  observed  that  of  Mr. 
Frere's  beautiful  niece,  now  Lady  Hamilton. 

Tuesday,  April  30.  Malta. — The  Megara, 
English  steamboat,  arrived  this  morning  from 
Corfu.  It  is  by  this  vessel  that  we  purpose 
taking  our  passage  to  Alexandria ;  and  if  permis- 
sion can  possibly  be  obtained,  to  be  landed  by  it 
afterwards  at  Jaffa.  The  granting  of  this  favour 
rests  with  Admiral  Sir  John  Louis,  with  whom 
we  dine  on  Thursday ;  and  on  which  occasion  I 
shall  not  neglect  to  urge  the  best  arguments  in  my 
power  to  obtain  this  much-desired  accommodation. 
There  is  much  difficulty  in  the  way,  the  steam- 
boats being  as  regular  as  mail-coaches. 

Prince  George  of  Cambridge  arrived  this  morn- 
ing from  Gibraltar,  and  his  presence  has  diffused 
universal  gaiety  through  Valetta.  The  royal 
standard  floats  proudly  again  on  the  palace.  No- 

MALTA.  195 

thing  could  be  more  lively  than  the  scene  pre- 
sented, as  the  prince  rode  down  the  Strada  Reale, 
accompanied  by  the  governor  and  a  numerous 
band  of  officers,  while  the  streets  were  crowded 
with  spectators,  and  the  blue  sky  in  all  its  bril- 
liancy seemed  like  a  beautiful  canopy  crowning 
the  spectacle.  The  prince  looks  remarkably  well. 
He  intends  remaining  here  ten  days,  and  then 
proceeding  to  Constantinople. 

The  Megara  will  leave  on  Friday  next.  We 
have,  therefore,  begun  our  preparations  in  earnest. 
May  the  Almighty  grant  us  a  safe  and  propitious 
voyage ! 

During  a  ride  to  La  Pieta  this  morning,  we 
felt  the  whole  charm  of  the  season.  The  country 
was  clothed  in  the  loveliest  verdure,  and  the 
French  honeysuckle,  lupa,  or  clover,  cultivated 
here  as  forming  useful  food  for  cattle,  shone 
with  peculiar  richness  of  hue.  The  barley  has  im- 
proved astonishingly  within  the  last  three  days, 
and  already  appears  nearly  ripe  for  the  scythe. 

M went  on  board  the  Megara,  which  is  a  very 

fine  ship,  and  Captain  W kindly  came  to 

say  that  he  had  engaged  the  best  cabin  for  us. 

At  the  opera,  to  which  Miss  P accompanied 

us,  the  Barbiere  di  Seviglia  was  performed  to  a 
crowded  audience ;  Prince  George  and  other  per- 
sons of  distinction  being  present.  On  our  return 
o  2 


we  found  the  "  Times"  newspaper.  It  speaks  in 
a  warlike  tone. 

A  watch-tower  in  the  quarantine  harbour  has 
two  expressive  symbols — on  one  side  an  eye,  on 
the  other  an  ear  ! 

Wednesday,  May  1.  Malta. — The  first  report 
we  heard  this  morning,  after  arranging  the  clothes 
requisite  for  our  Eastern  journey,  was,  that  the 
plague  raged  at  Jerusalem,  and  that  the  gates 
of  the  city  were  consequently  closed.  This 
news  excited  no  slight  uneasiness.  Dr.  Loewe, 

immediately  wrote  to  Mr.  S ,  from  whom 

he  had  heard  the  report,  to  ascertain  more 
certainly  the  grounds  on  which  it  rested.  We 
paid  a  visit  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  L ;  and  pre- 
vious to  taking  our  departure  a  large  bunch  of 
ostrich  feathers  was  brought  into  the  room,  and 
I  was  requested  to  accept  them.  After  many  ex- 
cuses on  my  part  I  was  suffered  to  decline  the 
pressing  offer  of  the  whole,  provided  I  would  allow 
three  to  be  prepared  for  me  against  my  return. 

On  completing  our  farewell  calls  we  took  a  boat 
to  the  quarantine  harbour,  to  speak  to  the  captain 

of  the  Blazer,  Mr.  W ,  in  the  hope  of  obtaining 

information  from  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F ,  passengers 

from  Egypt  and  Syria.  We  found  them  at  the 
Lazaretto,  and  the  account  they  gave  tended 
greatly  to  tranquillize  our  minds  respecting  the 

MALTA.  197 

plague,  though  they  stated  that  the  gates  of  the 
city  had  been  closed  when  they  arrived  at  Jeru- 
salem, and  that  they  were  obliged  to  perform 

Their  description  of  the  sufferings  of  the  peo- 
ple, especially  of  those  of  our  own  nation,  was  cal- 
culated to  excite  the  most  painful  feelings.  Some, 

they  stated,  were  almost  starving,  and  Mr.  F 

had  himself  witnessed  instances  of  the  cruel 
tyranny  exercised  against  them  by  the  Turks. 
Both  this  gentleman  and  his  lady  were  extremely 
obliging,  offering  to  afford  us  any  information  in 
their  power,  and  already  giving  us  that  which  is 
likely  to  prove  of  no  slight  value. 

M ,  still  not  free  from  alarm,  remarked  that 

he  should  leave  me  here,  in  case  the  information 
proved  true  respecting  the  plague,  and  pursue  his 
journey  to  the  Holy  City  alone.  This  I  peremp- 
torily resisted,  and  the  expressions  of  Ruth  fur- 
nished my  heart  at  the  moment  with  the  language 
it  most  desired  to  use.  "  Entreat  me  not  to  leave 
thee,  or  to  return  from  following  after  thee  ;  for 
whither  thou  goest  I  will  go,  and  where  thou 
lodgest  I  will  lodge  ! " 

Thursday,  May  2.  Malta. — Went  to  syna- 
gogue to  implore  the  blessing  of  the  Almighty, 
and  that  his  presence  and  favour  may  secure  us 
a  safe  and  speedy  voyage.  At  an  early  hour  in 


the  forenoon  we  paid  our  farewell  visits,  and  then, 
took  a  boat  to  carry  a  bouquet  and  some  news- 
papers to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  F .  The  former  had 

written  us  a  long  letter  of  instruction  and  advice, 
with  tracks  and  accounts  of  the  route  he  had 
pursued  in  Syria.  He  strongly  recommends  our 
taking  a  supply  of  wine  and  spirits  from  this 
place,  such  articles  being  of  essential  importance 
in  the  desert. 

We  next  proceeded  to  the  custom-house  stairs, 

to  keep  an  engagement  with  Sir  John  L , 

who  had  offered  to  accompany  us  in  a  visit  to 
the  royal  naval  hospital.  The  gallant  admiral 
soon  made  his  appearance,  and  we  were  delighted 
at  surveying  the  establishment  so  admirably  fit- 
ted to  secure  the  comfort  of  the  brave  men  who 
may  become  its  inmates.  Sir  John  showed  us  the 
most  kind  attention,  and  presented  me  with  some 
large  blossoms  of  the  cactus  growing  wild  on  the 
banks,  and  a  quantity  of  scarlet  geranium.  He 
then  conveyed  us  in  his  boat  across  the  harbour, 
where  the  calesse  awaited  our  return.  Lady 
Louis  had  kindly  written  to  say  that  a  covered 
boat  would  be  in  waiting  for  us  at  seven  o'clock, 
at  which  hour  we  were  engaged  to  dine  at  their 
hospitable  house.  We  passed  a  most  agreeable 

Friday,  May  3.      Malta. — We   were  gratified 

MALTA.  199 

by  receiving,  this  morning,  before  our  departure 
for  Alexandria,  two  letters,  the  one  from  Mrs. 

M ,  and  the  other  from  my  sister  H . 

More  acceptable  farewell  presents  could  not  have 
been  brought  us,  for  they  announced  the  well- 
being  of  those  who  are  so  dear  to  our  thoughts. 
Nor  were  they  to  be  disregarded  by  us  as  signs 
of  the  goodness  of  the  Almighty  at  this  moment 
of  our  departure.  Oh,  how  manifold  is  his  loving- 
kindness  !  how  numberless  his  mercies  !  May  we 
ever  strive  to  be  deserving  of  their  continuance  ! 

Mrs.  C ,  who  came  before  breakfast  to  take 

leave,  brought  us  a  present  of  orange-syrup  and 

marmalade,  made  by  herself.  M went  to  pay 

his  respects  to  the  governor  and  Prince  George. 
They  both  kindly  inquired  after  me.  The  latter 
expressed  his  regret  at  not  seeing  me  previously 
to  setting  off.  He  had  suffered  from  the  measles 
while  at  Gibraltar. 

All  the  arrangements  being  made,  Henry,  our 
valet-de-place,  went  with  us  in  the  boat,  to  which 
we  were  followed  by  the  nichts  mangiare,  lame, 
blind  dumb,  &c.  A  quarantine  boat  rowed 
alongside  till  we  reached  the  Megara,  where  the 
captain  was  in  readiness  to  receive  us.  He 
politely  welcomed  us  to  his  ship,  and  handed  me 
to  the  cabin,  where  luncheon  was  prepared ;  but 
the  rolling  of  the  vessel,  contrary  winds,  and 


the  fumes  of  the  viands,  compelled  my  immediate 
resort  to  the  deck,  where  I  remained  till  about 
four  o'clock,  when  the  heaving  of  the  sea  caused 
the  usual  maladie,  and  my  berth  was  the  remedy. 
Saturday,  May  4.  On  board  the  Megara. — 
Suffering  from  the  effects  of  contrary  wind,  I  was 
obliged  to  remain  in  my  cot  all  day.  Poor  dear 

M passed  the  night  on  the  sofa  in  the  large 

cabin,  which  the  captain  calls  the  best  place  in 
the  ship;  but  as  he  was  not  able  to  relieve  himself 
of  his  clothes  he  was  not  very  capable  of  enjoy- 
ing it.  Dr.  Loewe  is  in  a  helpless  state,  not  able 
to  speak  a  word,  or  to  look  up.  Ann  is  des- 
perately ill;  Armstrong  the  only  one  of  our 
party  in  a  tolerable  situation.  I  find  the  servants 
on  board  remarkably  civil  and  attentive,  and  we 
can  procure  every  requisite,  and  even  luxury.  We 
have  altogether  about  twelve  passengers,  but  the 
ladies'  cabin  is  fortunately  entirely  at  our  service. 
The  captain  names  about  six  different  sorts  of 
wine  that  we  can  call  for,  and  cura9oa  with 
maraschino  are  handed  round  after  dinner;  mar- 
malade and  other  preserves  at  breakfast ;  and  if 
the  wind  were  to  change  so  as  to  ease  the  rolling 
of  the  ship,  we  should  have  nothing  to  wish  for. 
The  bell  rings  every  half  hour,  and  the  speed  of 
the  vessel,  which  is  tried  every  hour,  is  at  the 
rate  of  eight  knots. 


Sunday,  May  5.  On  board  the  Megara.—A. 
change  of  the  wind  in  our  favour  has  been 
followed  by  an  improvement  in  our  feelings.  At 

the  persuasion  of  M ,  who  calls  me  an  admiral, 

after  having  honoured  me  with  the  title  of  general 
on  land,  I  was  on  deck  by  nine  o'clock.  I  was 
not  able,  however,  to  conquer  any  part  of  a 
nice  breakfast ;  but  a  luncheon  of  chicken  did 
not  escape  the  attacks  of  returning  appetite.  It 
was  highly  pleasing  to  see  the  nicely-dressed 
crew  mustered  in  review  before  being  called  to 
prayers.  Their  straw  hats,  blue  jackets,  white 
trousers,  and  smart  shoes  honoured  the  sabbath 
day.  They  followed  the  captain  and  officers 
down  to  the  cabin,  where  prayers  and  a  sermon 
were  delivered  by  the  captain,  the  whole  occupy- 
ing about  an  hour.  The  gentlemen  passengers 
also  attended. 

The  power  of  the  sun  to-day,  the  thermometer 
rising,  induced  the  captain  to  put  up  an  awning. 
The  heat  at  one  time  rose  to  a  hundred  degrees. 

Several  birds  were  seen  flying  about  all  day — 
doves,  yellow-breasts,  and  swallows.  Some  of 
the  fatigued  little  creatures  were  captured  by  the 
crew  in  the  evening,  but  they  promise  to  set  them 
at  liberty  to-morrow,  instead  of  making  them 
into  a  savoury  pie.  I  was  obliged  to  take  refuge 
on  the  mattrass  on  deck,  about  five  o'clock ;  but 


soon  after  was  advised,  on  account  of  the  damp 
to  descend  to  my  cot,  where  I  was  followed  by 
Ann,  as  poorly  as  myself. 

Monday,  May  6.  On  board  the  Megara.  I 
hear  the  call  of  eight  knots  with  pleasure,  a  sound 
of  this  kind  being  far  more  pleasing  than  that  of 
the  creaking  of  the  tiller,  or  of  the  people's  foot- 
steps on  deck.  The  fall  of  rain  obliged  us  to 
breakfast  in  our  cabin.  An  agreeable  conversa- 
tion afterwards  took  place  with  two  gentlemen 
who  joined  us,  and  who  are  going  to  Jerusalem. 

One  of  them,  Mr.  C ,  has  already  made  the 

tour  of  Egypt :  Dr.  Loewe  met  him  at  Thebes. 
We  are  very  desirous  of  being  landed  at  Jaffa  in- 
stead of  Beyrout,  should  that  place  be  free  from 
plague,  otherwise  we  should  have  to  perform 
quarantine  before  entering  the  Holy  City.  The 
captain  is  not  certain  whether  or  not  it  may  be 
possible  to  accede  to  our  wishes,  the  issue  depend- 
ing on  the  arrival  of  the  Indian  mail.  The  whole 
table  is  strewed  with  maps  of  Egypt  and  Syria. 
We  have  an  Egyptian  on  board,  with  whom  Dr. 
Loewe  carries  on  long  conversations  in  Arabic.  I 
was  quite  proud  of  being  able  to  speak  two  or 
three  words  in  that  language ;  and  the  Egyptian 
gentleman  seemed  as  astonished  as  my  instructor 

was  pleased.     M gave  a  look  of  approbation. 

We  enjoyed  a  fine  roast  turkey  for  dinner  in  the 

ON   BOARD   THE   MEGARA.  203 

cabin,  and  joined  the  captain  and  other  gentlemen 
at  tea,  who  were  pleased  at  the  addition  to  their 
party.  The  log  was  twice  heaved  during  the 
evening.  A  change  has  been  experienced  in  the 
weather,  the  thermometer  standing  at  only  sixty 
degrees,  as  great  as  might  have  been  witnessed 
in  England. 

Tuesday,  May  7.  On  board  the  Megara. — 
The  doctor  of  the  ship,  at  M 's  suggestion,  pre- 
scribed for  me.  A  Maltese  woman  passenger,  with 
her  little  son  and  daughter,  are  going  to  Jaffa, 
after  touching  at  Beyrout,  to  meet  her  husband, 
who  is  guardiano  there.  Dr.  Loewe  is  copying 
one  of  Arrowsmith's  maps  of  Syria,  belonging  to 

Mr.  T ,  in  an  excellent  manner  for  M . 

The  order  and  quiet  preserved  on  board  is  so 
great,  that  not  a  word  from  the  men  is  heard.  All 
is  still,  except  when  they  heave  the  lead  or  the 
log.  The  crew  consists  of  fifty  seamen.  We 
again  took  tea  in  the  cabin  with  the  captain  and 
passengers.  In  the  course  of  the  evening  the 
captain,  to  amuse  us,  showed  a  paper  wherein 
were  written  words  in  cypher,  which  were  trans- 
lated into  English  by  a  Dr.  H ,  without  his 

being  in  the  least  acquainted  with  the  characters, 
and  the  translation  agreed  perfectly  with  the 
meaning  of  the  two  gentlemen  who  wrote  the  let- 
ters. M takes  a  copy  of  the  log.  Mr.  D , 


whom  we  met  at  Sir  J.  L 's,  intends  proceed- 
ing to  China.  He  is  very  gentlemanly  in  his 

manners,   as   are   also   Captain  C and  Mr. 

T ,  who  are  going  to  Egypt  and  Syria.     The 

latter,  on  seeing  this  book  filled  so  far,  offered 
to  find  me  one  which  he  does  not  intend  using  ; 
comparing  himself  to  the  young  man  who,  wishing 
to  be  poetical,  and  write  a  sonnet  about  the  moon, 
could  not  proceed  beyond,  "  Oh  !  there  !  " — 

Wednesday,  May  8.  Alexandria. — Again  we 
are  happily  landed  on  Egyptian  shores,  Alex- 
andria being  a  second  time  reached  in  safety. 
How  can  we  sufficiently  praise  thy  goodness, 
Almighty  Power,  for  this  continuance  of  thy 
beneficent  protection  ? 

It  was  at  an  early  hour  that  I  heard  the  call 
to  make  ready  the  anchor — a  most  satisfactory 
sound.  At  seven  o'clock  we  dressed  and  went 
on  deck  to  have  a  sight  of  Pompey's  pillar  and 
Cleopatra's  needle,  objects  bright  and  familiar  to 
our  memory.  So  closely  did  the  whole  scene  be- 
fore us  answer  to  that  picture  in  our  recollections, 
that  it  was  with  difficulty  we  could  persuade  our- 
selves that  twelve  years  had  elapsed  since  our 
former  visit.  Assuredly  it  is  at  particular  periods 
like  this,  that  the  nothingness  of  time  passed 
is  most  intensely  felt ;  but  many  are  the  events 
which  have  occurred  in  the  interval!  Among  the 


most  painful,  the  loss  of  three  dear  friends,  one 
at  an  age  when  hope  might  fairly  be  her  most 
cherished  companion.  But  may  we  not  indulge 
the  thought  that  this  changing  and  dangerous 
world  has  been  left  for  one  of  infinitely  greater 
serenity  and  safety  ? 

The  pilot  now  came  on  board,  and  we  were 
soon  surrounded  by  Turkish  boats,  turbans,  and 
divers-coloured  costumes.  The  quarantine-boat 
then  approached,  and  our  bill  of  health  was 

demanded.  Captain  G ,  on  handing  it  out, 

said  that  it  might  be  taken  with  the  hand ;  but 
no !  a  long  pair  of  scissors,  more  resembling  a 
pair  of  tongs,  were  stretched  forth,  and  by  these 
the  document  was  held  till  perused  by  the 
janissary.  When  it  had  been  ascertained  that  all 
were  healthy,  this  singular  instrument  was  laid 
down  and  the  paper  taken  by  the  hand.  A 
corpulent  Turk,  the  British  consul's  head  drago- 
man, came  on  board,  and  the  letter-bags  were 
handed  out ;  while  amidst  the  vociferations  and 
unintelligible  jargon  of  the  Arabs,  numerous 
boats  surrounded  the  ship,  the  anxious  masters 
of  which,  pleading  for  themselves,  or  the  hotels 
for  which  they  were  employed,  could  only  be 
kept  off  so  as  to  afford  a  free  passage  from  the 
vessel,  by  a  copious  sprinkling  of  water. 

Alexandria  has  been  greatly  improved  since  we 


were  last  here.  A  new  palace  for  the  pacha 
adorns  the  spacious  square;  residences  for  the 
consuls  have  also  been  erected ;  and  railroads 
and  a  quay  betoken  the  increase  of  commercial 
spirit.  The  landing-place  did  not  present  the 
same  unsightly  appearance  as  formerly,  the 
ravenous  dogs  and  other  disgusting  objects  being 
no  longer  to  be  seen. 

The  donkeys  in  waiting  brought  us  to  Hill's 
hotel,  fitted  up  with  Eastern  luxury.  Nothing 
could  exceed  the  surprise  of  the  guides  on  my 
addressing  them  in  Arabic.  The  poor  laden 
camel  patiently  trod  its  way,  nor  were  we  so 
alarmed  now  that  we  had  not  so  many  narrow 
streets  to  pass.  It  was  with  great  pleasure  that 
we  learned  that  the  city  was  perfectly  healthy, 
and  Mr.  Hill's  hotel  furnishing  us  with  every 
comfort,  we  sat  down  to  our  breakfast,  consisting 
of  fish,  omelet,  eggs,  preserves,  and  tea,  with  very 
pleasurable  feelings. 

Renewed  reports  prevail  respecting  the  exist- 
ence of  the  plague  in  the  vicinity  of  Jerusalem 
and  at  Jaffa,  not  unaccompanied  with  others  of 
hostilities,  which  are  said  to  have  actually  com- 
menced between  the  Sultan  and  the  Viceroy, 
the  troops  of  the  former  having  actually  passed 
the  Euphrates,  while  in  the  midst  of  the  agita- 
tion thus  created,  every  pass  and  mountain- 
gorge  furnishes  its  troop  of  banditti. 


Count  C paid  us  a  visit,  and  the  calls  of 

other  persons  occupied  our  time  till  past  seven 
o'clock.  A  Turkish  saddle  was  brought  us  to 
look  at — its  price  was  forty  pounds. 

Thursday,  May  9.  The  Megara. — Arose  at 
five  o'clock  in  order  to  be  in  readiness  for 
the  ship,  which  was  appointed  to  leave  at  nine. 
The  donkeys  having  been  brought  to  the  door, 
Mrs.  Hill  had  her  own  saddle  put  on  that  which 
was  to  proceed  with  me.  A  cool  pleasant  morn- 
ing rendered  the  ride  agreeable  ;  and  while 
M—  -  stopped  at  Mr.  T 's  I  entered  a  book- 
seller's with  Dr.  Loewe  to  inquire  for  an  Arabic 
Dictionary  ;  but  the  interior  of  this  poor  library 
did  not  contain  that  for  which  we  sought. 

Having  passed  the  square,  the  extensive  house 
of  the  governor,  and  those  of  the  consuls,  we  at 
length  arrived  at  the  custom-house,  where  one  of 
the  young  officers  of  the  Megara  was  in  waiting 
to  conduct  us  to  the  boat,  which,  after  giving  the 
Arabs  bakshish  for  their  donkeys,  we  entered, 
casting  a  momentary  glance  at  the  troops  that 
were  being  drilled  on  the  quay,  and  which  con- 
sisted mainly  of  youths,  some  of  them  not  more 
than  thirteen  or  fourteen  years  of  age,  utterly 
incapable  of  active  warfare,  yet  destined  for 
various  parts  of  Upper  Egypt,  and  to  act  as  the 
defenders  of  their  country's  independence. 


We  were  soon  brought  alongside  the  Megara, 

where  Captain  G was  waiting  to  receive  us. 

Again  we  found  ourselves  on  board  this  very 
comfortable  steamboat,  which  we  had  only  so 
recently  quitted ;  and  so  soon  are  feelings  of 
attachment  formed  to  that  which  has  inspired  a 
sense  of  security  amid  scenes  or  circumstances  of 
excitement,  that  it  appeared  to  us,  on  entering 
the  vessel,  as  if  we  were  returning  to  a  home. 

Our  party  was  reduced  in  number,  Mr.  D — 
and  six  other  passengers  were  left  at  Alexandria ; 

our  new  Arabian  cook,  Ibrahim  B ,  and  a 

French  gentleman,  being  the  only  persons  who 
had  come  on  board  to  occupy  their  place.  Several 
Turkish  men-of-war  were  lying  at  anchor  near 
us,  and  while  the  ship  was  being  prepared,  I 
amused  myself  with  watching  the  manoeuvres 
of  their  marines,  and  those  of  the  Egyptian  boats 
which,  crowded  with  merchandise,  surrounded 
our  vessel.  I  purchased  a  mother-of-pearl  shell, 
with  St.  George  and  the  Dragon  carved  on  it. 

A  pilot  now  came  on  board  and  mounted  the 
paddle-box  with  our  commander  ;  but  he  did  not 
appear  very  attentive  to  his  business,  it  being 
found  necessary  several  times  to  call  him  to  order, 
and  even  to  threaten  him  with  a  report  to  the 
pacha.  When  complaints  of  this  kind  are  made, 
his  highness  does  not  hesitate  to  have  the  offender 


shot.  The  somewhat  dangerous  nature  of  the 
harbour  renders  this  severity  necessary.  We 
soon,  however,  cleared  it,  and  began  to  feel  the 
heavy  rolling  of  the  waves  without. 

Friday,  May  10.  The  Megara. — The  ship  does 
not  roll  so  much,  our  system  is  therefore  less 
disturbed  than  yesterday,  and  I  am  able  to  resume 
my  pen.  The  commander  and  other  gentlemen  > 
who  came  into  our  cabin  to  visit  us,  expressed  a 
hope,  on  seeing  the  journal  in  my  hand,  that  I 
should  treat  them  leniently,  thinking,  as  they 
said,  that  at  sea  I  could  find  little  to  comment 
on  but  scandal.  I  tell  them  that  that  is  never 
my  amusement,  but  they  shake  their  heads  in 

We  are  just  passing  a  Turkish  sailing-vessel, 
which  left  Alexandria  a  day  before  us.  This  is 
the  advantage  of  steam.  It  is  a  cause  of  thank- 
fulness to  the  Almighty  that  we  are  far  better 
able  this  evening  to  attend  to  our  religious  duties 
than  last  Friday,  when  we  were  compelled  to 
keep  our  cots. 

Saturday,  May  11.  Bey  rout. — At  an  early 
hour  the  land  of  Syria  was  in  view,  and  at  seven 
o'clock  the  anchor  was  cast  in  the  Bay  of  Beyrout. 
We  were  soon  on  deck,  and  magnificent  was  the 
scene  presented  to  our  view.  Immediately  before 
us  rose  the  lofty  mountains  of  Lebanon,  precipi- 


tous,  and  crowned  with  snow,  in  strange  contrast 
with  the  yellow,  barren  shore,  and  in  stranger  still 
with  the  glowing  sky  and  the  dazzling  rays  of  the 
sun,  which  threw  their  effulgence  far  and  wide 
over  every  object  that  the  eye  could  reach, 
wrapping  the  town  of  Zidon  itself  in  a  blaze  of 
morning  splendour. 

For  a  moment  my  thoughts  were  occupied  with 
Lady  Stanhope,  but  they  were  dissipated  by  the 
appearance  of  the  quarantine-boats.  The  bill  of 
health  was  received  this  time,  not  by  a  pair  of 
large  pincers,  but  in  a  wooden  box,  and  so  con- 
veyed to  the  authorities,  the  commander  himself 
accompanying  the  mail.  Several  Turks  came  on 
board,  and  new  passengers,  who  intended  return- 
ing by  the  Megara  to  Alexandria.  Among  them 
were  two  French  princes. 

We  remained  some  time  on  deck  admiring  the 
prospect  of  the  country,  every  hill-side  being 
covered  with  the  richest  foliage,  fruit-trees  of 
every  description  appearing  in  striking  com- 
bination with  the  dark  green  and  sombre  hues 
of  the  majestic  cedars. 

Conflicting  reports  of  war  and  peace,  of  the 
ravages  of  the  plague,  and  of  freedom  from  that 
scourge,  still  continue  to  harass  us ;  but  we  have 
now  learnt  to  feel,  that  as  our  only  sure  defence  is 
the  benign  presence  of  the  Almighty,  we  must 

BEYROUT.  211 

commit  ourselves  in  simple  trust  to  his  guidance 
and  protection. 

Our  arrival,  it  seems,  has  been  long  looked-for ; 
and  a  letter,  two  years  old,  was  awaiting  us  from 

Mr.  A .  Mr.  K paid  us  a  visit.  We 

had  met  him  at  Naples  in  1827.  He  offered  us 
a  tent  and  any  other  accommodation.  Mehemet 
Bey,  the  governor,  also  offered  us  two  of  his 
houses,  but  we  accepted  one  recommended  by 

Mr.  M ,  the  consul.  In  the  evening,  when  we 

could  go  on  shore,  the  commander  conducted  us 
in  his  boat,  with  six  men.  As  soon  as  the  boat 
left  the  ship  the  officers  and  men  assembled  at  the 
head  of  the  vessel,  and  saluted  us  with  six  huzzas. 
We  had  treated  the  men  with  a  supper,  and  they 
well  deserved  it  for  their  attention. 

In  our  walk  to  the  residence  engaged  for  us, 
the  description  which  had  been  given  us  of  the 
wretched  condition  of  the  people  was  found  to  be 
sadly  correct.  The  houses  were  little  better  than 
mud  huts,  and  the  first  hotel  was  a  sort  of  barn, 
used  as  a  drinking-place.  We  had  to  cross  a  road, 
full  of  large  stones  and  ruts,  and  to  ascend  and 
descend  numerous  hillocks  before  we  arrived  at 
the  country  house  assigned  us  as  our  residence. 

How  melancholy  a  proof  did  all  this  appear  to 
afford  of  the  ingratitude  of  rnan,  when  surrounded 
by  the  most  bountiful  gifts  of  his  Creator,  but 
P  2 


of  which  he  has  neither  the  wisdom  nor  the  energy 
to  take  advantage  !  The  very  olives,  and  other 
productions  which  in  less  favoured  climes  it 
demands  so  much  labour  to  cultivate,  here  shed 
their  treasures  with  spontaneous  liberality.  Both 
subjects  and  rulers, however,  seem  to  be  influenced 
in  this  country  by  the  same  bad  spirit ;  and  Ibra- 
him Pacha  will  not,  even  to  save  the  lives  of  his 
people,  have  the  roads  repaired,  or  the  banks  of  a 
river  kept  up,  though  daily  threatening  inunda- 
tion. Well-filled  coffers  are,  in  his  mind,  better 
than  any  conceivable  improvements. 

We  passed  several  groups  of  Arabs  seated  on 
the  ground  ;  their  picturesque  costume,  the  date- 
trees,  and  minarets,  with  the  strange  sound  of  the 
language,  forcibly  reminding  us  of  the  "  Thousand 
and  One  Nights."  The  consul's  janissary,  who, 
with  his  large  silver-headed  cane,  had  conducted 
us  to  the  place,  opened  the  wooden  gate  of  the 
garden,  when  two  Arabian  women,  a  man,  and 
some  children,  came  forth  to  receive  us,  and  led 
us  into  the  house.  M— — ,  more  dead  than  alive 
from  the  length  of  the  walk,  threw  himself  down 
on  the  divan,  which  filled  up  the  side  of  a  large 
apartment  intended  for  our  sitting-room  and 
chamber.  Dr.  Loewe  takes  possession  of  an  un- 
furnished upper  room,  and  the  servants  are  to  find 
shelter  and  rest  where  they  can.  We  ourselves 

BEYROUT.  213 

were  soon  obliged  to  escape  from  the  attacks  of 
fleas,  flies,  and  mosquitoes  on  the  divan,  to  our 
portable  bed. 

Sunday,  May  12.  Bey  rout. — During  the  night 
the  buzzing  of  the  mosquitoes  often  awoke  me 
and  on  arising  this  morning  I  found  my  face 
covered  with  spots,  which  it  required  all  my  for- 
bearance to  leave  as  they  were. 

The  wind  was  high,  and  on  opening  the  shut- 
ters we  could  not  keep  them  fastened ;  but  as 
we  looked  out  upon  the  country,  our  eyes  were 
feasted  with  the  loveliest  scenery.  On  one  side 
stretched  the  sea,  blue  and  tranquil,  the  mirror  of 
the  sky ;  on  the  other  were  the  swelling  hills, 
their  green  slopes  studded  with  country  houses, 
minarets,  and  arched  walls — the  garden  adjoining 
our  own  residence  being  filled  with  date  and 

Our  breakfast  consisted  this  morning  of  many 
luxuries,  provided  by  Ibrahim,  who  seems  an  at- 
tentive and  active  servant ;  but  it  is  too  early  to 
give  an  opinion. 

Mr.  C-   — ,  Mr.  T ,  and  the  commander  paid 

us  a  visit.      M and  Dr.  Loewe  went  to  the 

governor's,  and  to  Mr.  Moore's,  the  British  consul 
In  the  meantime  the  Austrian  consul  called,  and 
remained  a  long  while  in  conversation.  He  has 
resided  thirty-five  years  in  this  town,  and  as  a 


proof  of  the  change  that  has  taken  place  since 
his  first  arrival,  he  mentioned  that  he  could  not, 
at  that  time,  shelter  himself  from  the  sun  with 
an  umbrella  without  exciting  the  indignation  of 
the  Mussulmans,  who  thought  such  a  comfort 
ought  to  be  enjoyed  by  the  governor  only,  and 
their  common  observation  was,  "  Look  at  that 
Frank  with  his  parasol ;  what  a  great  man  he 
thinks  himself ! "  Whereas,  at  the  present  time, 
even  the  labourer  at  work  on  the  road  carries  his 
umbrella  without  notice. 

Our  hostess  and  her  daughter  are  very  anxious 
that  I  should  take  a  bath,  to  which  they  would 
accompany  me,  and  that  I  should  walk  about  the 
garden  and  the  public  promenade  ;  but  I  did  not 
feel  inclined  to  either.  They  informed  us  that 

Captain  D ,  Lord  P ,  and  several  other 

English  gentlemen  had  lived  in  their  house.  The 
daughter  said,  she  wished  I  would  take  her  to 
England ;  and  a  desire  was  expressed  that  we 
would  engage  the  father  as  one  of  our  guides  to 
Palestine.  Beyrout  contains  about  two  thousand 
inhabitants.  We  have  purchased  Lord  Lindsay's 
tent,  and  three  others,  one  for  ourselves,  one  for 
Dr.  Loewe,  one  for  the  servants,  and  one  for 

Monday,  May  13.  Beyrout. — Having  engaged 
horses  and  mules  for  the  journey,  with  an  assist- 

BEYROUT.  215 

ant  cook,  a  janissary,  one  of  the  governor's  sol- 
diers, muleteers,  and  guides,  we  went  on  horse- 
back at  seven  o'clock  to  synagogue.  The  rain 
and  wind  at  first  made  it  doubtful  whether 
I  could  proceed ;  but  the  weather  soon  after 
changed,  and  we  made  the  best  of  our  way  along 
the  rugged  streets,  the  sagacious  horses  safely 
passing  through  the  heaps  of  stones,  and  over  the 
broken  steps,  greatly  to  our  admiration  of  their 
caution  and  cleverness. 

.  On  arriving  at  the  place  of  devotion  we  found 
a  numerous  congregation  both  of  males  and 
females.  A  small  number  of  the  latter  wore 
turbans,  ornamented  with  silver  and  gold ;  neck- 
laces and  bracelets,  with  long  thick  white  veils 
suspended  from  the  head  to  the  feet.  All  the 
others  were  meanly  attired,  and  attested  the 
poverty  of  which  they  complained.  They 
addressed  me  in  Arabic,  which,  thanks  to  Dr. 
Loewe,  I  was  enabled  to  understand,  and  in  a  few 
words  expressed  my  answer.  One  poor  woman,  a 
native  of  Constantinople,  spoke  Italian.  She  had 
lost  her  husband,  and  was  struggling  hard  to  sup- 
port herself  and  four  young  children.  She  had 
therefore  a  fair  claim  to  commiseration  and 

How  thankful  I  was  to  enjoy  the  privilege  of 
offering  up  prayers  in  public,  and  of  hearing  my 


name  mentioned  at  the  altar,  mingled  with  suppli- 
cations for  our  safe  accomplishment  of  the  difficult 
and  fatiguing,  though  sacred  undertaking  which 
we  have  before  us !  Reports  continue  to  multiply, 
and  many  of  them  render  doubtful  the  safety  of 
our  enterprise.  The  terrors  of  war,  of  the  plague, 
and  of  robbers,  alternately  embarrass  the  mind. 
But  we  persevere,  and  the  contract  for  the  horses 
and  mules  was  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Loewe,  who 
made  the  muleteers  sign  it  by  dipping  their  finger 
in  the  ink,  and  affixing  it  to  the  paper. 

The  governor  honoured  us  with  a  visit.  Ma- 
homed Bey  is  a  mild,  gentlemanly  person,  and 
offered  his  services  to  us  in  any  possible  manner. 
He  speaks  French  very  well,  having  visited  both 
France  and  England.  We  availed  ourselves  of 
His  Excellency's  oifer  to  ask  for  an  escort  of 
soldiers  to  protect  us  on  the  way,  and  for 
letters  to  the  different  governors  of  Palestine. 
He  complied  with  the  latter  request,  but  could 
only  spare  one  soldier. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  T and  sister  called  on  us. 

His  time  is  much  employed  in  educating  Arab 
children,  and  many  speak  English  with  fluency 
and  propriety.  The  English  missionary  residing 
at  Jerusalem,  accompanied  them.  Captain  C — 
and  Mr.  T-  -  paid  us  another  visit,  not  having 
as  yet  procured  horses  for  their  intended  visit  to 

KHALDI.  217 

Damascus,  and  their  Arab  servant  having,  owing 
to  indisposition,  proved  incapable  of  fulfilling  his 
engagement.  Mr.  Moore  has  procured  us  a  janis- 
sary, and  in  the  course  of  the  evening  we  received 
a  letter  from  that  gentleman,  stating  that  two 
persons  had  lately  been  robbed  on  the  road,  and 
expressing  his  doubt  as  to  our  safety,  should  we 
proceed.  This  caused  us  much  uneasiness,  which 
was  by  no  means  diminished  at  our  finding  it 
impossible  to  persuade  any  party  to  convey  some 
money,  which  it  was  our  wish  to  take  with  us  to 
towns  that  had  suffered  from  earthquake,  and 
for  the  distressed  in  Jerusalem.  Fuller  informa- 
tion was  promised  in  the  morning,  but  our  in- 
tended early  departure  must  evidently  be  delayed. 

"  In  sha  Alia  ma  essalam,"  was  the  expression 
of  the  Arabs  in  taking  leave  of  Dr.  Loewe,  after 
signing  the  contracts.  The  receipts  were  also 
written  out  in  Hebrew  for  the  synagogues  and 
their  officers. 

It  is  reported  that  the  Sultan's  army  has  crossed 
the  Euphrates.  The  accounts  which  thus  con- 
tinually reach  us,  necessarily  increase  our  anxiety 
respecting  the  transmission  of  the  money,  and  we 
are  at  length  obliged  to  decide  upon  encountering 
the  danger,  and  conveying  it  ourselves. 

Tuesday,  May  14.  KhaldL— Notwithstanding 
the  unfavourable  tenor  of  the  news  brought  this 


morning  by  Mr.  M 's  janissary,  we  resolved 

to  set  off  from  Beyrout,  though  it  was  late  in  the 
afternoon  before  the  money  and  the  luggage  were 

prepared.     At  half-past  three,  Mr.  K having 

called  and  remained  with  us  during  dinner,  we 
started  on  our  route.  The  appearance  we  now 

made  was  not  a  little  formidable.     M ,  Dr. 

Loewe,  and  myself  were  mounted  on  horses ; 
Armstrong,  Ann,  the  soldier,  the  janissary,  and 
muleteers  were  on  mules.  Others  being  also 
employed  to  carry  the  luggage,  the  whole  number 
amounted  to  seventeen.  A  boy  whom  we  had 
seen  at  synagogue  having  begged  permission  to 
accompany  us  to  Jerusalem,  we  assented,  and 
Ibrahim,  and  his  brother  the  cook,  agree  to  let 
him  ride  by  turns,  on  condition  that  he  renders 
assistance,  which  he  has  already  done  by  leading 
Ann's  mule.  She  has  never  ridden  before,  and 
in  this  first  attempt  has  already  had  two  tumbles, 
but  not  to  the  injury  of  her  person. 

After  passing  a  sandy,  stony  road,  we  alighted 
on  an  agreeable  plain,  planted  thickly  with  mul- 
berry-trees, and  strewed  with  a  plentiful  variety 
of  wild  flowers  of  the  richest  hues.  Here  the 
carpets  were  spread,  and  coffee,  water,  and  pipes, 
from  the  khan,  were  handed  us  by  the  janissary 
and  Khassan,  with  all  the  grace  of  Eastern  assi- 
duity. By  this  time  our  caravan  had  reached  us. 

KHALDI.  219 

Several  villages  were  in  view  on  our  left ;  they 
were  El  Khadid,  Abu  Abda,  Sharour,  Shoyefe't. 
In  the  course  of  our  journey  we  met  some  per- 
sons whom  Dr.  Loewe  recognised  as  his  fellow- 
sufferers  in  the  attack  of  the  Druses,  and  in  whose 
company  he  went  from  Zafed  to  Acre.  We  en- 
quired of  them  the  state  of  the  country,  and  re- 
ceived a  favourable  answer.  We  then  repeated 
our  prayers,  and  Dr.  Loewe,  excited  by  the  con- 
trast between  his  present  circumstances,  and  those 
under  which  he  had  made  his  previous  journey, 
poured  forth  an  extemporary  Hebrew  prayer,  in 
praise  of  the  Divine  glory,  and  of  the  power  which 
animated  the  scenes  by  which  we  were  surrounded. 

Half-an-hour  after  sunset  we  arrived  at  a  place 
called  Khaldi,  and  where  the  bright  lustre  of  the 
moon  and  stars,  reflected  beautifully  on  the  sea  to 
our  right,  induced  us  to  pitch  our  tents  for  .the 
night.  A  well  of  good  water  was  a  still  further 
inducement,  and  the  novelty  of  an  encampment, 
the  interest  attached  to  the  country  itself,  the 
brilliancy  of  the  evening,  and  the  stir  in  the  little 
world  comprised  within  the  circle  formed  of  our 
company,  all  contributed  to  excite  a  strange 
mingling  of  feelings,  but  among  which,  we  trust, 
the  most  predominant  was  one  of  holy  awe,  and 
deep  gratitude  to  the  God  of  Israel. 

Lord  Lindsay's  tent  was  soon  fixed  up  for  us.  In 


this  were  placed  our  portable  bedstead,  mosquito- 
netting,  bags  of  money,  and  carpet  bags.  M— 
threw  himself  down  on  the  bed,  fatigued  with  the 
first  journey  of  three  hours,  though,  thanks  to  the 
governor  of  Beyrout,  who  had  presented  him  with 
a  Turkish  saddle,  the  ride  was  rendered  less 
weary  ing  than  would  other  wise  have  been  the  case. 
The  horses  had  travelled  extremely  well,  passing 
steep  and  rugged  roads  without  making  one  false 
step.  The  carpets  were  spread  in  Dr.  Loewe's 
tent,  the  mattresses  forming  a  very  easy  divan. 
Lamps  having  been  lighted,  supper  was  announced. 
Ibrahim  had  prepared  some  very  nice  vermicelli 
soup  and  boiled  fowls,  and  we  returned  thanks  for 
this  first  and  excellent  repast,  seated,  like  our 
forefathers,  in  the  land  of  the  patriarchs.  The 
servants  had  neglected  to  bring  the  poles  of  their 
tents,  and  were  therefore  obliged  to  place  their 
mattresses  in  the  open  air,  like  the  Arabs.  We 
find  it  requisite  to  reconcile  ourselves  to  these 
things,  for  which  we  are  amply  compensated  by 
the  contentment  expressed  in  the  happy  counte- 
nances of  the  attendants,  all  occupied  in  the 
camp,  and  promising  us  a  blessed  journey,  as  they 
sit  cross-legged  round  the  fire,  drinking  coffee, 
and  smoking  their  Turkish  pipes. 

We  availed  ourselves  of  the  light  of  the  lovely 
moon  to  walk  round  the  tents,  and  as  we  looked 

KHALDI.  221 

towards  the  sea  beheld  the  uncommon  reflection 
of  a  star,  which  appeared  for  a  moment  like  a 
bright  column  surmounted  by  a  ball  of  fire.  The 
cry  of  the  Arabs,  "  Kowam  !  Kowam !  "  soon  an- 
nounced that  the  preparations  for  the  night  were 
completed,  and  after  reading  the  usual  number  of 
psalms  and  evening  prayers,  we  sought  repose, 
which  we  enjoyed  as  well  as  the  snorting  of  the 
horses,  the  song  of  the  Arabs,  or  the  intrusion  of 
insects,  would  permit. 

Wednesday,  May  15.  El  Kantare. — An  hour 
before  sunrise  the  preparations  were  commenced 
for  breaking  up  the  encampment.  Ann  entered 
my  tent,  and  her  droll  good-tempered  remarks  on 
the  novelty  of  the  scene,  her  night's  lodging,  and 
our  suite,  could  but  put  us  in  excellent  humour 
even  with  the  inconveniences  to  be  suffered*  in 
our  toilet.  I  now  found  my  lady  8  companion, 

presented  to  me  some  time  since  by  A.  C ,  a 

most  useful  acquisition,  having  no  other  looking- 
glass  but  that  which  it  contained.  A  cup  of  coffee 
and  biscuit,  with  the  carpet  spread  outside  the 
tent,  were  in  readiness,  and  while  the  servants 
prepared  the  luggage  for  the  mules  we  partook 
of  the  refreshment.  This  occupied  but  a  short 
time,  and  we  were  soon  on  our  way,  the  soldier 
and  janissary,  armed  with  pistols,  canes,  and 
swords,  preceding  us.  It  was  the  first  time  I  had 


ever  carried  a  brace  of  pistols,  and  even  now  my 
horse  had  a  better  right  to  the  honour  than  myself. 
I  can  hardly  say  which  I  admired  most,  the  cases 
of  scarlet  and  gold  embroidery,  or  the  weapons. 
Fervently  do  I  hope  that  my  courage  will  not  be 
put  to  the  test  in  the  use  of  them.  I  fear  my 
military  tactics  would  not  be  so  well  admired  as 
my  equestrian  dexterity,  honoured  though  I  be 
with  the  title  of  general. 

We  proceeded  en  route,  repeating,  as  we  went, 
our  prayers  and  psalms,  and  rejoicing  to  make 
resound,  as  we  best  could,  the  wild  and  solitary 
•scenes  with  the  praises  of  our  God.  The  sweet 
rich  flowers  and  shrubs  which  adorned  the  rocks 
and  valleys,  filling  the  air  with  the  most  delicious 
odour,  were  lovely  monitors  of  the  benevolence 
of  the  great  Creator. 

Having  arrived  at  a  khan,  called  by  the  Arabs 
Khan-el-Posta,  five  or  six  Egyptian  women 
passed  us,  the  wives  of  the  soldiers  keeping  guard 
there.  Our  road  conducting  us  through  scenes  of 
the  most  enchanting  kind,  and  the  breezes  from 
the  sea  contributing  greatly  to  the  coolness  of 
the  atmosphere,  we  proceeded  on  our  way  with 
feelings  of  deep-felt  enjoyment. 

In  the  course  of  our  journey  we  passed  a  woman 
seated  on  the  road-side,  with  baskets  of  mul- 
berries and  bread,  called  ragheef,  like  crumpets, 

ZIDON.  223 

On  asking  her  if  she  would  let  us  have  some  of 
the  former,  she  immediately  handed  them  to 
us,  but  would  receive  nothing  in  return.  They 
were  no  larger  than  blackberries,  nor  of  a  much 
better  flavour.  This  gift  is  made  by  way  of  ex- 
piation for  any  sin  committed,  or  on  the  death 
of  a  friend,  and  is  called  by  the  Arabs,  el  ehb. 

The  district  seems  blessed  with  fertility.  May 
peace  be  in  its  borders ! 

How,  indeed,  can  I  express  my  feelings  in  the 
land  of  the  tribe  of  Zebulun !  How  does  the 
blessing  of  Jacob  forcibly  recur  to  the  thoughts ! 
"  Zebulun  shall  dwell  at  the  haven  of  the  sea, 
and  he  shall  be  for  an  haven  of  ships;  and  his 
border  shall  be  unto  Zidon.' 

At  two  o'clock  we  entered  Zidon.  We  were 
met  by  a  number  of  our  brethren,  who  conducted 
us  to  the  tomb  of  Zebulun,  at  the  entrance  of  the 
mosque  leading  to  it.  Having  descended  from 
our  horses,  we  entered  the  sacred  edifice,  and  re- 
peated our  prayers  at  the  shrine  of  the  son  of 
Jacob.  To  say  that  I  was  impressed  with  the 
sanctity  of  the  place  would  very  inadequately 
express  my  feelings.  Any  place  of  burial  excites 
some  sentiment  of  awe,  but  the  antiquity  of  that 
in  which  we  were  now  standing,  the  associations 
connected  with  the  name  and  lineage  of  him 
whose  remains  are  here  deposited,  and  the  lively 

224  NOTES    FROM   A   JOURNAL. 

sense  of  our  own  present  dependence  on  the 
especial  mercy  of  the  Almighty,  filled  our  hearts 
with  emotions  to  be  likened  to  no  ordinary  sen- 
sations, even  of  a  religious  kind. 

On  taking  leave  of  our  brethren  we  expressed 
a  hope  that  we  should  see  them  again  on  our 
return.  The  Arab  at  the  gate  was  well  pleased 

with  the  bakshish  which  M presented  to  him. 

We  passed  some  beautiful  gardens,  rich  with  the 
blossoms  of  the  pomegranate  just  forming  into 
fruit,  and  clusters  of  figs. 

Soon  after  we  reached  the  river  Damur,  which 
we  crossed  by  a  steep  stone  bridge,  and  at  length 
stopped  at  a  village  called  El  Baruk,  where  we 
remained  for  the  night,  our  tents  and  luggage 
having  preceded  us,  guarded  by  Saad-Eddin. 

Thursday,  May  16.  Megiadi. — The  events  of 
last  evening  tended  more  particularly  to  demon- 
strate the  Divine  mercy  towards  us,  and  to  call 
forth  our  devotion  and  gratitude.  Having  sent 
forward  one  of  the  muckarries  to  apprise  Saad- 
Eddin  of  our  intention  of  remaining  during  the 
night  at  El  Baruk,  being  too  fatigued  to  proceed 
to  Kasmia,  and  to  bring  back  with  him  one  of  the 
tents,  the  man  returned  in  the  course  of  an  hour, 
with  his  legs  bleeding  and  vestments  torn,  weep- 
ing, and  saying  that  he  had  been  attacked  by 
some  soldiers,  who  wanted  to  take  his  donkey 

MEGIADI.  225 

from  him,  and  had  beaten  him  in  a  severe  manner. 
Hhasan,  our  own  soldier,  suspecting  this  to  be  an 
invention,  created  by  the  man's  fears  of  travelling 
alone,  on  what  was  considered  a  dangerous  part 
of  the  road,  made  use  of  his  dabous,  and  in  true 
Arabian  style  exercised  the  authority  of  office, 
till  the  poor  fellow  screamed  like  one  being 

As  we  lay  on  a  rug  beside  the  cottage,  we  were 
alarmed  at  the  noise,  and  thought  the  host  was, 
with  Turkish  despotism,  admonishing  either  his 
wives  or  children.  We  had  no  alternative  but  to 
remain  during  the  night  without  bed,  or  any  other 
shelter  from  a  heavy  dew  and  the  nocturnal  atmo- 
sphere, than  such  as  was  furnished  by  the  cloaks 
and  umbrellas  which  we  happened  to  have  with 
us,  it  being  considered  not  safe  to  enter  the  house. 
Dr.  Loewe  and  Armstrong  remained  up  during 
the  night,  guarding  us  with  pistols  in  hand,  and 
the  attendants  were  equally  vigilant  in  case  of 
attack  by  banditi.  At  midnight  the  black 
slave,  who  had  been  despatched,  returned,  having 
faithfully  executed  his  mission.  He  stated  that 
Saad-Eddin  had  arrived  in  safety,  with  the  money 
and  luggage,  at  Kasmia,  and  that  a  tent  should 
be  pitched,  and  breakfast  in  readiness  against  our 
arrival.  This  information  allayed  our  fears,  and 
was  more  satisfactory  than  was  anticipated. 


This  was  some  compensation  for  our  uneasy 
night,  and  the  anxiety  produced  by  the  state  of 
the  country,  our  locality,  and  the  adventure  of  tha 
muckarri.  An  hour  before  sunrise,  after  our 
usual  indulgence  of  a  cup  of  coffee  and  a  biscuit, 
of  which  our  Arab  attendants  approve,  as  well  as 
ourselves,  we  were  again  a  cJieval,  Hhasan  leading 
the  way. 

In  about  three  hours  we  arrived,  unmolested, 
at  Kasmia,  delighted  to  meet  in  safety,  after 
the  alarms  and  disquietude  of  the  past  night. 
Being  again  refreshed,  we  continued  our  route 
through  Bourg  el  Howa,  thence  to  Abbassia,  and 
then  descended  a  steep  hill  to  the  valley  Vady 
Djilon,  the  richest  and  most  beautiful  I  had  ever 
beheld — happy  to  reach  the  place  of  repose  for 

the  night,  and  most  thankful,  though  M was 

unwell  and  much  fatigued. 

Friday,  May  17.  Zafed. — Most  anxious  to 
arrive  in  time  for  sabbath,  we  set  off  at  an  early 
hour.  M fatigued,  but  solicitous  about  pass- 
ing the  Pentecost  holidays  at  a  city  in  the  Holy 
Land,  though  unable  to  arrive  at  Jerusalem.  At 
a  plain  called  Nahr  Vady  Gish,  near  a  spring  of 
good  water,  we  stopped  to  repose  and  take  some 
refreshment.  Protected  from  the  sun  by  a  cir- 
cular rock,  with  trees  on  either  side,  our  carpets 
were  spread,  Ibrahim  preparing  the  soup  and 

ZAFED.  227 

chickens.     During  our  repast  we  perceived  two 
gentlemen  approaching  us.     They  proved  to  be 
deputies  from  Zafed,   with  letters  from  Rabbi 
Abraham  Dob,  Awaritsch,  and  others,  welcoming 
and  complimenting  us  in  the  most  enthusiastic 
terms.     These  gentlemen  had  travelled  all  night 
for  the  purpose  of  expressing  their  delight  at  our 
arrival,  and  delivering  their  letters  from  the  chief 
Hhakham.     They  presented  us  with  two  bottles 
of  their  wine,  which  we  found  very  salutary.     In 
the  mean  time  some  other  travellers  approached 
us,  and  expressed  their  pleasure  at  seeing  us  in 
their  country,  in  terms  equally  enthusiastic  and 
complimentary.     They  were  on  their  way  to  St. 
Petersburg.     Next  arrived  a  foot  Arab  messen- 
ger from  Tiberias,  bringing  letters  from  Rabbi 
Israel  and  another  gentleman,  inviting  us  to  their 
house.     The  former  stated,  that  he  would  have 
come  himself  had  he  not  been  prevented  by  ill- 
ness.    We  then  wrote  answers  to  letters  we  had 
received  and  continued  our  route  over  mountains, 
rocks,  and  plains.     Within  two  hours  of  Zafed 
two  of  the  Portuguese  community  met  us  on  the 
road,  and  delivered  an  address,  which  was  suit- 
ably answered.     We  were  then  met  by  a  great 
number  of  the  congregation,  both  young  and  old, 
rich  and  poor,  with  dancing  and  shouting   of 
praise,  clapping  of  hands,  sounding  the  Darra- 
Q  2 


buka,  and  singing.  These  were  honours  far  sur- 
passing our  expectation  or  imagination.  At  the 
sight  of  the  hill,  on  the  summit  of  which  stood  the 
town  of  Zafed,  how  did  our  hearts  expand  with 
joy  and  thankfulness  !  but  the  apparently  never- 
ending  ascent  somewhat  diminished  the  delight, 

my  dear  M being  almost   exhausted   with 

fatigue.  Every  moment  we  turned  to  look  at  the 
sun— it  was  still  high,  and  we  had  every  en- 
couragement for  exertion.  All  our  muckarries 
and  janissaries  were  now  en  avant,  forming,  in 
single  file,  a  pretty  considerable  number.  At 
length  we  could  observe  the  tops  of  the  houses, 
covered  with  men,  women  and  children.  Some 
guns  were  fired — joyfully  our  people  received 
permission  to  return  the  salute.  All  being  armed, 
the  pistols  and  guns  were  fired  off  one  after  the 
other.  The  Rev.  Abraham  Dob  and  other  Hha- 
khamim  then  came  part  of  the  way  to  welcome  us. 
One  of  the  others,  less  aged,  descended  from  his 
steed,  and  this  highly  respected  and  venerable 
rabbi,  after  addressing  us  in  warm  and  affec- 
tionate terms,  was  assisted  to  remount,  and  con- 
ducted back  by  his  friends.  Dr.  Loewe,  who  was 
recognised  by  numberless  friends,  from  last  year's 
acquaintance,  was  almost  overpowered  by  their 
salutations  and  welcome.  All  the  inhabitants 
had  collected  together  at  the  entrance  of  the  town, 

ZAFED.  229 

or  rather  the  ruins,  for  the  visitation  of  the  late 
earthquake  had  indeed  worked  desolation,  though 
at  this  juncture  all  seemed  redolent  of  joy  and 
hope.  We  entered  a  house  appropriated  for  our 
reception,  amid  the  gaze  of  veiled  females,  whose 
faces,  however,  were  sufficiently  discernible  to 
show  that  beauty  had  not  been  sparing  of  her 

Saturday,  May   18.     Zafed—  Thank   God   my 

dear  M is  rather  improved  from  his  night's 

rest,  though  he  does  not  find  himself  sufficiently 
renovated  to  leave  his  bed  to-day,  having  still  a 
pain  in  his  limbs,  the  result  probably  of  cold 
caught  at  El  Baruk,  when  sleeping  in  the  open 

Our  house,  a  new  building,  is  handsomer  than 
one  could  expect,  from  the  poverty  of  the  inhabi- 
tants, whose  resources  have  been  exhausted,  as 
well  by  an  increased  taxation  as  from  the  earth- 
quake, when  most  of  the  houses  were  swallowed 
up,  many  lives  lost,  and  property  to  a  large 
amount  buried  in  the  ruins.  The  following  year 
the  Druses,  with  unmerciful  rapacity,  completed 
the  ruin  of  those  who  had  rescued  a  portion  of 
their  property  from  the  late  visitation,  and  not 
content  with  the  fruits  of  their  plunder,  beat  the 
poor  unprotected  inhabitants  to  that  degree  that 
many  were  left  cripples  for  the  remainder  of  their 


lives — sorrows  which  they  suffer  with  more  than 
imaginable  patience,  consoled  by  the  reflection 
that  they  are  in  the  Holy  Land,  and  may  cherish 
the  hope  of  a  happier  futurity.  They  are  sus- 
tained by  contributions  from  other  countries, 
and  pass  their  lives  principally  in  study  and 
religious  worship  ;  but  as  their  number  increases 

and  their  means  diminish,  M contemplates 

proposing  to  them  some  mode  of  industry  for 
their  youth,  whose  incapacity  and  disinclination 
might  render  them  unable  to  do  justice  to  a  holy 
profession.  The  cultivation  of  the  land  appears 
a  fit  occupation,  if  protection  could  be  procured 
for  property.* 

Being  solicited  to  attend  the  opening  of  a  new 
synagogue  this  evening,  it  being  the  Pentecost 

holiday,  my  dear  M requested  I  would  go, 

there  being  also  a  very  old  and  venerated  sepher 
to  be  presented  by  the  widow  of  the  late  Hha- 
kham  to  whom  it  belonged.  I  accordingly  com- 
plied ;  Madame  S accompanied  me. 

The  synagogue  was  lighted  in  a  brilliant  man- 
ner, and  decorated  with  festoons  of  laurel-leaves. 
I  had  a  seat  opposite  the  ark.  After  prayers  the 
whole  congregation  walked  a  short  distance  to- 
wards the  residence  of  the  donor,  for  the  sepher, 
which  Rabbi  Dob  was  then  seen  carrying  under  a 
*  See  Appendix. 

ZAFED.  231 

white  canopy,  attended  by  a  concourse  of  people, 
singing,  dancing,  and  clapping  their  hands,  keep- 
ing  time  with  the  psalmody.  A  wax  taper  was 
handed  to  me,  and  I  was  conducted  under  the 
canopy,  immediately  behind  the  venerable  Rabbi, 
who  carried  the  sacred  scroll,  while  the  crowd 
which  followed  continued  their  dancing,  singing, 
and  clapping  of  hands.  I  trembled  amidst  this 
most  novel,  imposing,  and  joyous  scene,  lest  I 
might  set  fire  to  the  canopy,  by  the  flaring  taper 
which  I  carried  in  my  hand,  or  drop  any  wax  on 
the  white  silk,  a  spot  or  two  being  already  visi- 
ble on  the  robes  of  the  benevolent  and  kind- 
hearted  R.  Abraham  Dob. 

The  procession  was  conducted  round  our  house 

in  order  that  M might  enjoy  the  gratifying 

sight.  He  was  seated  at  the  window,  being 
warned  of  its  approach  by  the  shouts  and  joyful 
voices  of  the  people.  Having  paused  for  a  few 
seconds  we  returned  to  the  synagogue  in  the  same 
manner,  and  the  se'pher  was  deposited  in  the  ark, 
while  appropriate  prayers  were  chanted,  followed 
by  hymns  and  clapping  of  hands,  and  the  dance 
as  before.  How  was  I  struck  with  the  manners 
of  the  people,  whose  joys,  as  well  as  anxieties, 
are  all  the  offspring  of  devotional  associations, 
and  whose  songs  are  addressed  to  the  Deity  alone ! 
1  felt  the  honour  of  being  distinguished  by  them ; 


sitting  near  the  ark  and  continuing  to  hold  the 
wax  taper  to  the  Hhakhamim.  The  whole  might 
truly  be  termed  the  rejoicings  of  the  law.  It 
was  the  beauty  of  holiness  in  the  midst  of 

Sunday,  May  19.  Zafed. — M ,  thank 

God,  being  recovered  from  his  fatigue,  went  to 
the  Portuguese  synagogue,  a  respectable  edifice, 
built  since  the  earthquake.  It  is  supported  by 
arches  but  devoid  of  all  ornament,  the  wooden 
forms  and  benches  being  neither  painted  nor 
whitewashed.  A  number  of  swallows'  nests 
were  seen  on  the  roof,  and  a  mind  awake  to 
such  meditations  would  recall  the  words  of  the 
Psalmist,  "  Yea,  the  sparrow  hath  found  her 
an  house,  and  the  swallow  a  nest  for  herself, 
where  she  may  lay  her  young,  even  thine  altars, 
0  Lord  of  hosts,  my  King  and  my  God  ! " 

The  principal  places  were  again- assigned  us, 
Hhakham  Mizrakhi  having  his  seat  near  ours.  I 
observed  no  seats  for  ladies  in  the  synagogue.  In 
that  visited  last  night  they  were  partitioned  off 
by  a  close  trellis-work.  After  M had  car- 
ried the  sdpher  I  had  the  honour  of  decorating  it. 

Breakfast  being  ended  we  walked  in  the  olive 
plantations  behind  our  residence,  attended,  as 
usual  by  Hhasan  and  Saad-Eddin,  with  their 
large  silver-headed  canes.  We  had  the  carpets 

ZAFED.  233 

spread  there,  and  while  seated  in  earnest  converse 
two  Bedouins  approached  and  attempted  to  join 
in  the  conversation;  but  we,  with  all  the  stern- 
ness of  Eastern  severity,  denied  even  a  look,  much 
more  a  word.  They  then  made  a  similar  effort 
among  the  attendants,  but  with  little  more 
success.  Three  other  intruders  soon  followed 
and  we  then  thought  it  advisable  to  return  to 
the  house. 

The  visit  paid  by  the  Druses  to  this  city  last 
year  was  not  yet  forgotten,  the  smart  and  the 
scar  still  keeping  it  fresh  in  the  minds  of  many ; 
and  the  accounts,  so  full  of  distressing  circum- 
stances, being  sufficient  to  render  travellers 
having  to  traverse  the  road  to  Jerusalem,  jealous 
of  their  safety. 

We  received  visits  from  the  heads  of  both  the 
congregations.  This  occupied  a  great  portion  of 
the  day,  and  the  Moussellim,  Abd-el-Khalim,  sent 
to  say,  that  if  agreeable  he  would  pay  his  respects. 
He  came,  attended  by  the  Cadi  and  several  other 
Mussulmans.  Cibouks,  coffee,  sherbet,  &c.,  were 
prepared,  and  as  soon  as  they  had  taken  their 
seats,  some  on  the  divan,  and  some  on  the  floor, 
our  accommodation  being  on  a  limited  scale,  but 
precedency  and  etiquette,  of  such  consequence  in 
the  East,  being  strictly  observed,  the  tobacco 
spread  its  fumes  round  the  room,  and  the  coffee 


was  sipped  with  all  due  solemnity  ;  compliments 
and  conversation  filling  up  the  intervals.  The 
state  of  the  country,  its  capabilities,  and  the 
numerous  objects  of  interest  which  it  presents, 
afforded  fruitful  subjects  for  remark.  His  excel- 
lency said  that  he  was  acquainted  with  many  of 
our  works  on  sacred  history,  and  was  pleased  to 
add  that  he  felt  the  value  of  our  visit  to  Zafed, 
and  that  he  hoped  that  as  Queen  Esther  had 
delivered  her  people  from  destruction,  so  the 
Hebrews  of  the  present  day,  suffering  in  this 
land  under  such  accumulated  distresses,  would  be 
freed  by  our  efforts.  This  was  excess  even  of 
eastern  compliment,  and  we  could  only  lament 
the  insufficiency  of  the  means  and  power  to  which 
it  was  intended  to  apply. 

Another  interesting  visit  was  paid  us,  and  that 
by  Moostafa  Mahhmood,  a  Mussulman  who  had 
bestowed  the  greatest  kindness  on  the  Israelites 
during  the  visitation  of  the  earthquake,  and  even 
to  the  risk  of  his  own  life.  He  gave  them  nearly 
the  whole  of  his  property,  and  fought  for  them 
when  attacked  by  the  Druses.  Every  mouth 
uttered  his  praises,  and  expressed  regret  that  no 
means  existed  for  testifying  the  gratitude  of  the 
afflicted  people  in  a  more  substantial  way.  But 
the  benevolent  heart  has  the  best  of  all  rewards 
in  its  own  feelings. 

ZAFED.  235 

Wednesday,  May  22.  Zafed.  —  The  whole 
morning  was  occupied  in  receiving  the  numerous 
persons  of  all  ages,  male  and  female,  whose  dis- 
tresses urged  them  to  apply  for  relief ;  and  pain- 
ful indeed  it  was  to  behold  the  many  objects 
reduced  to  so  low  a  state  of  poverty.  It  was 
found  necessary  to  station  guards  at  each  door, 
to  prevent  too  great  a  throng  entering  at  one 
time,  and  the  heat  and  dust  being  extremely 
oppressive,  it  was  also  requisite  to  sprinkle  water 
over  the  floor  of  the  apartment  several  times. 

At  about  three  o'clock  M came  into  my 

apartment  to  take  some  refreshment,  the  sitting- 
room  not  being  very  agreeable  after  the  presence 
of  so  many  persons.  In  a  quarter  of  an  hour  the 
crowd  returned,  as  well  as  the  two  secretaries 
who  admitted  the  other  persons  for  relief.  May 
the  Almighty  grant  that  the  plan  which  my  dear 
husband  contemplates  may  succeed,  so  that  these 
poor  creatures  may  be  enabled  to  gain  an  inde- 
pendent livelihood,  instead  of  relying  on  the 
assistance  of  other  countries,  whose  contributions 
are  so  precarious  !  They  all  appear  to  be  willing, 
active  and  talented,  so  that  we  may  reasonably 
anticipate  success,  should  a  plan  be  well  organised 
for  their  employment. 

This  pleasing,  though  fatiguing  occupation 
finished,  we  took  a  ride  to  one  of  the  most  inte- 


resting  spots  in  the  vicinity  of  Zafed.  This  was 
called  "  Bet  Hamedrash  Shel  Shem  Vaeber,"  and 
by  the  Arabs, ."  The  Place  of  Mourning  ;"  tradi- 
tion representing  that  there  Jacob  went  to  mourn 
for  Joseph.  It  is  held  by  the  Arabs  in  such 
reverence  for  its  sanctity,  that  they  have  hitherto 
prohibited  its  being  approached  by  any  but 
persons  of  their  own  faith.  So  said  the  sheikh 
who  had  the  key ;  but  he  added,  advancing 
towards  us,  "  I  have  heard  of  your  worth  and 
great  dignity,  and  am  therefore  come  myself  to 
offer  my  services." 

Being  accompanied  by  many  persons  anxious 
for  research,  we  availed  ourselves  of  the  sheikh's 
offer.  Having  arrived  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  he 
uttered  with  great  ceremony, "  Hada  el  matrakh." 
"  This  is  the  spot !  "  We  then  entered  a  spacious 
enclosure  of  buildings,  which  appeared  to  consist 
of  abodes  for  the  living,  as  well  as  of  those  for  the 
dead.  Some  modern  tombs  struck  our  attention. 
They  bore  long  Arabic  inscriptions,  which  on 
examination  were  found  to  contain  the  greater 
part  of  the  Fdthhah,  and  the  name  of  a  certain  Ali, 
the  date  of  whose  death,  however,  could  not  be 
seen,  the  tombstone  being  sunk  too  deep  in  the 
earth.  Dr.  Loewe  examined  the  inscriptions  on 
two  other  tombs,  but  could  not  discover  the  date. 
They  bore  the  usual  words,  "  0,  Eternal !  Ever- 

ZAFED.  237 

lasting  ! "  The  tombs  cut  out  of  the  solid  rock, 
were  similar,  he  said,  to  those  which  he  had  seen 
at  the  tomb  of  the  Sanhedrin  at  Jerusalem.  Seve- 
ral rooms,  still  in  good  preservation,  were,  we 
concluded,  habitations  for  the  living.  Dr.  Loewe 
entered  some  small  openings  in  the  rock,  but  saw 
nothing  except  a  spacious  apartment.  At  this 
moment  the  sheikh  exclaimed,  "  Look  around  ! 
Look  around  ! "  for  that  was  the  place  where 
Jacob  wept  bitterly  for  his  son!  And  such, 
indeed,  is  the  tradition.  A  piece  of  wood  was 
presented  me  as  a  memento  of  the  sacred  spot. 

We  had  yet  time  for  another  hour's  ride,  and 
it  was  proposed  that  we  should  visit  the  tomb  of 
Rabbi  Kruspedai.  Our  guides,  however,  led  us 
by  a  precipitous  road  up  the  ascents  of  one  of  the 
mountains  of  Hor-Hahar,  as  they  called  it,  whence 
we  caught  a  sight  of  the  Jordan,  and  of  scenery 
equally  beautiful  and  magnificent,  but,  at  the  same 
time,  of  the  terrors  of  the  path,  whereby  we  were 
to  descend  into  the  valley,  and  which  were  suffi- 
ciently formidable  to  induce  us  to  tread  the  intri- 
cate path  on  foot,  rather  than  trust  to  our  horses. 
We  reached  the  happy  valley  in  safety,  but  the 
time  which  had  been  employed  in  the  ascent 
and  descent  obliged  us  to  leave  unaccomplished 
the  design  of  visiting  the  tomb  of  Kruspedai. 

Thursday,  May  23.    Zafed. — About  nine  o'clock 


the  horses,  ready  saddled,  were  at  the  door,  and 
we  set  off  for  Djermek,  attended  by  six  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  town,  one  of  them  riding  a 
beautiful  Arabian  mare,  followed  by  its  foal.  The 
gentlemen  here  are  all  famous  for  their  horse- 
manship, and  ride  up  and  down  the  mountains, 
and  along  stony  and  difficult  passes  with  the 
greatest  courage.  The  soldier,  the  janissary, 
Armstrong,  Ibrahim,  and  muckarries  formed  our 
suite.  The  first  part  of  the  way  being  up  a 
steep,  narrow,  and  stony  path,  on  the  edge  of  a 
precipice,  I  was  fearful  we  might  not  be  able  to 
accomplish  our  object,  but  the  road  widening, 
and  being  sheltered  by  shrubs  of  the  most  beau- 
tiful foliage  and  fragrance,  our  courage  increased, 

and   M proved   himself   one   of    the    best 

cavaliers.  On  reaching  the  summit  we  beheld 
the  Lake  of  Tiberias,  and,  still  advancing, 
obtained  a  view  of  the  Jordan,  and  then 
ascended  the  lower  range  of  Mount  Senir,  having 
Hermon  on  the  left,  the  eye  resting  with  a  reve- 
rential feeling  on  the  caverns  and  tombs  which 
now  appeared  in  sight, — the  abodes  of  the 
learned, — the  quiet  resting-places  of  the  righteous 
of  past  ages.  The  son  of  Kabbi  Israel  Back  was 
now  seen  riding  .over  the  hill  to  meet  us.  He 
informed  us  that  his  father  was  expecting  our 
arrival  with  delight,  and  trusted  that  we  should 

ZAFED.  239 

attend  the  ceremony  of  naming  his  son,  to  whom 
we  had  been  invited  to  stand  godfather  and 

The  gentlemen  who  accompanied  us  gave  a 
description  of  the  land  over  which  we  passed, 
and  displayed  some  knowledge  of  agriculture, 
but  which,  for  want  of  protection,  they  have  no 
opportunity  of  advantageously  pursuing.  On 
reaching  the  abode  of  the  worthy  Rabbi  Israel, 
a  numerous  family,  consisting  of  three  genera- 
tions, came  out  to  meet  us,  and  saluted  us  with 
the  graceful  and  friendly  salaam  of  the  East ; 
the  females,  who  were  very  pretty,  and  the 
children,  kissing  my  hands  before  I  dismounted. 
The  ceremony  was  performed  soon  after  our 
arrival,  and  expressions  of  fervent  friendship 
well  supplied  the  place  of  luxury  and  comfort. 
The  smiles  of  the  infant  rewarded  the  mother, 
who  was  surrounded  by  many  female  friends, 
well  dressed,  and  adorned  with  numerous  orna- 
ments, though  the  chamber  was  of  the  humblest 
kind,  and  nearly  unfurnished. 

The  fete  being  over,  we  prepared  to  take  leave 
of  Djermek,  amid  the  blessings  and  kind  wishes 
of  the  ladies,  and  other  branches  of  the  family. 
Some  gentlemen  attended  us  on  our  way  back, 
and  the  famous  Well  of  Barak  being  in  the 
vicinity,  they  pressed  us  to  visit  it,  and  taste  of 


its  waters,  but  the  distance,  and  want  of  time, 
obliged  us  to  refuse. 

Friday,  May  24.  Zafed. — Immediately  after 
breakfast,  the  poor  were  admitted  to  receive  the 
portion  assigned  to  each  individual,  which  was 
a  Spanish  dollar  to  every  man  and  woman,  and 
a  half  to  every  child  below  the  age  of  thirteen 
years.  Orphans  and  children  above  thirteen 
years  received  a  dollar  each.  The  secretary  of 
the  Portuguese  synagogue,  and  also  that  of  the 
German  congregation,  were  present  to  write  the 
name  of  each  applicant  on  a  ticket,  according  to 

the  respective  lists.*      M and  Dr.   Loewe 

were  seated  at  separate  tables,  my  dear  M — 
to  present  the  money,  Dr.  Loewe  to  examine  the 
lists  and  question  the  people.  They  were 
admitted,  thirty  at  a  time,  by  one  door,  and 
passed  out  at  another.  Armstrong,  the  janissary, 
the  soldier,  Ibrahim,  his  brother  and  the  rest  of 
the  attendants,  were  stationed  on  the  outside  to 
preserve  order. 

Vinegar  and  water  being  occasionally  sprinkled 
on  the  floor,  and  the  people  being  prevented  from 
pressing  too  forward,  the  business  of  the  day 
went  on  satisfactorily,  except  that  regret  was 
necessarily  excited  at  the  sight  of  so  much  dis- 
tress. Most  of  the  children  were  handsome 
*  See  end  of  Appendix. 

ZAFED.  241 

This  could  not  be  said  of  the  women  ;  but  the 
distress  and  privations  they  had  suffered  were 
more  than  enough  to  have  blighted  their  early 
bloom.  Those  of  the  better  class  are  generally 
handsome,  and  the  men  are  active  and  willing  to 
work,  nor  would  they  be  less  ready  to  defend 
themselves  against  the  attacks  to  which  they  are 
subject  had  they  a  leader,  and  a  proper  supply  of 
arms.  We  finished  this  interesting  day  by  going 
to  the  new  synagogue. 

Saturday,  May  25.  Zafed. — This  has  been  a 
most  anxious  day,  though  a  day  of  rest.  We 
have  learned  that  the  plague  rages  in  Jerusalem. 
A  gentleman  who  arrived  yesterday  from  Tibe 
rias,  asserts  that  he  has  received  a  letter  from 
the  Holy  City,  stating  that,  within  the  last  few 
days,  three  persons  had  died  of  the  plague,  and 
that  great  apprehensions  were  entertained  re- 
specting war.  We  begin  to  fear  that  we  may  be 
prevented  from  reaching  the  Holy  City,  and  from 
relieving  personally  the  miseries  of  the  people. 
But  we  intend  sending  a  letter  of  inquiry  to  Mr. 

A to  ascertain  more   clearly  the   fact,  and 

whether  quarantine  is  required  on  leaving  the 
city.  We  attended  morning  prayers  at  the  Ger- 
man synagogue,  and  after  breakfast  walked  out, 
and  had  our  carpet  and  chair  brought  up  the  ad- 
joining hill,  and  placed  under  the  beautiful  olive - 


trees  ;  but  we  had  not  long  enjoyed  the  salubrity 
of  the  air  and  romantic  scenery,  when  two  Druses 
on  horseback  passed  us,  and  soon  after  returned 
on  foot,  and  making  their  salaam,  placed  them- 
selves near  where  we  were  seated.  We  were  ad- 
vised to  receive  them  very  coolly.  They  then 
took  their  station  behind  a  tree,  and  entered  into 
conversation  with  our  janissary,  who  was  in  at- 
tendance. Rabbi  Samuel  Helir  and  Dr.  Loewe, 
who  had  been  so  great  a  sufferer  by  these  people 
last  year,  thought  it  better  that  we  should  return 
to  the  house.  We  heard  that  two  others  of 
the  fierce-looking  mountaineers  soon  joined  them. 
This  looked  rather  suspicious.  In  the  afternoon  we 
went  to  hear  a  funeral  oration  at  the  Portuguese 
synagogue,  and  saw  the  new  place  of  devotion, 
which  is  not  yet  finished.  The  gratification  ex- 
cited by  the  beauty  of  the  situation  is  somewhat 
diminished  by  the  fear  that,  standing  as  the 
structure  does  on  the  brink  of  the  hill,  the  site 
of  the  former  building,  it  may  crumble  beneath 
the  power  of  some  future  earthquake. 

We  attended  evening  prayers  at  the  German 
synagogue ;  and  it  was  requested,  that  those 
widows  and  orphans  whose  names  were  down 
on  the  list,  but  who  had  not  received  a  dona- 
tion, should  come  to-morrow  morning  for  that 
purpose.  On  our  return  home,  we  were  met  by 

ZAFED.  243 

E.  B.  Y ,  one  of  the  learned  gentlemen  who 

had  met  us  in  the  fields  of  Kasmia. 

Being  close  to  his  house,  he  urged  us  to  pay 
him  a  visit ;  but  we  declined,  fearful  lest  others, 
whom  our  time  would  not  allow  of  our  visiting, 
might  be  offended.  Our  soldier,  who  with  the 
janissary  always  attends  us,  thinking  his  enthu- 
siastic manner  savoured  of  intrusion,  rudely 
pushed  the  old  man  away,  for  which  he  after- 
wards received  from  M a  just  reproof.  No 

umbrage,  however,  was  taken,  for  the  venerable 

gentleman  paid  us  a  visit  in  the  evening.  M 

made  him  a  present,  and  sent  also  handsome 
donations  yesterday  to  the  Hhakhamim  of  the 
different  congregations,  with  a  Hebrew  letter 
addressed  to  each. 

It  was  past  twelve  before  the  letters  and 
papers  requisite  to  be  prepared  in  answer  to  Mr. 

L ,  and  to  the  communications  from  Tiberias, 

were  finished,  and  some  other  matters,  in  refer- 
ence to  the  sufferers  from  the  earthquake. 

Before  retiring  to  rest,  we  threw  a  stone 
against  the  tents  of  the  guards,  to  ascertain  if 
they  were  awake,  and  on  the  watch.  Saad- 
Eddin,  Hhasan,  and  others  immediately  came 
to  discover  the  cause,  and  for  their  vigilance 
received  a  glass  of  the  best  wine. 

We  have  had  the  pistols  reloaded,  and  placed 
R  2 


in  our   rooms,    in   case  of  a  surprise  from  the 

Sunday,  May  26. — Thanks  to  the  Almighty  we 
passed  the  night  without  any  further  annoyance 
than  the  barking  of  dogs  and  troublesome  insects. 
We  have  been  during  the  day  entirely  occupied 
in  completing  the  distributions  to  our  distressed 

Monday,  May  27.  Tiberias.  —  From  Zafed. 
How  can  I  describe  the  events  of  this  day,  or 
how  express  my  feelings  of  gratitude  towards 
Him  who  has  supported  us  through  this  difficult 
journey,  in  health  and  safety,  and  allowed  us  to 
receive  so  many  proofs  of  honour  and  respect  in  a 
land  rendered  sacred  by  the  Lord's  appointment, 
by  the  great  and  the  learned  to  whom  it  has 
given  birth  ;  and  where  they  lie  interred ;  and 
by  the  love  and  the  presence  of  those  eminently 
pious  men,  who  still  consider  that  the  greatest 
happiness  of  existence  is  the  study  of  that  law 
with  which  the  Omnipotent  vouchsafed  to  enrich 
His  people  ? 

We  went  to  Rabbi  Abraham  Dob's  synagogue 
at  seven  o'clock  to  morning  prayers. 

There  was  a  numerous  congregation  of  learned 
men,  and  they  allowed  me  the  honour  of  deco- 
rating the  se'pher.  Every  person  who  was  called 
up  ottered  a  blessing,  and  a  prayer  for  our  pro- 

ZAFED.  245 

sperity  and  happiness,  and  for  that  of  the  rest  of 
our  party.  After  prayers  the  Rabbi  gave  us  his 
blessing,  as  preparatory  to  our  leaving  the  town. 
We  were  then  invited  into  his  house,  where  his 
wife  had  prepared  a  breakfast,  consisting  of 
various  cakes,  coffee,  and  wine.  Many  persons 
were  present,  and  many  new  petitions  and 

requests  were  made.    M gave  a  present  to  the 

people  of  Pekee-in,  studying  the  law  in  the  college, 
and  also  one  to  be  divided  among  the  other 
Hhakhamim  of  Zafed,  in  addition  to  what  was 
previously  given.  He  also  now  wrote  the  first 
three  words  of  the  sepher,  which  he  has  ordered ; 
and  the  persons  present  were  treated  with  wine, 
cake,  &c.,  as  is  customary  on  like  occasions.  I 
hope  it  will  be  well  written,  and  that  my  dear 
M—  -  may  enjoy  the  sight  of  it  for  many 

The  wife  of  Rabbi  Abraham  Dob  was  unceasing 
in  her  kind  attentions  and  expressions  towards 
us,  and  the  blessings  of  the  venerable  Rabbi,  with 
those  of  his  flock,  accompanied  us  to  our  dwell- 
ing, where  we  proceeded  to  make  the  necessary 
arrangements  for  our  departure  :  this  took  place 
about  eleven  o'clock.  A  concourse  of  persons 
would  have  accompanied  us  for  some  distance, 
but  for  our  entreaties  that  they  would  spare 
themselves  so  much  fatigue. 


We  quitted  Zafed  with  gratitude  to  Providence, 
for  having  kindly  enabled  us  to  bestow  some 
relief  on  a  suffering  and  afflicted  people. 

At  a  short  distance  forward,  the  beautiful  Lake 
of  Tiberias,  part  of  which  some  of  our  suite 
called  Bee'r  Miriam,  presented  itself  to  view.  A 
delicious  valley  then  appeared  to  our  right,  ex- 
tending to  the  famous  village  Akbara,  mentioned 
in  the  Talmud.  After  a  continued  ascent  for 
some  distance  we  began  to  descend,  and  noticed 
to  our  left  the  rock  called  Akebi,  in  which  are 
extensive  caves,  where  the  inhabitants  took 
refuge  during  a  former  attack  on  Zafed  by  the 
Druses.  The  rock  is  also  famous  for  its  number 
of  bees,  and  when  we  witnessed  the  honey 
exuding  from  it  and  filling  the  air  with  its  frag- 
rance, how  forcibly  did  the  words  of  the  Psalmist 
recur  to  our  minds :  "  And  with  honey  out  of  the 
rock  should  I  have  satisfied  thee."  We  then 
passed  the  cross-roads,  of  which  the  right  leads  to 
Acre,  the  left  to  Damascus;  and  soon  after  several 
villages  and  valleys  filled  with  luxuriant  corn, 
interspersed  with  fig,  olive,  mulberry,  and  pome- 
granate trees,  covered  with  bright  blossoms, 
delighted  the  sight.  On  the  road  lay  some  pieces 
of  stone,  which  our  muckarries  amused  them- 
selves with  striking;  the  sound  returned  was 
like  that  of  a  fine  bell ;  verifying  the  saying  of 


scripture  :  "  A  land  whose  stones  are  iron,  and 
out  of  whose  hills  thou  mayest  dig  brass." 

After  passing  a  rich  plain  called  Megdel, 
where  some  English  succeeded  in  planting  indigo, 
and  coffee,  found  to  excel  that  of  Mocha,  we 
were  commencing  our  earnest  prayers  to  the 
Almighty,  supplicating  His  blessing  on  us,  and 
our  fellow-creatures,  when,  all  at  once,  the  sound 
of  the  darrabuka,  or  drum,  and  of  the  flute,  or 
samr,  with  thousands  of  joyous  shouts  reached 
our  ears.  Crowds  of  persons  immediately 
appeared  in  sight,  exclaiming,  "Live  the  pro- 
tector !  Long  live  the  protector !" 

Rabbi  S ,  the  head  of  the  Volynien  con- 
gregation, then  descended  from  his  horse,  and 
delivered  an  address  in  Hebrew,  which  was 
replied  to  in  that  language.  The  chorus  was 
then  repeated  with  sounds  of  music,  singing,  clap- 
ping of  hands,  and  dancing.  We  were  next  met 
by  the  chiefs  of  the  Spanish  congregation,  when 
an  address  was  again  delivered,  to  which  a  reply 
was  given  in  Hebrew,  Arabic,  and  German,  that 
all  the  gentlemen  present  might  understand  our 
expressions  of  gratitude  for  the  Divine  mercy, 
and  for  the  manner  in  which  our  humble  efforts 
to  do  good  had  been  received  and  honoured. 

At  some  distance  further,  the  moussellim, 
mounted  on  a  beautiful  Arabian  horse,  and  accom- 

248  NOTES   FROM    A   JOURNAL. 

panied  by  many  his  suite,  arrived  to  welcome 
us.  He  delivered  a  long  Arabic  speech,  express- 
ing his  great  happiness  at  our  visit  to  that  sacred 
city,  the  source  and  centre  of  peace  and  blessed- 
ness. At  the  conclusion  of  his  address  he  offered 
us  his  house,  horses,  servants,  and  the  whole  town. 
A  correspondingly  complimentary  reply  was 
given  in  Arabic ;  and  thus,  during  the  perform- 
ance of  some  admirable  feats  of  horsemanship, 
by  the  attendants  of  the  moussellim,  amid 
shoutings,  music,  clapping  of  hands,  and  dancing, 
we  entered  Tiberias,  where  torch-bearers  and 
crowds  of  females  awaited  our  arrival. 

Tuesday,  May  28.  Tiberias.  —  I  passed  a 
tolerably  tranquil  night,  considering  the  heat  of 
the  weather  and  the  inconvenience  of  an  Arab 
house.  Soon  after  breakfast  the  grandson  of 
Dr.  Herschell  and  his  brother-in-law  came  to 
see  us.  They  were  followed  by  the  chief  Hha- 
khamim,  the  heads  of  the  congregation,  and  all 
the  officers  of  the  German  congregations.  Their 
expressions  of  satisfaction  at  our  arrival  were 
ardent  and  enthusiastic. 

The  governor,  or  moussellim,  the  cddi,  or  judge. 
Sheikh  Said-Allah,  and  suite  also  arrived  at  the 
same  time ;  the  former,  a  very  fine  looking  man. 
He  stated  that  he  was  delighted  at  our  presence, 
that  he  prayed  that  we  might  remain  in  the 


country,  and  that  the  sufferings  with  which  God 
had  been  pleased  to  visit  them,  in  the  late  earth- 
quake would  yield  to  the  hope,  which  dawned 
upon  them  through  our  arrival.  To  this  he 
added  many  other  compliments,  offering  to  do 
every  thing  in  his  power  for  our  accommodation, 
and  saying,  that  a  fete  was  to  be  held  to-morrow, 
in  consequence  of  our  visit.  Sherbet,  sweet- 
meats, and  coffee,  were  then  handed  round  with 
Eastern  ceremony. 

The  next  announcement  introduced  to  our  pre- 
sence the  Hhakhamim  of  the  Portuguese  nation, 
with  elders  and  officers  of  their  congregation. 

A  proposal  similar  to  that  made  at  Zafed  was 
spoken  of,  in  order  to  ascertain  their  inclination 
to  become  agriculturists,  leaving  such  as  had  the 
desire  and  ability  for  such  pursuits  to  devote 
themselves  to  study.  General  satisfaction  was 
expressed  at  the  suggestion  of  a  plan  which 
might  enable  them  to  obtain  an  honourable  in- 
dependence. Energy  and  talent,  they  said, 
existed.  Nothing  was  needed  but  protection 
and  encouragement.  May  the  design  prosper  !* 
It  was  also  requested  that  lists  might  be  made 
out  of  the  number  of  males,  females,  and  children 
under  thirteen,  and  of  widows  and  orphans. 

The  governor  sent  us  as  a  present  a  beautiful 
*  See  Appendix. 


gazelle,  only  a  week  old.  We  hope  to  take  it 
with  us  to  England.  Many  reports  still  prevail 
of  the  plague  in  Jerusalem  and  its  vicinity.  We 
inquired  of  the  messenger  who  brought  letters, 
and  found  that  these  reports  were  but  too  true. 
He  is  himself  now  in  quarantine.  We  have,  in 
consequence,  sent  one  of  the  governor's  soldiers 
with  a  letter  to  Mr.  Young,  the  British  consul, 
and  another  to  the  chief  Rabbi,  in  the  holy  city. 

We  received  visits  from  the  chiefs  of  Zafed, 
who  came  all  the  way  to  show  us  honour.  The 
governor  sent  to  invite  me  to  visit  his  ladies  on 
the  lake,  and  to  go  to  the  bath  with  them,  and 
then  to  partake  of  a  sheep  which  was  killed 
according  to  his  order,  by  our  people,  for  the 

Wednesday,  May  29.  Tiberias. — The  thermo- 
meter last  night  was  at  80° ;  this  morning  at 
76°.  Our  dining-room  is  arched  at  each  end,  and 
in  the  centre  is  a  fountain  open  to  the  sky. 
Around  this  fountain  many  of  Signor  Abuelafia's 
family  had  their  mattresses  placed,  and  thus  slept 
in  the  open  air.  I  did  not  rest  very  soundly,  but 
heard  throughout  the  night  the  crowing  of  the 
fowls,  which  seemed,  as  of  old,  to  keep  strict 
reckoning  of  the  watches. 

At  half- past  four  we  arose,  and  went  on  horse- 
back to  the  baths  erected  by  Ibrahim  Pasha,  on 


the  banks  of  the  lake.  The  water  is  supplied 
by  a  hot  spring  from  the  mountain  at  the  back. 
These  baths  are  handsomely  constructed,  being  of 
white  marble,  and  floored  with  the  same  material. 
There  is  one  sufficiently  capacious  to  contain  a 
hundred  persons,  and  two  small  ones  for  private 
use,  with  a  room  attached  to  each.  We  greatly 
enjoyed  the  luxury  of  a  bath.  Mine  was  of  tepid 
heat.  Sherbet,  coffee,  and  cibouks  were  in  the 
meantime  prepared  by  the  attendants. 

In  the  course  of  our  excursion  we  passed  some 
fragments  of  handsome  columns  strewed  along 
the  ground,  and  a  once  strong  fortress,  partly  de- 
stroyed by  the  earthquake,  added  to  the  severer 
features  of  the  scene. 

The  houses  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  town 
are  in  a  desolate  condition.  Many  were  totally 
destroyed  by  the  earthquake,  and  have  been  re- 
placed by  mud  cottages,  the  stones  and  other 
portions  of  the  fallen  buildings  lying  scattered 
about  the  streets.  Happily  for  the  unfortunate 
people,  the  country  is  rich  and  fertile.  Among 
the  more  striking  of  its  wild  and  picturesque 
productions,  rises  the  prickly-pear,  gaining  a 
gigantic  growth,  and  forming  a  species  of  defence, 
which  it  would  require  a  bold  besieger  to  despise. 

Soon  after  breakfast,  I  received  a  message 
from  the  ladies  of  the  Moussellim,  stating  that 


they  would  be  happy  to  pay  me  a  visit.  They 
came  accompanied  by  a  black  male  attendant, 
two  female  servants,  and  a  black  girl,  a  slave. 
The  three  ladies  appeared  to  be  from  twenty  to 
twenty-five  years  of  age.  They  were  closely 
veiled,  but  on  entering  the  apartment  the  white 
veil  was  thrown  aside,  and  replaced  by  a  Ban- 
daneh  handkerchief,  loosely  thrown  over  the 
head,  which  was  ornamented  with  gold  coins  and 
other  trinkets.  Their  hands  were  tattooed,  and 
their  nails  stained  with  hhen'na.  Mine  not  being 
tinged  like  theirs  attracted  their  notice.  They 
took  hold  of  my  hands,  and  expressed  their  ad- 
miration of  my  dress.  I,  of  course,  complimented 
theirs  in  return. 

With  Eastern  generosity,  they  had  brought 
with  them  a  fine  fat  sheep,  and  I  presented  each 
of  them  with  a  Roman  ring,  which  seemed  greatly 
to  delight  them.  They  would  not  seat  them- 
selves near  a  gentleman ;  the  only  ones  present 

were  M and  Dr.  Loewe,  the  latter  acting  as 

interpreter.  Their  conversation  was  very  ani- 
mated, and  they  urged  me  several  times  to  visit 
them,  and  go  with  them  to  the  bath,  and  in  a 
boat  on  the  lake,  but  I  did  not  accept  the  invita- 
tion. They  informed  us  that  the  governor  was 
about  to  marry  another  lady  who  could  read, 
and  would  therefore  be  able  to  teach  them.  This 


idea  appeared  to  afford  them  no  small  satisfaction, 
and  a  confirmation  was  hence  given  of  the 
opinion  expressed  by  Mr.  Buckingham  in  his 
lecture,  that  a  plurality  of  wives  was  agreeable 
to  Turkish  ladies.  I  could  not  regard  the  asser- 
tion, when  originally  heard  as  correct ;  but  the 
conversation  of  to-day  has  gone  far  to  modify 
my  notions  on  the  subject.  The  ladies  men- 
tioned that  the  governor  never  made  any  differ- 
ence between  them  :  that  if  he  gave  a  present 
to  one,  he  gave  a  similar  one  to  the  others,  and 
that  they  lived  very  happily  together.  They 
wore  coloured  worsted  socks  of  their  own  knit- 
ting, and  which  it  took  them  six  days  to  com- 
plete. The  Moussellim,  they  informed  us,  had 
spoken  of  me  in  a  very  complimentary  manner. 
He  was  now  in  the  country  collecting  soldiers  for 
the  Pasha. 

The  afternoon  and  evening  were  occupied  in 
seeing  the  principal  persons  belonging  to  the 
Portuguese,  the  German,  and  Russian  congrega- 
tions, in  arranging  their  lists,  receiving  letters, 
and  holding  consultations  as  to  the  practicability 
of  cultivating  the  lands.  Many  approved  of  the 
plan,  and  seemed  to  have  a  clear  idea  of  the 
vast  benefits  which  would  attend  its  success. 

Anxious  to  lose  no  time,  we  distributed  in  the 
evening  our  donations  to  the  applicants  on  the 


Russian  list,  and  arrangements  were  concluded  for 

Thursday,  May  30.  Tiberias.  —  We  went  to 
synagogue,  and  were  accompanied  by  Signer 
Abuelafia.  The  building  is  small,  but  pleasantly 
situated  on  the  very  borders  of  the  lake.  Shortly 
after  breakfast  the  business  of  the  day  com- 
menced with  the  German  list.  Several  letters 
were  received  from  persons  requesting  to  be 
employed  in  agriculture.  This  is  most  satis- 
factory, as  it  affords  a  hope  that  the  people 
may  be  found  ready  to  cultivate  industrious 

After  the  Germans  had  received  the  allotted 
present,  all  the  poor  Arabs  were  called  in,  and 
each  was  presented  with  a  gift.  The  floor  was 
well  washed  after  their  departure,  and  before  the 
Portuguese  party  was  introduced.  No  slight  de- 
gree of  trouble  and  vexation  was  caused,  as  had 
been  the  case  at  Zafed,  by  the  omission  of  names, 
and  some  were  found  reluctant  to  appear  at  all. 
The  wives  of  persons  of  the  more  respectable 
class  of  sufferers  did  not  appear  with  the  others, 
but  came  in  two  parties  in  the  evening,  and  ex- 
pressed their  gratitude  for  what  was  done.  It 
was  nine  o'clock  before  we  finished  our  labours, 
but  the  end  was  better  than  the  beginning. 

The  fat  sheep  was  killed  to-day,  and  part,  ac- 


cording  to  the  law,  given  to  the  priest  with  an 
appropriate  prayer.  See  Deuteronomy,  xviii.  3. 
Friday,  May  31.  Tiberias.  —  I  could  obtain 
but  little  sleep  during  the  night :  the  gnawing 
of  rats  and  mice,  and  the  attacks  of  various  in- 
sects, particularly  of  musquitoes,  sadly  tearing 
into  shreds  the  pleasant  veil  of  slumber.  The 
singing  of  birds  aroused  me  from  a  short  doze, 
into  which  I  had  fallen,  and  at  half -past  four  a 
nice  cup  of  coffee  was  brought  into  our  room. 
Having  dressed,  we  took  a  delightful  ride  on 
horseback,  and  passed  the  fortress,  the  baths,  and 
the  tomb  of  Rabbi  Johhanan  Ben  Zakay,  near 
to  which  are  those  of  Rab  Ammi  and  Rab  Assi, 
and  opposite  the  first,  that  of  the  author  of  the 
famous  Sheney  Loukhot  Haberit ;  while  higher 
up  the  field,  towards  the  north,  is  the  tomb  of 
Maimonides.  To  each  of  these  we  dismounted, 
and  at  the  latter  addressed  a  short  prayer  to  the 
Almighty,  that  such  great  and  good  souls  might 
repose  and  dwell  in  eternal  felicity.  On  the  sum- 
mit is  the  tomb  of  Rabbi  Akeeba,  near  to  whom 
lie  interred,  it  is  said,  no  less  than  forty  thousand 
of  his  pupils,  all  of  whom  died  between  Passover 
and  L'gBaomer.  Themountainlowerdowniscom- 
pletely  rocky,  and  here  are  two  caverns,  the  one  to 
the  left  containing  the  remains  of  Rabbi  Koahna, 
that  to  the  right  those  of  Rabbi  Jeremiah. 


Ten  minutes  distance  from  the  tombs  are 
several  columns  of  granite,  lying  in  fragments  on 
the  ground,  one  alone  remaining  erect.  These 
columns  are  stated  to  be  the  remains  of  the  well- 
known  college  Benee  Amoodi,  which  was  in  its 
glory  fifteen  hundred  years  since.  About  the 
middle  of  the  ascent  is  the  tomb  of  the  cele- 
brated Rabbi  Meyer  Baal  Kane's,  who,  it  is  said, 
by  his  fervent  prayers  caused  miracles  to  be 
wrought.  The  Arabs  hold  the  tombs  of  the 
righteous  and  wise  men  in  great  veneration  and 
respect.  Passing  again  the  baths,  the  person  who 
keeps  them  had  opened  all  the  windows,  and  was 
standing  at  the  door  in  expectation  of  our  enter- 
ing: we  received  a  humble  salaam  from  him, 
though  his  countenance  wore  the  marks  of  disap- 
pointment as  we  passed  on.  Many  a  salute  was 
given  us  by  the  Bedouins,  in  recollection,  I  sup- 
pose, of  yesterday's  bakshish.  Several  of  the 

Hhakhamim  called.     M received  a  letter, 

with  the  sign  and  seal  of  the  chiefs  of  the  several 
congregations,  beseeching  him  to  intercede  with 
the  Pacha  of  Egypt  to  permit  them  to  repair  the 
walls  of  the  fortress,  which  was  almost  destroyed 
in  1837,  thereby  rendering  the  town,  the  lives  and 
property  of  the  inhabitants  so  much  less  secure 
against  their  neighbours  the  Druses,  or  any  other 
enemy  that  might  attack  them.  The  Cadi,  in  the 


name  of  the  Moslim  inhabitants  of  the  town, 
presented  an  Arabic  petition  to  the  same  effect. 
M—  -  has  promised  to  comply  with  their  request. 
A  poor  Arab  woman,  to  whom  we  had  sent  a 
dollar,  brought  me  a  large  plate  of  apricots,  and 
some  fragrant  roses  from  her  garden,  half  a  mile 
off.  A  measure  of  corn  has  fallen  in  price  from 
five  piastres  to  two  since  our  arrival  here.  The 
same  was  the  case  at  Zafed.  This  is  in  a  great 
degree  owing  to  the  people  being  now  enabled  to 
purchase  with  ready  money,  whereas  before  they 
took  credit ;  and  another  reason  is,  that  the  barley 
and  corn  are  looking  most  promisingly.  We  at- 
tended synagogue  in  the  evening.  Some  Israel- 
ites, seated  on  the  ground  at  a  separate  divan, 
after  supper,  sang  several  of  their  native  airs,  and 
made  an  agreeable  variety  in  the  courtyard, 
where  many  extra  lamps  illuminated  the  place, 
the  brilliancy  of  the  moon  and  stars  giving  their 
own  peculiar  lustre  to  the  novel  scene. 

Our  hostess  has  a  young  daughter  about  six 
years  old,  and  a  son  about  fifteen  months,  whom 
she  still  nurses.  The  divans  round  their  sleeping- 
room  serve  for  the  greater  part  of  the  family. 
The  servants  take  their  mattresses,  &c.,  into  the 
outward  apartment,  and  arrange  them  on  the 
floor  to  sleep. 

We  paid  a  visit  this  afternoon  to  Rabbi  Y 's 


widow;  her  husband  was  a  highly  respectable 
man,  one  of  the  most  learned  and  esteemed  in  the 
Holy  Land.  He  had  devoted  his  time,  property, 
and  abilities  to  the  benefit  of  his  fellow-beings, 
and  his  recent  death  is  greatly  lamented  by  the 
whole  community.  On  learning  our  arrival  in 
the  Holy  Land,  he  had  dispatched  letters  to  us, 
saying  that  he  was  very  unwell,  or  he  would  have 
welcomed  us  in  person.  He  had  been  ill  only  a 

Saturday,  June  1.  Tiberias. — Being  invited 
to  become  godfather  and  godmother  to  an  infant 
of  one  of  the  inhabitants,  we  attended  the  syna- 
gogue to  which  he  belonged,  and  then  repaired  to 
the  lady's  residence  to  receive  the  child.  She  was 
already  seated  on  the  divan,  surrounded  by  a 
great  number  of  her  friends.  I  really  could  not 
imagine  how  the  poor  lady  could  support  the 
fatigue,  cooped  up  in  a  small  room,  which  was 
oppressively  hot.  After  the  ceremony  I  received 

the  baby  from  my  dear  M ,  and  returned  it  to 

its  mother,  all  the  company  offering  me  their 
felicitations  and  best  wishes ;  lemonade,  cake,  &c., 
being  handed.  We  reached  home  to  breakfast, 
and  found  the  messenger  returned  from  Jeru- 
salem, with  letters  from  the  British  Consul,  con- 
tinuing the  report  of  the  plague  in  the  Holy  City, 
though  not  to  an  alarming  extent,  and  stating  the 
great  distress  of  the  people,  their  anxiety  for  our 


arrival,  and  the  good  we  might  effect  in  coming. 
All  this  is  a  source  of  great  perplexity ;  but  the 
desire  to  serve  the  afflicted,  by  every  means  in 
our  power,  and  our  nearness  to  the  Holy  City, 
will  probably  determine  our  proceeding. 

Dr.  Loewe  read  and  explained  to  us  the  dif- 
ferent predominating  opinions  respecting  rewards 
and  punishments  in  the  future  world,  the  Messiah, 
and  the  opinions  generally  entertained  relative  to 
our  holy  religion,  and  the  origin  of  the  Mishna  and 
Talmud.*  The  former  was  compiled  by  the  Patri- 
arch R.  Yehooda  ha-Nassi  I.,  generally  known 
by  the  appellation  of  Rabbenu  Hakadosh,  from 
the  then  existing  traditional  records  :  Mishnayot, 
and  communications  of  R  Hheeya,  called  Baray- 
tot.  R.  Yehooda,  seeing  the  great  troubles  which 
took  place  in  the  nation,  was  afraid  that  the  real 
explanation  of  the  law  as  delivered  by  Moses,  from 
one  to  the  other,  would  be  forgotten,  and  he 
put  down  in  short  and  pure  Hebrew  terms,  all 
that  he  knew  respecting  the  law,  or  Torah,  and 
the  doctrines  of  our  faith.  His  work  being  con- 
sidered of  great  importance,  it  was  also  denomi- 
nated by  some  authors  Mishne  Lamelekh,  "the 
second  to  the  king,"  the  Torah  being  considered 
the  first,  the  Mishna  the  second.  But  tyrannical 

*  The  word  "  Mislma,"  signifying  "  instruction,"  is  derived 
from  "  shana,"  to  teach ;  the  word  "  Talmud,"  signifying 
"  study,"  from  "  lamod."  to  learn. 

s  2 


degrees  and  persecutions  increasing,  the  pure 
Hebrew  language  was  in  danger  of  being  forgot- 
ten in  countries  where  the  Aramaic  and  Syriac 
languages  predominated,  and  hence  even  the 
Mishna  required  explanation  —  the  different 
opinions  and  discussions  of  the  teachers,  as  well 
as  the  arguments  of  the  students  regarding  the 
text  of  the  same,  and  other  matters  connected 
with  it,  were  then  collected  and  published  in  a 
work  which  was  called  Talmud  (study). 

The  afternoon  and  evening  were  occupied  in 
returning  visits  to  several  of -the  chiefs  of  the 
congregations,  and  receiving  visits  from  the 
principal  inhabitants  of  the  city. 

Many  of  the  Jewish  ladies,  as  well  as  the  Arabic, 
paint  their  nails  with  hhenna,  and  the  eyelids 
with  kohhl.  They  requested  to  be  assisted  with 
means  for  building  a  synagogue,  where  females 
might  be  enabled  to  offer  up  their  prayers  with 
becoming  respect  to  the  Supreme. 

Sunday,  June  2.  Tiberias. — Several  visitors, 
ladies  and  gentlemen,  again  came  to  us,  their 
infants  and  nurses  accompanying  the  former. 
The  cakes  and  wine  we  receive  are  opportune 
articles  to  treat  them  with;  and  we  apply  to 
Mrs.  Abuelafia  to  send  in  coffee  and  sweetmeats  to 
the  gentlemen,  the  janissaries  understanding  the 
manner  of  serving  them,  as  well  as  the  cibouks, 
which  frequently  are  passed  from  one  fco  the  other. 


We  have  determined  upon  proceeding  to  Jeru- 
salem. May  the  Almighty  guard  us  from  all 
impending  evils!  Hhakha*m  Abuelafia  lifted  up 
his  hands  in  amazement  and  dread,  when  I  this 
morning  apprised  him  of  our  intention,  notwith- 
standing the  prevalence  of  a  contagious  malady, 
the  threats  of  war,  the  menaces  of  the  Druses,  and 
the  fatigue  of  the  warm  season.  But  the  people 
are  in  misery,  and  have  been  long  expecting  our 
arrival ;  in  fact,  before  we  ourselves  had  deter- 
mined upon  the  undertaking.  We  have  just  been 
interrupted  in  writing,  by  the  request  of  several 

of  the  Volhynien  congregation,  that  M would 

hear  a  complaint  made  against  a  man  for  assailing 
their  chief  rabbi,  during  his  devotions  in  the  house 
of  prayer.  The  man  was  sent  for,  and  the  chief 
rabbi  requested  to  appear.  The  charge  stated  and 
the  defence  made,  it  appeared  that  the  aggressor, 
being  irritated  at  what  he  regarded  as  an  unjust 
distribution  of  the  money,  and  finding  no  redress, 
in  the  moment  of  anger  committed  the  fault. 

He  was  ordered  to  ask  pardon,  and  pledge  him- 
self to  future  good  conduct,  as,  whether  his  state- 
ment were  true  or  false,  his  conduct  was  unjusti- 
fiable. M afterwards  entreated  the  elders  to 

observe  the  strictest  impartiality  in  the  distribu- 
tion of  any  money  they  might  receive,  though  he 
had  no  reason  to  doubt  that  this  was  already  done. 

We  engaged  Amin,  the  governor's  janissary, 


to  accompany  and  attend  us  to  the  Holy  City, 
in  addition  to  our  other  guards.  The  fleas,  mos- 
quitos,  &c.,  will  make  me  leave  this  place  without 
regret.  Several  persons  came  to  bid  us  farewell. 
The  poor  gazelle  presented  to  me  by  the  governor, 
I  am,  with  much  regret,  obliged  to  leave  behind 
me,  in  care  of  Dr.  H.  Weissman.  It  looks 
drooping,  notwithstanding  all  our  efforts. 

At  half -past  five  we  took  leave  of  Hhakham 
Abuelafia  and  his  lady,  and,  followed  by  many  of 
the  inhabitants,  bade  farewell  to  Tiberias.  The 
officers  of  the  governor  accompanied  us  for  some 
distance,  and  also  a  troop  of  horse  with  a  band  of 
music,  going  to  join  Ibrahim  Pasha's  regiment. 
As  we  passed  through  a  fine  barley-field  one  of 
the  reapers  approached  and  presented  me  with  a 
large  sheaf  of  the  newly-cut  corn.  I  felt  gratified 
with  this  Eastern  tribute  of  respect.  We  were 

overtaken  on  the  road  by  Rabbi  A B , 

who  was  proceeding  on  a  handsome  horse  to  his 
farm.  He  accompanied  us  by  the  shortest  route 
to  Eyn  Louba,  where  we  encamped  for  the  night. 
There  we  also  met  the  person  who  had  offended 
the  Hhakham  at  Tiberias.  He  came  to  justify  him- 
self, and  his  open  and  noble  countenance  certainly 
spoke  much  in  his  favour.  Both  these  persons  re- 
mained during  the  night  under  one  of  our  tents. 

Monday,  June  3.  Djenin. — Left  Eyn  Louba  at 
five  this  morning,  but  not  till  we  had  taken  our 

DJEXlN.  263 

usual  cup  of  coffee,  a  most  salutary  refreshment, 
before  starting.  After  riding  for  about  two  hours 
through  a  delightful  country,  encircled  by  corn- 
fields and  all  sorts  of  fruit-trees,  we  turned  into 

a  path  which  Rabbi  A ,  who  acted  as  our 

guide,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  the  country, 
pointed  out  as  the  shortest  route.  Our  luggage 
had  preceded  us,  but  the  rest  of  the  people  were 
not  yet  come  up,  and  we  judged  it  prudent  to  wait 
their  arrival.  Amin  was  accordingly  dispatched 
to  hasten  them,  and  in  the  meanwhile  we  rested 
under  an  immense  almond-tree,  whose  branches 
extended  sufficiently  to  shelter  us  from  the  sun. 
After  some  time  we  perceived  the  horses  and 
luggage,  which  had  been  led  by  a  wrong  path, 
and  we  pursued  our  journey  till  twenty  minutes 
before  two.  Our  carpets  and  cushions  were  then 
spread  near  a  fine  spring  of  water,  called  Eyn 
Djalood,  and  dinner  was  prepared,  the  enjoyment 
of  the  repast  being  in  no  slight  degree  heightened 
by  the  appetite  which  exercise  had  given,  and 
the  magnificence  of  the  scenes  which  surrounded 
our  resting  place. 

We  had  early  in  the  morning  passed  beneath 
the  highest  point  of  Mount  Tabor,  covered  with 
forests,  that  breathed  the  air  and  wore  the  aspect 
of  remote  antiquity.  To  this  majestic  spot  suc- 
ceeded sweet  pastoral  scenes,  where  the  flocks 
and  herds  seem  to  be  fed  at  the  very  hands  of 


nature,  and  the  Almighty  appeared  to  be  pouring 
forth  the  plenty  of  the  harvest,  to  reward  the 
slightest  efforts  of  human  industry. 

Having  seated  ourselves  in  a  small  cavern, 
formed  in  the  rocks  of  Mount  Djalood,  the  ancient 
Gilead,  how  many  solemn  though  pleasurable 
thoughts  floated  through  our  minds  !  "  Is  there 
no  balm  in  Gilead  ?  Is  there  no  physician  there  ? 
Why  then  is  not  the  health  of  the  daughter  of  my 
people  recovered  ? " — Jer.  viii.  So  sighed  the  pro- 
phet in  times  when  the  sorrows  of  Israel  were  as 
yet  but  beginning.  Oh,  how  does  the  heart  of 
the  pilgrim  cling  to  and  yearn  over  the  later 
words  of  the  same  prophet,  "  I  will  bring  Israel 
again  to  his  habitation,  and  he  shall  feed  on  Car- 
mel  and  Bashan,  and  his  soul  shall  be  satisfied 
upon  Mount  Ephraim  and  Gilead.  In  those  days, 
and  in  that  time,  saith  the  Lord,  the  iniquity  of 
Israel  shall  be  sought  for,  and  there  shall  be  none; 
and  the  sins  of  Judah,  and  they  shall  not  be 
found ;  for  I  will  pardon  them  whom  I  reserve." 
-Jer.  1. 19,  20. 

We  left  at  a  quarter  past  four,  this  spot  so 
rich  in  associations,  and  where  to  the  eye  of 
fancy  Jacob  and  Laban  might  still  almost  be 
seen  making  their  league  ;  and  the  fatigue  arising 
from  a  hot  south  wind  was  allayed  by  the  re- 
freshing feelings  produced  by  the  blossoms  of  the 
numberless  pomegranate,  fig,  and  mulberry-trees 

DJENfN   TO   NABLOUS.  265 

which  lined  our  road.  At  seven  o'clock,  having 
reached  a  well  of  good  water,  and  in  the  midst 
of  a  beautiful  orchard,  we  pitched  our  tents,  and 
soon  enjoyed  the  comfort  of  a  nice  cup  of  tea. 

We  have,  every  day,  had  the  satisfaction  and 
delight  of  offering  up  prayers  in  Hebrew  to  our 
Heavenly  Father  and  Preserver,  and  of  reading 
some  of  the  Psalms  during  the  forenoon.  The 
afternoon  prayers  are  read  aloud  on  the  road, 
and  inexpressible  is  the  comfort  attending  this 
exercise  of  devotion. 

Being  rather  fatigued  we  retired  to  rest  at  an 
early  hour. 

Tuesday,  June  4.  Djenin  to  Nablous. — Our 
morning's  journey  led  us  through  the  most  deli- 
cious country,  and  afforded  as  much  of  pleasure 
as  the  heart  could  look  for.  On  passing  the 
famous  village  of  Arafidie,  where  Ibrahim  Pacha 
gained  a  signal  victory  over  the  Syrians,  our 
soldiers  exultingly  pointed  out  the  site  of  the 
battle,  and  exclaimed,  "  Here  it  was  that  we 
thrashed  the  Hebron  people.  What  pleases  God 
he  does !  The  sword  of  Ibrahim,  our  lord,  is 
powerful ! "  The  road  soon  after  this  became 
difficult  and  precipitous,  being  not  only  rocky 
but  in  parts  undermined.  We  were  compensated, 
however,  for  the  inconvenience  thus  occasioned, 
by  the  magnificent  character  of  the  scenery- 
hills  and  valleys,  lovely  gardens  and  sparkling 


rivulets  intermingling  with  each  other,  formed  a 
picture  on  which  the  eye  of  either  Salvator  Rosa  or 
Claude  Lorraine  would  have  dwelt  with  rapture. 
Within  a  quarter  of  an  hour's  distance  of  the 
famous  town  to  which  we  were  journeying,  we 
discerned,  to  the  right,  the  precipitous  top  of 
Mount  Gerizim ;  and  to  our  left,  the  awful 
heights  of  Ebal.  Even  to  the  present  day  the 
richest  bounties  of  nature  crown  the  sides  of  the 
former,  while  those  of  the  latter  still  bear  the 
impress  of  the  terrible  sentences  pronounced 
from  its  summit.  As  we  kept  strict  quarantine, 
we  passed  outside  the  town,  while  Dr.  Loewe, 
who  had  been  here  last  year,  galloped  forward, 
and  selected  an  interesting  spot  for  our  encamp- 
ment, at  the  foot  of  Mount  Gerizim,  and  close 
to  the  Well  of  Jacob.  Late  events  have  added 
to  the  celebrity  of  this  scene,  so  venerable  in  our 
eyes.  It  was  by  the  Well  of  Jacob  that  Ibrahim 
Pacha  sat,  when,  having  assumed  the  disguise  of 
a  dervise,  he  misled  the  people  from  Hebron. 
On  one  side  of  us  lay  the  beautiful  plain  which 
the  patriarch  purchased  of  Hamor,  the  father  of 
Shechem  ;  on  the  other  was  Mount  Ebal ;  on  our 
front,  the  tomb  of  Joseph,  the  place  where  Jacob 
built  an  altar,  and  called  it  El-elohe'-Israel,  and 
behind  us,  the  town  of  Shechem,  well  known,  as 
the  scene  of  many  events  recorded  in  the  sacred 
annals  of  Scripture. 


It  was  here  that  Dr.  Loewe  directed  our  tents 
to  be  pitched.  Shortly  before  sunset  he  proposed 
making  a  visit  to  the  tomb  of  Joseph,  but  a  feel- 
ing of  oppressive  fatigue  soon  compelled  us  to 
return.  We  partook  of  a  draught  of  the  excel- 
lent water  of  the  well,  and  experienced  its  salu- 
tary qualities,  so  valued  by  the  inhabitants  of 
the  place  that  it  is  used  as  a  remedy  against 
many  disorders.  Several  persons  visited  us  in 

the  course  of  the  evening  ;  and  M requested 

them  to  go  home  and  make  out  lists  of  the 
people  who  might  stand  in  need  of  assistance. 
Before  the  night  advanced,  we  took  several  short 
walks,  and  saw  at  every  step  something  to  ad- 
mire, something  to  awaken  a  new  train  of  feel- 
ings and  elevated  reflections.  On  our  return  a 
young  man  came  into  the  encampment,  bearing 
an  instrument  somewhat  similar  to  a  violin,  but 
made  of  copper  instead  of  wood.  He  remained 
playing  and  singing  till  the  close  of  the  evening. 

Wednesday,  June  5.  Nablous  (the  ancient 
Sichem)  to  Sindgil. — At  an  early  hour  repaired 
to  the  tomb  of  Joseph,  the  walls  of  which  form 
a  square,  with  a  small  entrance.  There  is  no 
roof,  and  the  natives  affirm  that  they  have  never 
succeeded  in  building  a  cupola  to  this  tomb,  it 
having  always  fallen  in.  Towards  the  right  of 
the  entrance  stands  the  sarcophagus,  and  on  either 
side  are  two  short  pillars,  surrounded  by  a  large 


basin  for  the  use  of  oil,  which  is  lighted  up  on 
solemn  occasions :  opposite  the  tomb,  to  the  left 
of  the  entrance,  is  a  beautiful  vine,  interwoven 
with  another  luxuriant  plant,  in  allusion  to  the 
passage,  "  Joseph  will  be  an  evergreen,  young  in 
branch."  Opposite  the  entrance  is  a  Hebrew 
inscription,  containing  the  name  of  the  person 
who  built  the  walls  around  it,  and  the  date.  We 
there  said  our  prayers,  accompanied  by  the  chiefs 
of  the  congregation  of  Nablous,  who  remained 
outside,  fearful  of  contagion.  After  having 
gathered  a  few  of  the  vine-leaves  as  a  sacred 
memento,  we  took  leave  of  the  worthy  Israelites 
who  brought  the  lists,  and  proceeded  on  our  way 
towards  Awarta,  the  luggage  having  preceded  us 
to  Khawarta.  We  had  now  an  additional  guide, 
the  same  who  last  year  had  accompanied  Dr. 
Loewe.  To  our  left  we  passed  the  village  Rougib, 
and  for  an  hour  and  a  half,  Mount  Gerizim  to  the 
right  appeared  in  view,  and  on  its  summit  the 
tomb  of  Khamor.  We  then  proceeded  towards 
the  left,  and  ascended  to  the  village  Awarta, 
where  the  first  place  we  visited  was  the  tomb  of 
Phinehas.  It  is  beautifully  kept  up.  A  fine 
white  wall  forms  the  square,  and  in  the  centre  of 
the  tomb,  of  unusually  large  dimensions,  there  is 
to  be  seen,  in  one  of  the  corners  of  the  square, 
near  the  lamp,  a  tablet  of  white  alabaster,  bearing 
a  long  Samaritan  inscription,  which  Dr.  Loewe 


translated  to  us,  and  which  he  communicated  to 
some  of  the  learned  societies.  From  thence  we 
ascended  to  the  tomb  of  Khamor.  The  Mussul- 
mans have  built  in  its  vicinity  a  mosque, 
according  to  their  usual  custom  on  the  discovery 
of  any  sacred  spot.  The  tomb  is  of  the  same 
character  as  the  above,  bearing  a  long  Samaritan 
inscription,  which  was  also  translated  by  Dr. 
Loewe,  who  then  read  prayers  to  us,  and  wrote 
in  Samaritan,  that  he  had  visited  that  spot  a 
year  ago.  On  entering  we  found  a  man  standing 
at  the  gate,  who  did  not  seem  willing  to  make 
way  for  us  to  pass :  the  rules  of  quarantine 
obliged  us  to  call  forth  the  authority  of  Hhasan, 
who  by  the  menace  of  his  cane,  made  him 
quickly  retire.  We  then  entered  the  tomb  of  the 
Seventy  Elders,  lying  to  the  right  of  the  tomb 
of  Phinehas.  Two  small  mosques  are  placed 
over  them ;  the  first  we  entered  by  a  small  aper- 
ture, over  which  is  a  Cufic  inscription,  consisting 
of  the  Fathhah,  or  introductory  chapter  of  the 
Koran.  An  immense  number  of  Hebrew  inscrip- 
tions and  oil  lamps  manifested  the  veneration 
entertained  for  the  place.  The  whole  mountain 
is  undermined,  containing  the  tombs  of  men  whose 
memories  are  cherished  with  profound  veneration. 
Lastly,  we  went  to  the  tomb  of  Eleazer,  the  son  of 
Aaron  the  high-priest.  The  road  leading  to  this 
.spot  is  very  far  from  the  best,  and  inflicts  a  toil  on 


the  pilgrim  only  to  be  compensated  by  the  deep 
interest  attached  to  the  vicinity.  The  tomb  is 
situated  on  the  top  of  a  mountain,  surrounded  by 
pines  of  immense  size  and  ancient  growth,  and 
rises  from  the  centre  of  the  square.  There  is  also 
a  small  cave,  where  people  resort  for  the  purpose 
of  prayer.  At  the  left  of  the  entrance,  in  the 
corner,  are  two  tablets,  covered  with  Samaritan 
inscriptions,  descriptive  of  the  sacredness  of  the 
spot.  Three  or  four  other  inscriptions  of  a  similar 
kind  were  observed,  and  afforded  additional  proof 
of  the  extreme  and  reverential  care  with  which 
the  Samaritans  have  preserved  these  memorials  of 
the  honoured  dead,  and  of  the  little  reason  which 
Ibrahim  Pacha  had  to  speak  of  them,  which 
according  to  report  he  once  did,  as  having  no 

We  passed  some  fine  tamarind-trees  and 
juniper  bushes,  and  at  a  quarter  to  twelve  rejoined 
our  attendants,  and  found  a  tent  pitched  for  our 
accommodation,  and  lunch  ready,  at  Laban's  Well. 
A  delightful  journey  brought  us,  at  a  little  past 
six,  to  the  village  of  Sindgil. 

Thursday,  June  6.  From  Sindgil  to  Jeru- 
salem.— We  ascended  Djebbel  Selouat,  and  pass- 
ing the  village  of  Yabroud,  arrived  at  Vady  Tin, 
an  immense  valley,  bounded  on  either  side  by 
rocks  of  every  fantastic  shape,  and  cultivated 
terraces,  rising  one  above  another,  covered  with 


vines  and  fig-trees,  and  displaying  the  resources  of 
both  art  and  industry.  Our  breakfast  was  pre- 
pared at  Mafahrek,  but  there  was  no  shelter  from 
the  sun's  scorching  rays,  and  M feeling  him- 
self but  little  refreshed,  when  so  exposed,  we  soon 
resumed  our  journey,  and  on  the  way  passed 
through  Touran,  Bet  Hanin,  Eyn  Abroud  and 
Shabia.  Half  an  hour  before  arriving  at  the  last- 
named  place,  Dr.  Loewe  dismounted,  and  com- 
menced repeating  all  the  Psalms  which  contain 
any  allusion  to  Jerusalem  or  the  Holy  Land, 
connecting  with  them  the  prayers  that  are 
generally  offered  up  at  midnight. 

What  the  feelings  of  a  traveller  are  when 
among  the  mountains  on  which  the  awful  power 
of  the  Almighty  once  visibly  rested,  and  when 
approaching  the  city  where  he  placed  his  name ; 
whence  his  law  was  to  go  forth  to  all  the  world  ; 
where  the  beauty  of  holiness  shone  in  its  morn- 
ing splendour  ;  and  to  which,  even  in  its  sorrow 
and  captivity,  even  in  its  desolation,  the  very 
Gentiles,  the  people  of  all  nations  of  the  earth 
as  well  as  its  own  children,  look  with  profound 
awe  and  admiration. — Oh  !  what  the  feelings  oi 
the  traveller  are  on  such  a  spot,  and  when  listen- 
ing to  the  enraptured  tones  of  Israel's  own  in- 
spired king,  none  can  imagine  but  those  who 
have  had  the  privilege  and  the  felicity  to  experi- 
ence them ! 


As  we  drew  nearer  to  Jerusalem  the  aspect  of 
the  surrounding  country  became  more  and  more 
sterile  and  gloomy.  The  land  was  covered  with 
thorns  and  briers,  and  sadly  did  the  words  of  the 
Psalmist  rise  to  the  thoughts :  "  He  turneth 
rivers  into  a  wilderness,  and  the  water-springs 
into  dry  ground  :  a  fruitful  land  into  barrenness, 
for  the  wickedness  of  them  that  dwell  therein  ! " 
— Ps.  cvii.  33. 

But  solemn  as  were  the  feelings  excited  by  the 
melancholy  desolateness  of  the  rocky  hills  and 
valleys  through  which  we  were  passing,  they 
were  suddenly  lost  in  a  sense  of  rapture  and  in- 
describable joy,  for  now  the  Holy  City  itself  rose 
full  into  view,  with  all  its  cupolas  and  minarets 
reflecting  the  splendour  of  the  heavens.  Dis- 
mounting from  our  horses,  we  sat  down  and 
poured  forth  the  sentiments  which  so  strongly 
animated  our  hearts,  in  devout  praises  to  Him 
whose  mercy  and  providence  alone  had  thus 
brought  us  a  second  time,  in  health  and  safety, 
to  the  city  of  our  fathers. 

Pursuing  our  path,  we  soon  passed  the  tomb 
of  Nabbi  Shemuel,  (the  prophet  Samuel,)  and  at 
about  five  o'clock  reached  the  gates  of  the  Holy 
City.  Hhasan  having  dismounted,  his  mule 
instantly  ran  off,  and  notwithstanding  the  efforts 
of  his  master,  of  Ibrahim,  Armstrong,  and 
Bekhor,  kept  them  in  chase  till  he  stopped  on 


the  Mount  of  Olives.  There  Dr.  Loewe  proposed 

we  should  encamp,  but  M ,  being  greatly 

fatigued,  considered  that  it  would  be  better  to 
select  a  less  elevated  situation.  We  accordingly 
proceeded  to  the  valley  fixed  on  by  the  muk- 
karies  ;  but  soon  discovered  that  we  had  com- 
mitted a  serious  error,  in  choosing  a  spot  whence 
the  air  was  excluded,  and  which  the  contagious 
atmosphere  of  the  town  was  so  much  more  likely 
to  infect :  we,  therefore,  ascended  a  steep  path, 
cut  out  of  the  mountain,  almost  like  a  flight  of 
stairs,  but  which  our  horses  scaled  with  their 
customary  ease  and  safety.  The  pure  air  of  the 
Mount  of  Olives  breathed  around  us  with  the 
most  refreshing  fragrance  ;  and  as  we  directed 
our  attention  to  the  surrounding  view,  Jeru- 
salem was  seen  in  its  entire  extent  at  our  feet, 
the  Valley  of  Jehoshaphat  to  our  left,  and  in  the 
distance,  the  dark,  misty  waves  of  the  Dead  Sea, 

In  the  course  of  our  journey  we  passed  a  num- 
ber of  Arab  women,  who  endeavoured  to  create 
some  disturbance,  but  were  speedily  silenced  by 
Hhasan  and  Saad-Eddin.  Some  other  women 
were  seated  in  groups  round  new-made  graves,  in 
the  valley,  and  which,  with  affectionate  care,  they 
were  decorating  with  fresh  flowers. 

Friday,  June  7.  Jerusalem:  the  Mount  of 
Olives. — Thanks  to  Almighty  God,  we  rested  in 



peace  and  comfort  beneath  our  tents !  At  an 
early  hour  in  the  morning  the  governor,  attended 
by  his  suite,  and  several  of  our  brethren,  came  to 
visit  us  ;  but  the  fatigues  of  the  journey  and  heat 
of  the  weather  rendering  it  necessary  that  we 
should  indulge  till  a  somewhat  later  hour,  they 
went  away,  and  returned  at  about  nine  o'clock. 

The  governor,  Mohhammad  Djizdar,  a  good- 
tempered  man,  after  sitting  some  time  talking 

with  M ,  Dr.  Loewe  acting  as  interpreter, 

asked  to  be  introduced  to  me.  I  therefore  came 
out  of  my  tent,  and  was  received  with  great 
politeness  by  his  excellency  and  suite,  the  former, 
according  to  custom,  placing  his  hand  on  his 

heart  and  forehead.  Mr.  A was  delighted  to 

see  us,  and  stated  that  he  had  prepared  his  house 
for  our  reception,  having  long  expected  our 
arrival.  The  Hhakhamim  of  the  Portuguese  and 
German  synagogues,  and  the  principal  members 
of  the  congregation,  also  came  out  to  us,  and 
many  of  them  sent  us  presents  of  cake  and  wine. 
The  governor  presented  us  with  five  sheep,  and 
offered  to  accompany  us  to  Hebron  and  the  Dead 
Sea.  The  fattest  of  the  sheep  was  killed,  and 
part  given  to  the  priest,  a  quarter  to  some  poor 
families  of  our  nation,  and  half  to  the  mukkaries, 
to  be  dressed  with  rice  for  their  supper. 

We  breakfasted  under  an  olive-tree,  whose 
branches  spread  sufficiently  wide  to  shelter  us 


from  the  scorching  rays  of  the  sun.  Mr.  A 

had  provided  us  with  luxuries  for  the  repast, 
which,  through  his  kindness,  consisted  of  apricots, 
oranges,  cakes,  fresh  butter  and  cheese,  tea  and 
coffee.  The  romantic  situation  in  which  we  par- 
took of  this  breakfast,  added  in  no  slight  degree 
to  its  relish ;  and  our  eyes  felt  that  they  could 
never  grow  weary  of  contemplating  the  Holy 
City,  the  valley,  and  other  objects,  among  which 
was  the  tomb  said  to  be  of  the  prophetess 
Khouldah,  enriching  the  sublime  landscape 
spread  before  us. 

The  governor  proposed  that  we  should  enter  the 
city  in  a  day  or  two,  when  he  would  come  officially 
to  meet  us,  and  proclaim  a  holiday.  We  are, 
however,  strongly  persuaded  not  to  enter,  cases  of 
plague  having  occurred  within  the  last  few  days. 
It  is,  therefore,  our  determination  to  remain  in  our 
present  position  on  this  beautiful  mount,  where 
the  finest  air,  the  most  sublime  views,  and  asso- 
ciations of  the  noblest  kind  unite  to  comfort  us 
and  elevate  our  thoughts. 

A  few  years  back  we  could  not  have  remained 
all  night  in  this  spot  without  the  protection  of 
two  or  three  hundred  men ;  now  two  extra 
soldiers  from  the  Moussellim  suffice  to  complete 
the  force  necessary  for  our  protection. 

Mr.  Young,  the  British  consul,  and  his  lady, 
T  2 


came  to  see  us.  They  are  evidently  very  amiable 
persons,  and  will  afford,  I  trust,  as  much  help 
as  it  lies  in  their  power  to  render  to  the  afflicted 

people.     Mr.  Y states  it  as  his  opinion,  that 

the  chief  cause  of  the  plague  is  extreme  poverty, 

and  Mrs.  Y told  me  that  she  had  seen  people 

eating  the  grass  and  weeds,  from  excess  of  hunger. 
These  melancholy  recitals  furnished  fresh  reasons 
for  every  effort  that  could  be  made  to  bring  the 
land  into  cultivation,*  and  afford  employment  to 
those  who  are  at  present  without  any  regular 
means  of  support. 

This  evening  we  recited  our  prayers  on  the 
Mount  of  Olives,  and  as  we  bent  our  eyes  upon 
the  site  on  which  the  temple  once  rose  in  all  its 
glory,  a  glory  which,  even  in  its  latter  day,  the 
heathen  could  not  contemplate  without  awe,  how 
did  our  hearts  swell  with  holy  emotion  !  how  fitly 
could  we  have  adopted  the  language  of  Israel's 
own  minstrel,  "  Thou  art  the  God  of  our  strength. 
Why  dost  thou  cast  us  off  ?  Why  go  we  mourn- 
ing because  of  the  oppression  of  the  enemy  ?  O 
send  out  thy  light  and  thy  truth  :  let  them  lead 
me  :  let  them  bring  me  unto  thy  holy  hill,  and  to 
thy  tabernacles.  Then  will  I  go  unto  the  altar  of 
God :  unto  God,  my  exceeding  joy.  Yea,  upon 
the  harp  will  I  praise  thee,  O  God,  my  God  ! " 

Saturday,    June    8.       Jerusalem.       Mount    of 
*  See  Appendix. 


Olives — encamped. — We  had  our  chairs,  carpets, 
and  umbrellas  brought  towards  the  Valley  of 
Jehosaphat,  opposite  the  site  of  the  temple,  near 
the  tomb  of  Khouldah,  and  affording  a  distant 
view  of  the  Dead  Sea.  The  remembrance  of  this 
Sabbath  morning  can  never  be  effaced.  Every 
spot  answers  minutely  to  the  descriptive  language 
of  Scripture.  The  walls  of  the  temple  may  have 
yielded  to  the  devastating  arm  of  the  conqueror  ; 
but  Mount  Zion  itself  standeth  for  ever.  Nor  are 
there  wanting  objects,  or  circumstances,  to  give  a 
present  reality  and  vividness  to  the  picture  of 
past  times,  full  of  depth  and  power.  The  olive- 
trees  spread  their  dim  grey  branches,  as  if  emble- 
matical of  hoar  antiquity.  The  country  is  sad  and 
of  melancholy  aspect;  and  every  now  andthenrose 
on  the  air  the  solemn  funeral  chant,  the  mournful 
lament  for  broken  ties  of  love  and  kindred  ! 

We  received  numerous  presents  of  cake  and 
wine,  and,  as  on  former  occasions,  they  served  us 
well  when  wishing  to  treat  the  visitors  who 
kindly  crowded  to  our  encampment.  A  cord  pro- 
tected us  from  their  too  near  approach,  and  every 
precaution  was  deemed  necessary,  it  being  re- 
ported that  fourteen  or  fifteen  deaths  occur  daily 
in  the  city.  I  did  not  feel  quite  well,  and  towards 
evening  was  obliged  to  retire  to  bed,  but  the 
indisposition  was  attributed  to  my  eating  some 


We  received,  in  the  course  of  the  afternoon,  a 
visit  from  the  representatives  of  the  German  con- 
gregation, headed  by  the  reader  and  choir,  who 

chanted  a  separate  blessing  for  my  dear  M , 

myself,  and  Dr.  Loewe.  Dr.  Loewe  read  and 
translated  some  descriptions  of  the  Holy  City, 

from  an  Ancient  Hebrew  work,  and  M read 

the  book  of  Zechariah.  Oh,  might  we  not 
have  exclaimed,  When  will  the  words  of  that 
prophet  be  fulfilled,  "  I  will  strengthen  the  house 
of  Judah,  and  I  will  save  the  house  of  Joseph, 
and  I  will  bring  them  again  to  place  them  :  for  I 
have  mercy  upon  them :  and  they  shall  be  as 
though  I  had  not  cast  them  out :  for  I  am  the 
Lord  their  God,  and  will  hear  them  !  "x.  6. 

Sunday,  June  9.  Jerusalem. — At  an  early  hour 
visitors  flocked  up  the  Mount  to  our  tents.  We 
regretted  we  could  not  admit  them,  but  we 
gave  them  the  best  welcome  which  the  cordon 
would  allow  us  to  afford.  Many  petitions  were 
preferred  by  poor  distressed  people,  some  request- 
ing that  their  debts  might  be  paid,  and  others 
supporting  the  plea  by  a  simple  statement  of 
multiplied  necessities.  The  ladies  of  the  Hha- 
khamim  and  other  persons  of  respectability,  also 
came  and  seated  themselves  under  the  trees, 
where  cakes  and  wine  were  served  to  both  rich 
and  poor. 

Last  night  we  were  disturbed  by  an  intruder  in 


our  tent,  which  was  supposed  to  be  a  jackal, 
animals  of  that  species,  and  foxes,  being  common 
among  the  mountains  of  this  neighbourhood. 
Saad-Eddin,  Hhasan,  and  the  rest  were  ready 
with  their  muskets,  and  promised  to  be  on  the 
watch  during  the  night,  but  it  was  thought 
afterwards  that  a  dog  only  had  caused  the  alarm. 

Our  dread  of  infection  forbids  our  making  any 
purchases,  and  when  a  letter  is  brought  it  is 
taken  by  the  guard  with  a  pair  of  pincers,  and 
laid  on  the  ground,  beneath  some  stones,  which 
are  required  to  prevent  the  wind,  which  is  very 
high,  from  blowing  it  away. 

The  Moussellim  has  paid  another  visit  to  M 

to-day,  and  the  substance  of  their  conversation, 
as  interpreted  by  Dr.  Loewe,  was  as  follows  : 

The  Governor.  "  May  your  day  be  bright  and 
blessed  !" 

Sir  M .  "  And  yours  full  of  blessings  and 

"  May  the  Almighty  prolong  your 
"  And  yours   continue  in  happi- 

"  The  air  is  delightful  here." 
"  Most  beautiful.    I  should  think 
the  breezes  of  this  mountain  would  convey  health 
and  every  other  blessing  to  the  Holy  City." 
G .  "  Doubtless  all  blessings  arise  from  this 


mountain  ;  particularly  as  you  have  pitched  your 
tent  upon  it." 

Sir  M .  "Blessed  be  he  who  bestows  so 

much  honour  upon  me  by  his  kind  and  flattering 
expressions  !" 

G .  "  I  say  what  my  heart  feels,  and  that 

which  the  whole  world  witnesses  with  me  !" 

"  Sir  M .  "  I  wish  it  were  in  my  power  to 

show  my  friendly  feelings  towards  you,  as  well 
as  to  others  who  think  so  kindly  of  me." 

G .  "  I  wish  to  impress  on  your  mind,  that 

not  only  the  Jews,  but  the  Mussulmans,  Chris- 
tians, and  every  other  class  of  the  inhabitants 
are  most  anxious  for  your  entrance  into  the  Holy 

Sir  M .  "  I  am  perfectly  convinced  of  the 

worthy  and  distinguished  character  of  its  inhabi- 
tants, and  that  such  it  should  be  is  not  astonish- 
ing, subjected  as  it  is  to  the  careful  observation 
of  such  a  governor  as  yourself ;  and  had  it  not 

been  on  account  of  Lady  M ,  I  should  have 

entered  the  town  the  very  day  of  my  arrival." 

G .  "  God  shall  prolong  your  life.  Only 

under  the  watchful  eye  of  our  lord,  Ibrahim 
Pacha,  and  yourself,  can  happiness  be  increased. 
At  the  time  when  our  lord  came  to  Jerusalem,  I 
went  to  meet  him.  He  said  to  me, '  Achmet ! '  I 
replied, '  Effendina  !'  '  You  know  the  age  when 
it  was  said,  This  is  a  Christian,  and  that  a  Jew, 


and  there  is  a  Mussulman  !  but  now,  Achmet, 
these  times  are  past.  Never  ask  what  he  is  ; 
let  him  be  of  whatsoever  religion  he  may,  do 
him  justice,  as  the  Lord  of  the  world  desired 
of  us  ! " 

Sir  M .  "  These  are  my  sentiments.  Make 

no  distinction.  Be  like  the  sun  which  shines 
over  the  whole  world — all  are  blessed  by  its  light, 
all  strengthened  and  refreshed  by  its  warmth, 
whether  they  be  Jews,  Christians,  or  Mussul- 

G .  "  Long  live  Effendina  !  His  sword  is 

very  long !  Look  at  the  spot  on  which  your 
tents  are  pitched.  Ten  years  ago  five  hundred 
men  would  have  been  needed  to  make  your 
abode  here  secure.  At  present  you  may  walk 
with  a  bag  of  gold  in  your  hand.  Not  a  soul 
would  molest  you." 

Sir  M .  "  You  are  perfectly  right.  I  can 

myself  bear  witness  to  the  change  that  has  taken 
place  in  this  country.  Twelve  years  ago,  when  I 
visited  this  town,  I  often  heard  the  complaints 
of  travellers.  Even  at  that  time  I  personally 
experienced  no  inconvenience.  But  now  that 
Mehemet  Ali  governs,  we  not  only  travel  in 
security,  but  are  furnished  by  his  highness  with 
letters  of  introduction  to  the  various  authorities 
of  the  country." 

G .  "  Mehemet  Ali  knows  how  to  appre- 


ciate  distinguished  persons  like  yourself ;  and  I 
assure  you  I  am  longing  to  show  you  every  proof 
of  my  respect.  But  while  you  are  sitting  here 
in  quarantine  our  means  are  limited,  and  it  is 
impossible  for  us  to  manifest  the  delight  which 
would  otherwise  be  evidenced.  Follow  my  advice. 
Enter  the  city,  and  I  will  come  and  accompany 
you  with  the  whole  of  my  suite.  The  day  of 
your  appearing  among  us  shall  be  a  festival  to 
all  the  people.  I  will  send  you  a  beautiful 
Arabian  horse ;  in  short,  whatever  you  like, 
whether  soldiers,  horses,  or  servants.  Depend 
upon  it,  by  my  head,  by  my  eyes,  by  my  beard, 
all  shall  be  ready  in  a  moment !" 

Sir  M .  "  I  feel  highly  obliged  to  you,  and 

am  fully  assured  of  your  good  will.  I  promise 
you  that  I  will  enter,  be  it  the  will  of  God,  on 
Wednesday  morning,  when  I  shall  be  happy  to 
avail  myself  of  the  kind  offer  of  your  company. 

G .  You  have  poured  torrents  of  blessings 

on  my  head  ;  and  I  shall  not  fail  to  be  here,  at 
whatever  hour  you  desire,  with  the  Khakham 
Morenu,  whether  before  or  after  sunrise.  We 
are  all  your  servants/' 

Sir  M .  "  The  Almighty  bless  your  days. 

I  shall  ever  remember  your  name,  and  say,  how 
happy  are  the  people  under  your  protection  !" 

G .  "  Bright  may  be  your  life  !  May  you 

enjoy  your  stay  in  the  Holy  City,  and  return  to 


your  blessed  country  in  happiness.  Shall  I  not 
have  the  great  honour  of  seeing  your  most 
worthy  lady?" 

Sir  M .  "  I  exceedingly  regret  her  ladyship 

did  not  enjoy  a  good  night's  rest,  and  is  obliged 
to  remain  a  few  hours  in  her  tent ;  but  I  shall 
have  the  pleasure  of  informing  her  of  your  kind 

G .  "  Give  me  now  leave  to  go." 

Sir  M .  "  The   Almighty  bless  you  !     Go 

in  peace !" 

G .  "  In  peace.  Sir  M ,  God  bless  you." 

Monday,  June  10.  Jerusalem.  Mount  of 
Olives. — At  four  o'clock  Dr.  Loewe  called  us,  and 
said,  that  during  the  night  the  wind,  in  its  vio- 
lence, had  torn  off  the  canvas  of  his  tent,  and 
furled  it  up  like  an  umbrella.  Having  gone  in 
search  of  the  guards  to  assist  him  in  bringing 
some  stones  to  keep  it  down,  he  had  found  them 
all  asleep ;  and  the  soundness  of  their  slumbers 
being  increased  by  the  effects  of  the  last  night's 
treat  of  wine,  he  did  not  succeed  in  waking  them, 
but  hid  their  shoes,  as  a  punishment  for  their 
forgetfulness  of  duty,  having  sworn,  as  they  had 
done,  by  their  eyes  and  heads,  to  be  watchful 
guardians  during  the  night.  It  was,  however, 
a  little  excusable  ;  perhaps,  the  red-water,  as 
they  call  the  juice  of  the  grape,  that  those  who 
enjoy  it  may  not  seem  to  violate  the  prophet's 


command,  had  exercised  its  influence  on  their 
spirits.  In  the  course  of  the  evening  they  had 
sung,  while  seated  on  the  ground,  under  a  tree, 
many  a  wild  Arab  song.  Nature  assuredly  pre- 
dominated over  art.  There  were  no  measured 
sentences — no  preparation  ;  but  the  heart  seized 
upon,  and  then  gave  itself  up  to  the  enjoyment 
of  the  fleeting  hour.  Yet  amid  all  this  ready 
susceptibility  to  the  excitement  of  pleasure  the 
Arab  never  forgets  his  religious  duties.  At 
sun-rise,  at  noon-tide,  and  at  the  close  of  the 
day,  they  are  ever  seen  devoutly  bowing  towards 
the  east ;  and  even  while  on  their  journey,  at 
these  hours  our  attendants  leave  the  beaten  track, 
and  having  waited  for  awhile  reverentially  to 
offer  up  their  prayers,  hasten  to  overtake  us. 

Our  horses  were  brought  at  five  o'clock,  and 
we  set  off  for  the  Valley  of  Jehoshaphat.  Having 
first  ridden  round  the  walls  of  the  city,  we  ob- 
served particularly  the  part  built  by  the  Saracens, 
and  which  is  composed  of  stone  of  immense 
dimensions.  Soldiers  were  being  drilled.  We  met 
many  of  our  brethren  ;  and  Mr.  Bell,  who  called 
on  us  yesterday  with  his  companion,  was  sketch- 
ing one  of  the  fortresses. 

As  we  continued  our  route  the  brook  of  Kidron 
intersected  the  road,  once  pouring  its  turbid 
stream  of  gloomy  waters,  fit  emblem  of  coming 
sorrows,  but  now  a  dry  bed  of  stones.  To  our 


left  lay  Berekhat-David,  a  reservoir  of  water, 
and  soon  after  we  came  to  the  tomb  of  Zechariah. 
We  were  struck  with  the  exceeding  beauty  of 
the  architecture  and  its  wonderful  state  of  pre- 
servation, after  having  been  exposed  to  the  suns 
and  storms  of  more  than  two  thousand  years. 

Absalom's  monument,  and  the  tomb  of  Jehosha- 
phat  were  equally  objects  of  reverential  admira- 
tion. Numberless  other  tombs,  with  Hebrew  in- 
scriptions, were  strewed  about  the  valley,  a  region 
so  fitted  to  inspire  a  sweet  and  tender  melancholy, 
and  where  the  mind  seems  ever  disposed  to  enter 
into  converse  with  the  spirits  of  the  just,  and  to 
dwell  in  a  region  of  thought  more  pure  and  ele- 
vated than  it  can  reach  amid  scenes  of  a  livelier 

The  morning's  ride  was  in  all  respects  delight- 
ful and  interesting,  and  we  returned  to  our  en- 
campment, impressed  with  many  not  unprofitable 
sentiments.  Breakfast  was  awaiting  us,  and  we 
never  partook  of  a  repast  with  more  satisfaction. 
Several  parties  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  visited 
us  during  the  day,  and  whom  we  treated,  as 
usual,  with  cake  and  wine.  Among  the  rest 
were  Mrs.  N—  -  and  four  gentlemen  from  Eng- 
land ;  but  all  were  obliged  to  remain  outside  the 
cordon.  We  took  another  ride  in  the  evening, 
and  our  Arab  guards,  servants,  and  mukkaries 
are  at  this  moment  celebrating  the  anniversary 


of  our  wedding  with  many  songs  and  choruses,  to 
which  they  keep  time  with  loud  clapping  of  hands. 
Tuesday,  June  11.  Jerusalem. — At  half-past 
six  o'clock,  accompanied  by  one  of  the  Hebrew 
inhabitants,  we  went  on  horseback  to  the  city  of 
David.  At  the  entrance  to  the  inner  court  we 
were  accosted  by  some  Turks,  to  whom  we  ex- 
plained that  it  was  our  wish  to  see  the  tomb  of 
King  David.  On  this  one  of  the  young  men  shook 
his  head,  and  insultingly  replied,  that  we  could 
not  see  it,  Ibrahim  Pacha  having  prohibited  the 
Franks  from  entering  the  sacred  vault,  particu- 
larly since  a  European,  last  year,  had  forced  open 
one  of  the  gates.  Dr.  Loewe,  indignant  at  this 
reply,  put  up  his  stick  in  a  menacing  attitude, 
when  the  others  said  they  would  call  the  sheikh, 
who  immediately  made  his  appearance,  and  bow- 
ing, apologized  for  the  young  man,  whom  he 
called  his  son.  He  then  led  us  up  to  an  apart- 
ment, where  there  was  a  kind  of  tomb,  and  which 
he  pointed  out  as  marking  the  hallowed  spot  we 
sought.  But  considering  that  David  was  not 
interred  in  an  arched  building,  but  in  a  vault, 
we  remonstrated  on  the  deceit  attempted,  and 
returned  to  the  inner  court,  when  we  wrote 
a  few  lines  in  Arabic  to  the  governor,  request- 
ing to  be  favoured,  if  possible,  with  his  pre- 
sence there  for  a  few  moments.  In  the  mean 
time,  other  persons  wished  to  intrude  them- 


selves,  and  became  very  importunate  in  their  de- 
sire to  remain  ;  but  we  could  not  permit  it,  and 
our  soldiers  and  the  janissary  were  obliged  to 
use  their  authority.  An  officer  from  the  governor 
now  arrived,  and  said  that  his  excellency  would 
soon  follow.  In  the  mean  time  the  chiefs  of  the 

Portuguese   and  Germans,  Mr.  N and  Mr. 

A—  -  joined  us,  and  the  sheikh  then  brought 
out  a  paper,  which  was  an  order  from  his  master 
Ibrahim  Pacha,  forbidding  him  to  admit  Franks 
to  the  tomb  of  King  David.  To  this,  however, 
we  did  not  deign  to  listen,  assuming,  after  the 
deceit  before  practised,  all  the  importance  in  our 
power.  At  length  the  governor  made  his  appear- 
ance, attended  by  his  usual  escort.  We  stated 
our  wishes,  and  with  his  customary  pleasing  and 
conciliating  mien,  he  asked  to  see  Ibrahim's 
order,  which  having  read,  he  consulted  with  his 
officers,  and  stated  the  contents  of  the  paper. 
We  replied,  that  it  might  relate  to  the  generality 
of  Franks,  but  that  having,  as  we  had,  the  Pacha's 
soldiers  for  guides,  and  being  known  to,  and  pro- 
tected by  all  the  governors  of  Syria,  it  could  not 
apply  to  us ;  still  that  we  could  not  desire  to  act 
contrary  to  his  wishes,  and  would  therefore  sub- 
mit to  the  order.  He  immediately  replied,  that 
we  should  enter,  and  that  he  would  have  the 
pleasure  of  accompanying  us.  Sherbet,  cibouks, 
and  coffee  were  then  served  to  a  large  circle,  and 


the  whole  party  were  as  agreeable  as  if  nothing 
had  happened,  the  sheikh  himself  not  less  so  than 
the  rest,  though  he  had  narrowly  escaped  a  severe 
blow  from  a  stone. 

Some  time  having  been  passed  in  compli- 
mentary conversation,  we  at  length  arose,  the 
governor  leading  the  way,  and  pointing  for  me  to 
follow.  About  a  dozen  of  the  party  accompanied 
us,  and  having  entered  a  spacious  vaulted  cham- 
ber, painted  in  Turkish  fashion,  we  saw  at  the 
further  end  a  trellised  door,  and  being  led  to  the 
spot,  we  beheld  through  the  lattice  the  sacred  and 
royal  deposit  of  the  best  and  noblest  of  kings. 
Yes  !  there  we  contemplated  the  resting-place  of 
all  that  was  mortal  of  him,  whom  the  electing 
wisdom  of  the  Almighty  had  placed  on  the  throne 
of  a  kingdom,  which  had,  at  first,  but  the  Lord 
himself  for  its  King :  of  him,  who,  resplendent 
as  he  was  in  royal  dignity,  was  still  more  glorious 
for  those  gifts  of  wisdom,  of  holiness,  and 
heavenly  genius,  in  the  sublime  power  of  which 
he  moulded  the  thoughts  of  countless  generations 
to  forms  of  celestial  beauty,  which  still  furnish 
worshippers  of  every  clime  and  nation,  with  the 
purest  and  the  noblest  language  of  devotion.  In 
the  records  of  his  experience,  whether  tried  by 
affliction  and  humbled  by  the  weight  of  conscious 
sin,  or  filled  with  the  gladdening  feelings  of  hope, 
the  heart  never  fails  to  read  revelations  of  its 


deepest  secrets,  to  discover  more  of  its  state 
and  nature,  and  to  learn  better  how  to  adore 
the  eternal  Spirit,  who  spoke  by  the  mouth  of 
this  kingly  prophet. 

We  read  in  Hebrew,  and  then  translated  in  the 
presence  of  all,  a  very  devotional  prayer.  How 
impossible  is  it  to  describe  the  feelings  with  which 
we  were  impressed ! 

A  deputation  of  the  principal  persons  residing 
at  Hebron  arrived  this  afternoon  to  offer  their 
congratulations.  They  proposed  to  remain  all 
night  under  a  tent.  This  evening  being  the  anni- 
versary of  the  dedication  of  our  synagogue  at 
Ramsgate,  and  also  of  our  marriage,  according  to 
the  Hebrew  date,  the  30th  of  Sivan,  the  prayers 
were  read  by  the  whole  company  in  the  open  air. 
Chairs  were  brought  out,  but  many  preferred  sit- 
ting on  the  ground,  observing  that  the  mountain 
itself  afforded  a  better  seat  than  the  most  costly 
divan,  for  that  it  was  the  chosen  spot  of  the 
Most  High.  Having  gone  through  the  several 
parts  of  the  service  proper  for  the  occasion,  wine, 
liqueurs,  and  cake  were  served  round  to  the 
visitors,  who  seemed  greatly  to  enjoy  the  treat, 
and  expressed  themselves  in  terms  of  praise  to 
God,  and  with  the  most  ardent  sentiments  of 
attachment  towards  ourselves. 

The  Arab  soldiers  and  janissaries  were  also 


supplied  with  cake  and  red  water,  having  par- 
taken of  which  they  commenced  singing,  and 
performed  several  of  their  national  dances  with 
the  naked  sword.  The  governor  sent  a  handsome 

Arabian   horse   for   M to   ride   to-morrow 

through  the  city,  and  which  on  being  tried,  was 
found  extremely  spirited. 

Wednesday,  June  12.  Jerusalem. — At  a  quarter 
past  three  we  were  called,  in  order  to  commence 
early  preparations  for  entering  the  city.  The 
governor  arrived  at  six  o'clock,  attended  by  his 
officers  and  suite.  Coffee,  cibouks,  and  a  plate  of 
cake  were  served,  his  excellency  giving  a  piece 
of  the  latter  to  each  of  his  suite.  After  some  con- 
versation, we  rose  to  depart.  M expressed 

his  wish  to  ride  his  own  horse,  thinking  that  sent 
for  him  too  spirited,  but  the  governor  replied  that 
two  young  men  were  appointed  to  walk  by  his 
side.  All  the  party  being  mounted,  the  governor 
led  the  way,  attended  by  his  officers.  The  chief 
of  the  cavalry  arranged  the  order  of  march,  and 
two  soldiers  with  long  muskets  were  appointed 
immediately  to  precede  me.  The  scene  produced 
by  this  descent  of  the  Mount  of  Olives,  passing 
as  we  were  through  the  most  romantic  defiles, 
and  with  long  lines  of  Turkish  soldiers,  mounted 
on  noble  Arab  horses  and  dressed  in  the  most 
costly  costume,  cannot  be  easily  described.  More 


honour,  they  said,  could  not  have  been  paid  even 
to  a  king. 

We  entered  the  city  through  the  Gate  of  the 
Tribes.  The  streets  were  narrow,  and  almost 
filled  up  with  loose  stones,  and  the  ruins  of  houses 
which  had  fallen  to  decay.  Our  guards  on  each 
side  were  busily  engaged  in  keeping  off  the 
people,  a  precaution  rendered  necessary  to  lessen 
the  danger  of  contagion.  Having  passed  through 
the  bazaar,  we  entered  the  Jewish  quarter  of  the 
town,  and  which  appeared  the  cleanest  of  any  we 
had  traversed. 

The  streets,  every  lattice,  and  all  the  tops  of 
the  houses  were  thronged  with  children  and 
veiled  females.  Bands  of  music,  and  choirs  of 
singers  welcomed  our  arrival  with  melodies  com- 
posed for  the  occasion,  while  every  now  and  then 
the  loud  quick  clapping  of  hands  gave  signal  that 
the  whole  vast  crowd  of  spectators  was  striving 
to  give  expression  to  popular  delight.  Having 
reached  the  synagogue,  the  governor  entered  with 

us,  and  then  said,  addressing  M ,  he  would 

leave  us  to  our  devotions,  and  that  his  officers 
should  attend  us  when  we  pleased  to  return  to 

our   encampment.      M was   called   to   the 

Sepher,  and  offered  for  all  our  friends  in  England 

as  well  as  for  those  present.      I  was  allowed  the 

honour  of  lighting  four  lamps  in  front  of  the  altar, 

u  2 


and  putting  the  bells  on  the  Sepher.  Blessings 

were  then  given  for  M and  me,  and  for  the 

party.  We  then  went  successively  to  three  other 
Portuguese,  and  two  German  synagogues,  one  of 
which  belongs  to  Mr.  Lehren,  of  Amsterdam.  A 
new  synagogue  and  ten  houses  are  partly  built, 
but  for  want  of  funds  remain  unfinished.  Bless- 
ings at  each  place  of  devotion  were  offered  up  for 
us,  and  no  sight  can  I  imagine  more  impressive  or 
delightful  than  that  which  was  thus  exhibited. 

On  our  return  the  streets  presented  the  same 
thronged  and  festive  appearance  as  before,  and 
thousands  of  good  wishes  and  prayers  were  pre- 
sented to  heaven  for  our  peace  and  happiness.  In 
our  progress  we  called  at  Mr.  Young's  and  Mr. 
Amslack's  and  were  received  with  great  kindness, 
and  treated  with  coffee,  sherbet,  and  cake. 

While  M proceeded  to  the  governor's,  I 

remained  at  Mr.  Lehren's  synagogue.  I  was  most 
thankful  when  they  returned,  for  though  the  kind 
people  had  not  ceased  to  show  me  attention,  and 
heap  their  good  things  before  me,  such  was  the 
fatigue  I  had  suffered  that  I  found  myself  falling- 
asleep  at  almost  every  sentence  they  uttered. 

We  returned  by  the  tower  of  David,  the  valley 
of  Jehoshaphat,  Mount  Zion,  and  Mount  Moriah. 

M was  as  fatigued  as  myself,  though  both 

full  of  thankful  and  satisfactory  reflections.  He 


sent  the  governor  a  present  of  a  hundred  dollars, 
which  in  handsome  terms  he  declined  accepting. 

Thursday,  June  13.  Jerusalem.  Mount  of  Olives. 
— All  this  day  has  been  occupied  with  persons 
who  have  come  to  our  encampment  requesting 
assistance,  with  reading  their  letters,  and  con- 
sidering the  best  manner  of  relieving  their  dis- 
tress. The  difficulty  of  procuring  cash  was  most 
perplexing,  there  being  no  banker  here,  and 

neither  Mr.  A nor  the  British  consul  being 

able  to  supply  any.  The  former  could  merely 
muster  a  hundred  pounds,  and  Zafed  and  Tiberias 
had  made  fearful  inroads  upon  our  supply  taken 
from  Beyrout.  At  last,  with  what  we  could  spare, 

M resolved  to  give  an  order  on  Beyrout  to 

make  up  the  sum  he  wished  to  give  to  the  German 
and  Portuguese  congregations  in  this  city — the 
prevalence  of  the  plague  preventing  his  distri- 
buting it  himself,  as  he  did  at  Zafed  and  Tiberias. 

In  the  course  of  the  day  the  ladies  of  a  charity 
for  the  relief  of  the  sick,  and  for  the  apportioning 
of  poor  young  women,  called,  and  brought  a  letter, 
requesting  me  to  become  patroness  of  the  charity, 
and  to  allow  my  name  to  be  placed  at  the  head 
of  the  institution.  I  consented,  and  we  sent  them 
a  donation.  The  servants  and  attendants  of  the 
governor,  and  the  composer  of  a  song  for  us  were 
remunerated,  and  the  poor  Mussulmans  received 


Intelligence  was  brought  us  that  the  poor  man, 
a  good  and  industrious  person,  who  killed  a  sheep 
for  us  on  Friday  last,  and  who  appeared  to  be 
only  about  thirty  years  of  age,  and  in  the  best 
health,  had  died  of  the  plague. 

We  have  now  happily  settled  many  of  our  little 
affairs,  and  all  with  whom  we  have  been  con- 
cerned appear  highly  contented.  The  three  hun- 
dred and  seventy-six  dollars  brought  from  Dr. 
Herschell  and  our  E-amsgate  synagogue  are  to  be 

distributed  to-morrow.  M is  now  writing 

a  note  to  Dr.  Keith,  thanking  him  for  the  present 
of  his  book  on  the  "  Literal  Fulfilment  of  Pro- 

It  is  a  lovely  evening  :  the  new  moon  is  up, 
and  the  heavens  are  full  of  stars,  while  a  disposi- 
tion to  thought  clears  away  the  mists  of  time. 
Fresh  and  sweet  sounds  the  song  of  David :  "  The 
heavens  declare  the  glory  of  God,  and  the  firma- 
ment sheweth  his  handy- work  :  day  unto  day 
uttereth  speech,  and  night  unto  night  sheweth 

Under  the  soft  rays  of  this  delicious  and  starry 
evening  our  friends  continue  to  assemble,  and  it 
is  their  purpose  to  remain  all  night  upon  the  spot, 
that  they  may  be  ready  to  anticipate  our  depar- 
ture in  the  morning  from  the  mountains  of  Zion. 
As  they  keep  the  watches  through  the  solemn 
hours  of  repose,  may  they  not  seem  like  those 


who,  in  days  long  gone  by,  heard  pealing  from  the 
temple, "  Behold,  bless  ye  the  Lord,  all  ye  servants 
of  the  Lord,  which  by  night  stand  in  the  house 
of  the  Lord.  Lift  up  your  hands  in  the  sanctuary, 
and  bless  the  Lord.  The  Lord  that  made  heaven 
and  earth,  bless  thee  out  of  Zion?"  Psalm  cxxiv. 

We  yesterday  went  to  inspect  the  western  wall 
of  the  temple  of  Solomon.  How  wonderful  .that 
it  should  have  so  long  defied  the  ravages  of  time! 
The  huge  stones  seem  to  cling  together ;  to  be 
cemented  by  a  power  mightier  than  decay,  that 
they  may  be  a  memorial  of  Israel's  past  glory : 
and  oh  !  may  they  not  be  regarded  as  a  sign  of 
future  greatness,  when  Israel  shall  be  redeemed, 
and  the  whole  world  shall,  with  one  accord,  sing 
praises  to  Israel's  God! 

Friday,  June  14.  Jerusalem  to  Hebron. — Arose 
at  half-past  three  o'clock,  it  being  our  wish  to 
depart  in  the  cool  of  the  morning.  When  my 

dear  M 's  horse  was  to  be  prepared,  the  saddle 

could  nowhere  be  found.  At  length  it  was  sug- 
gested that  it  must  have  been  sent  home  with 
the  Moussellim's  horse.  We  were  accordingly 
detained  till  it  could  be  sent  for. 

Several  of  the  persons  named  before  had  re- 
mained through  the  night,  and  now  proposed  to 
accompany  us  the  whole  way  to  Hebron.  This 
we  could  not  allow.  At  six  o'clock  we  took  a 


parting  view  of  Zion,  Mount  Moriah,  and  the 
numberless  objects  which  our  religion  has  con- 
secrated as  monuments  of  a  glory,  passed,  indeed, 
as  to  its  visible  splendour,  but  ever  bright  and 
present  to  the  hearts  of  the  children  of  Israel. 

Oh!  who  could  dwell  upon  such  scenes,  and 
not  glow  with  devotion  and  holy  love  !  Who 
could  look  upon  the  spots  which  Moses  and  Aaron 
had  in  anxious  prospect ;  spots  familiar  to  the 
eyes  of  David  and  Solomon ;  and  that  most  sacred 
of  all,  where  our  father  Abraham  was  directed  to 
offer  up  his  only  son  Isaac,  through  whom  all  the 
families  of  the  earth  were  to  be  blessed.  Oh !  who 
could  look  upon  such  scenes,  and  not  ask,  When 
shall  the  days  come  when  the  voice  of  the  Lord 
shall  be  heard,  saying,  "Break  forth  into  joy :  sing 
together,  ye  waste  places  of  Jerusalem:  for  the 
Lord  hath  comforted  his  people:  he  hath  redeemed 
Jerusalem.  The  Lord  hath  made  bare  his  holy 
arm  in  the  eyes  of  all  the  nations  :  and  all  the 
ends  of  the  earth  shall  see  the  salvation  of  our 
God?"— Isaiah  lii.  9,  10. 

Mr.  A and  two  deputies  soon  joined  us  on 

the  road,  with  the  intention,  they  stated,  of  accom- 
panying us  to  Hebron.  On  reaching  Rachael's 
tomb,  we  found  several  of  our  brethren  assembled 
there,  in  expectation  of  our  arrival.  Here  we 
read  prayers,  and  I  inscribed  my  name,  amid 

HEBRON.  297 

many  thousands  of  others,  on  the  sacred  monu- 
ment. The  wall  is  fast  crumbling  into  ruins, 
and  we  directed  inquiries  to  be  made  as  to  the 
sum  required  for  its  repair. 

The  remainder  of  our  road  lay  through  a  wild 
and  rocky  district,  till  we  reached  a  green  and 
fertile  spot,  where  there  was  a  large  reservoir  of 
water,  called  Berekat  David,  and  said  to  have 
been  formed  in  the  time  of  that  monarch ;  the 
water  being  conducted  by  an  aqueduct  to  the 
very  courts  of  the  temple. 

Having  breakfasted  at  this  pleasant  spot,  we 
pursued  our  journey,  which  now  conducted  us 
through  vineyards  and  hills  covered  with  fig  and 
olive-trees.  Several  of  the  Hhakhamim  came  out 
to  meet  us,  and  at  six  o'clock  we  encamped  in  a 
beautiful  valley,  near  Jacob's  Well,  and  sur- 
rounded by  green  and  well- wooded  hills. 

Saturday,  June  15.  Hebron.  Went  to  the 
Portuguese  synagogue.  The  streets  of  this  town, 
like  most  others  in  Syria,  are  narrow,  and  full  of 
stones  and  rubbish.  Apparently  the  houses  are 
built  without  timber,  and  no  paint  is  applied, 
either  for  use  or  decoration.  But  the  inhabitants 
are  accustomed  to  no  better  dwellings,  and  the 
enthusiastic  feelings  inspired  by  the  knowledge 
that  they  are  living  in  the  land  of  their  fathers 
and  of  the  patriarchs,  supply  a  resolution  more 


than  sufficient  to  enable  them  to  support  their 
privations  and  trials. 

The  same  honours  as  on  former  occasions  were 
paid  us  at  synagogue,  and  the  chiefs  accompanied 
us  back  to  the  encampment.  Soon  after  the 
Moussellim  was  announced,  and  he  had  brought 
us  four  sheep  as  a  present ;  but  as  he  had  not  come 
to  meet  us  with  the  same  respect  which  had  been 
shown  at  Zaf ed  and  Jerusalem,  we  refused  to  ac- 
cept the  offering,  and  kept  him  waiting  till  the 
conclusion  of  our  breakfast.  This  show  of  spirit 
and  consequence  is  necessary  with  Mussulmans, 
and  we  reaped  the  advantage  of  it  in  the  present 
instance,  for  on  our  going  out  to  receive  the  old 
gentleman  we  found  him  attended  by  several  of 
his  officers  and  servants  awaiting  our  appearance 
outside  the  cordon,  we  being  still  in  quarantine. 
Apologies  were  straightway  made  for  the  seem- 
ing neglect,  and  it  was  stated  that  Thursday  had 
been  named  as  the  day  of  our  arrival,  the  chiefs  of 
the  synagogue  being  charged  with  the  blame  at- 
tending the  error.  Had  this  not  been  the  case, 
added  the  governor,  he  would  have  rendered  us  all 
the  honours  to  which  we  had  so  proper  a  claim. 
When  he  had  taken  coffee  and  cake,  and  was 
making  us  many  offers  of  service,  we  asked  if  the 
cave  of  Machpelah  could  be  visited  by  Franks. 
He  shook  his  head,  and  said  with  great  conse- 

HEBRON.  299 

quence,  "  Oh,  no,  impossible  ! "  There  were, 
however,  he  said,  many  other  places  of  great  inte- 
rest to  visit — the  tombs  of  Abner,  Ruth,  Jesse, 
the  father  of  David,  and  Athniel,  the  Son  of 

The  country  here  is  extremely  rich  in  vine- 
yards, and  the  hills  are  clothed  with  olive-trees, 
pomegranates,  figs,  tamarinds,  and  apricots. 
How  greatly  should  I  enjoy  having  a  house  in  this 
extensive  plain,  where  our  tents  are  now  pitched, 
and  where  I  could  linger  as  long  as  I  chose,  con- 
templating the  sublime  mountain  scenery,  wan- 
dering amid  the  monuments  of  the  founders  and 
teachers  of  our  nation  ;  and  combining  with  this 
higher  species  of  enjoyment  the  comforts  and  the 
usefulness  of  domestic  life. 

Almost  the  whole  day  was  occupied  in  receiv- 
ing visits.  Some  of  the  ladies  are  very  pretty 
and  agreeable.  They  marry  at  fourteen  or  fifteen, 
and  many  at  thirty  years  of  age  are  grandmothers. 
The  girls  wore  a  profusion  of  artificial  flowers  on 
their  heads,  their  long  tresses  hanging  down  their 
backs.  We  received  many  presents  of  cake  and 

Sunday,  June  16.  Hebron. — The  lists  of  the 
people  were  brought  according  to  request ;  but  as 
usual  many  alterations  were  required.  While  at 
breakfast  under  an  olive-tree,  we  heard  the  sound 


of  the  Zoomma'rah,  or  double-reed  pipe,  and  sent 
Saad  Eddin,  one  of  our  janissaries,  to  purchase  it. 
The  drum  was  immediately  taken  by  Hhasan,  our 
black  soldier  from  the  governor  of  Bey  rout ;  and 
with  Amin,  the  janissary  from  Tiberias,  he  struck 
up  a  concert  which  set  the  mukkarries  dancing  in 
succession,  from  the  black  slave  to  the  old  Druse  ; 
each  dance  differing  from  the  other,  and  all  dis- 
playing grace  in  attitude  and  figure.  Saad- 
Eddin,  however,  excelled  the  whole  by  his  agility 
in  the  sword-dance,  and  the  skill  with  which  he 
displayed  his  handkerchief  in  various  forms,  as 
the  gift  of  his  friend.  This  concluded  by  an 
encounter  with  Amin,  in  a  graceful  sparring 
match;  Saad-Eddin  conquered  by  striking  his 
sword  on  the  top  of  Amin's  head,  on  which  the 
latter  had  taken  the  precaution  of  placing  his 
handkerchief.  The  governor  paid  us  another 
visit — a  great  mark  of  respect  and  distinction. 
He  repeated  his  apologies  for  not  corning  to  meet 
us  on  the  road,  and  renewed  his  offers  of  services 
His  tone  was  subdued  in  respect  to  our  visiting 
the  holy  places,  for  which  he  volunteered  his 
services.  The  sheikh  who  visited  us  yesterday 
sent  us  a  present  of  a  large  jar  of  fresh  butter  and 
one  of  honey. 

Mr.  A came  and  breakfasted,  and  passed 

the  day  with  us  ;  he  had  his  carpet  and  cushion 

HEBRON.  301 

with  him,  and  remained  outside  the  tent 
on  account  of  quarantine.  He  brought  me  a 
large  bottle  of  ottar  of  roses,  a  present  from  his 
lady.  The  four  sheep  given  us  by  the  governor 
were  submitted  to  the  knife,  and  the  parts  appro- 
priated to  the  priests,  presented  to  them  with 
the  accustomed  prayer,  were  accepted  with  grate- 
ful thanks  and  blessings.  The  fore-quarters 
were  devoted  to  poor  families,  and  our  mukkaries 
have  this  evening  a  feast  with  the  hind-quarters. 
Again  we  have  received  presents  of  cake,  wine, 
and  liqueurs,  and  that  opportunely,  considering 
the  number  of  kind  visitors  whom  we  have  to 
entertain.  To-day  also  there  were  brought  us 
the  lists  of  the  Jewish  population,  and  with  them 
certificates  of  seats  for  our  occupation  in  the 
German  and  Portuguese  synagogues,  transferred 

to   both   M and   myself  for   ever.      These 

documents  were  accompanied  with  the  most 
affecting  and  enthusiastic  expressions  of  regard. 
We  were  also  requested  to  become  patrons  of  an 
institution  for  the  promotion  of  Talmud  Tora, 
the  study  of  our  Holy  Law,  to  the  appellation  of 
which  they  did  us  the  honour  of  adding  our 
names  ;  and  the  distinction  of  patroness  of  their 
institution  for  the  sick  and  for  the  apportioning 
of  young  women  was  conferred  upon  me. 

Never  was  I  more  deeply  impressed  with  devo- 


tional  feelings  than  amid  the  scenes  which  here 
surround  us.  This  is  the  burial  place  of  Abraham, 
Isaac,  and  Jacob ;  of  Sarah  and  Leah ;  and  the 
water  which  we  drink  is  drawn  from  the  well  of 
Jacob.  How  sad  it  is  that  the  terrors  of  a  des- 
potic government  should  throw  so  dark  a  shade 
over  a  region  and  objects  so  noble  and  so  sublime  ! 

The  Hhakhamim  expressed  great  surprise  that 
all  the  four  sheep  proved  Kasher.  Ten  were 
killed  on  Friday  last,  and  only  two  were  fitting 
for  use.  The  circumstance  was  regarded  as  a 
peculiar  mark  of  favour.  They  called  this  Valley 
of  Hebron  the  Valley  of  Flowers  ;  and  one  of  the 
oldest  of  them  brought  me  a  bunch  of  beautiful 
carnations  from  the  gardens.  The  females  ex- 
pressed themselves  delighted  at  our  presence,  and 
said  that,  if  we  would  stay  among  them,  they 
would  every  day  walk  with  me  in  the  neighbour- 
ing vineyards  and  on  the  hills,  embellished  with 
the  loveliest  shades,  and  sanctified  by  the  tombs 
of  the  great,  the  pious,  and  the  learned. 

We  have  some  hopes  of  visiting  the  cave  of 
Machpelah  to-morrow  morning.  The  sheikh  has 
promised  to  escort  us. 

Monday,  June  17.  Hebron. — Agreeably  to  our 
engagement  with  the  governor  and  the  sheikh, 
they  arrived  a  little  before  nine,  accompanied  by 
their  suite,  the  chiefs  of  the  Portuguese  and  Ger- 

HEBRON.  303 

man  synagogues.  The  party  being  assembled, 
coffee,  pipes,  and  other  refreshments  were  served 
with  all  due  attention  to  Eastern  etiquette,  the 
principal  personages  seating  themselves  cross- 
legged,  and  the  rest  standing  behind.  But  little 
time  was  spent  before  all  was  in  readiness  for  our 
departure.  We  were  soon  mounted — Armstrong, 
Ann,  Ibrahim,  our  janissaries,  and  soldiers  escort- 
ing us,  and  many  of  our  brethren  following  on 
foot,  all  eager  to  obtain  admission  to  a  sight  of  the 
venerated  spot  where  repose  the  patriarchs  Abra- 
ham, Isaac,  and  Jacob.  As  we  paraded  through 
the  streets,  many  a  proud  Mussulman  eyed  us 
with  jealous  scrutiny.  The  inhabitants  of  Hebron 
differ  from  their  turbaned  brethren  of  Jerusalem 
and  other  cities.  Much  of  urbanity  and  kind- 
ness are  discernible  in  the  conduct  of  the  latter, 
while  the  former,  strutting  about,  or  seated  on 
the  side  of  the  streets,  seem  only  anxious  to 
show  the  pride,  and  exercise  the  violence,  of 

On  arriving  at  the  gate  of  the  mosque,  we 
found  a  great  crowd  assembled,  and  consisting 
chiefly  of  Turks,  among  whom  was  a  dervish,  the 
sound  of  whose  hideous  cries,  as  he  shook  his 
head  and  tossed  his  arms  furiously  about,  his 
whole  appearance  rendered  doubly  frightful  by  a 
dark  grizzly  beard,  was  almost  enough  to  terrify 


a  bolder  heart  than  mine.  To  his  hideous  yells,  as 
we  continued  to  approach,  were  added  those  of 
the  multitude,  but  encouraged  by  the  governor 
and  cadi,  who  led  the  way,  we  dismounted  and 
gained  an  entrance.  It  was  soon  apparent, 
however,  that  the  authority  of  office  exercises 
little  influence  here.  A  turbulent  throng  of 
Mussulmans  was  collected  in  the  interior  of  the 
mosque,  and  they  were  soon  joined  by  the  raving 
dervish.  In  the  meantime  the  noise  outside  con- 
tinued to  increase,  and  the  Jews,  who  were 
anxiously  waiting  to  obtain  a  sight  of  the  bury- 
ing-place  of  their  revered  forefathers,  experienced 
the  most  violent  insults.  The  Moslem,  with  pale 
face,  pointed  to  an  iron  door,  saying  that  it  was 
that  which  led  to  the  interior  of  the  cave.  But 
the  rage  of  the  Turks,  and  the  howling  of  the 
dervish  now  became  more  violent  than  ever,  and 
we  decided  that  it  would  be  prudent  to  retire 
without  attempting  a  further  entrance.  We  ac- 
cordingly retreated  as  we  had  advanced;  the 
governor  and  cadi,  with  their  officers,  preceding 
us.  Hhasan  and  Saad-Eddin  behaved  most  vali- 
antly, repulsing  with  their  silver-headed  canes 
those  who  had  assailed  our  poor  brethren,  and 
exultingly  challenging  a  dozen  at  a  time.  On 
leaving  this  scene  of  fanatic  fury,  the  governor 
attempted  some  apology  for  what  had  occurred, 

HEBRON.  305 

observing  that  it  was  impossible  for  him  to 
check  the  violence  of  religious  enthusiasm.  This 
might  be  true,  but  as  governor  of  a  town  he 
should  have  known  better  the  extent  and  force 
of  his  authority,  and  not  have  allowed  us  to  en- 
counter so  much  confusion  and  alarm.  We  made 
no  reply,  but  rode  on  to  our  encampment,  thank- 
ful and  happy  that  we  had  escaped  without  in- 
jury. The  contrast  between  the  scene  which  we 
had  just  witnessed,  and  the  calm  beauty  of  the 
Vale  of  Flowers,  with  the  grandeur  and  tran- 
quility  of  the  surrounding  country,  could  not  but 
excite  in  our  minds  some  sad  reflections  on  the 
fearful  opposition  which  the  passions  of  mankind 
are  ever  making  to  the  wisdom  and  benevolence 
of  the  Deity. 

But  impressed  as  we  were  with  these  feelings, 
it  was  not  to  be  forgotten  that  even  in  this  land 
of  oppression  improvement  has  taken  place.  A 
year  or  two  back,  had  any  of  our  brethren  ven- 
tured to  walk  where  now  our  tents  are  pitched, 
they  would  have  been  in  danger  of  being  stoned 
by  the  Arabs.  Our  position  is  not  without  its 
perils,  but  these  are  occasioned  by  the  marauders 
of  the  desert,  not  far  from  which  we  are  en- 
camped, and  the  governor  has  granted  us  an 
extra  nightly  guard.  The  only  curiosity  which 
attracted  our  notice  in  our  way  to  the  cave 


were  two  immense  stones,  nine  yards  and  a  half 
long  by  one  yard  broad. 

Two  of  the  Pakidim  came  to  inform  us  that 
the  congregation  was  in  great  uneasiness ;  that 
the  Mussulmans  had  collected  in  considerable 
numbers,  and  were  beating  the  Israelites  with 
sticks,  and  otherwise  ill-using  them;  that  many 
of  the  sufferers  were  obliged  to  seek  their  beds, 
while  others  were  trembling  at  the  possibility  of 
receiving  yet  greater  injuries.  In  great  dismay 
we  consulted  what  was  to  be  done,  when  it  was 
determined  that  a  messenger  should  be  sent  to 
the  governor  of  Jerusalem,  who  on  our  quitting 
that  city  had  recommended  an  additional  escort. 
Dr.  Loewe  wrote  an  Arabic  letter  to  his  excel- 
lency, describing  the  occurrence  of  the  forenoon, 
and  asking  protection.  Our  fears  continued,  but 
nothing  further  happened  to  increase  the  appre- 
hension of  danger.  In  the  course  of  the  after- 
noon we  went  to  the  synagogue,  when  rny  dear 
M— —  distributed  the  money  destined  for  the 
poor  in  the  same  manner  as  at  Zafed  and  Tiberias. 
We  found  that  the  reports  respecting  the  injuries 
that  had  been  received  were  somewhat  exagge- 
rated. At  half-past  six  we  returned  to  our  tents. 
Many  persons  visited  us  during  the  evening, 
which  did  not  pass  without  some  feeling  of  alarm- 
occasionally  intruding  itself.  The  fire-arms  were 

HEBRON.  307 

carefully  examined  before  we  retired  to  rest,  but 
happily  nothing  took  place  to  disturb  the  repose 
in  which  we  forgot  the  turmoils  of  the  past  day. 

Tuesday,  June  18.  Olive-ground  in  the  Valley 
of  Flowers. — The  night  passed  peaceably.  We, 
therefore,  with  the  blessing  of  Providence,  pur- 
pose setting  off  this  afternoon.  At  nine  o'clock 

we  rode  to  the  German  synagogue,  where  M 

officiated  as  godfather,  and  I  as  godmother,  to 

the  child  of  M.  S.  S ,  who  is  at  present  in 

Europe,  whither  he  has  been  sent  by  his  congre- 
gation to  collect  contributions  for  their  support. 
This  is  the  third  honour  of  the  kind  which  we 
have  received  during  our  sojourn  in  the  Holy 

At  half -past  three,  all  being  in  readiness,  we 
took  our  departure  from  the  olive  ground  ac- 
companied by  vast  numbers  of  Hhakhamim,  and 
members  of  the  congregations.  In  a  few  minutes 
the  governor  and  sheikh,  with  their  attendants, 
rode  up  to  us,  and  continued  to  accompany  us 
about  half  an  hour.  They  repeated  their 
apologies  for  the  disagreeable  result  of  yester- 
day's excursion  to  the  shrine  of  Abraham  ;  but 
we  assured  them  that  as  the  danger  had  passed, 
so  had  vanished  our  uncomfortable  feelings.  Our 
recollection  we  added,  was  now  wholly  occupied 
with  the  kindness  and  honours  which  we  had 
x  2 


experienced  from  all  classes  during  our  stay  in 
their  ancient  and  venerated  city. 

After  a  most  cordial  farewell,  we  pursued  our 
route,  chanting  the  Psalms  of  David  in  chorus 
with  many  of  our  brethren,  who,  notwithstand- 
ing our  entreaties  that  they  would  not  continue 
such  a  journey  on  foot,  still  proceeded,  pouring 
out  prayers  for  our  welfare  and  felicity,  and  other 
expressions  of  gratitude  and  regard.  A  horseman 
was  now  seen  approaching  us  at  full  speed.  It 
was  Amin,  our  faithful  messenger,  on  his  return. 
Then  were  espied  numbers  of  soldiers  galloping 
over  the  hills,  their  swords  and  spears  glittering 
in  the  sun.  It  was  a  troop  of  horse,  consisting 
of  twenty- one  picked  men,  sent  by  our  excellent 
friend  the  governor  of  Jerusalem.  His  aga 
approached  at  full  speed,  attended  by  his  chief 
officer,  who  having  descended  from  their  fine 
Arabian  chargers,  presented  a  letter  from  their 
master,  holding  another  to  the  governor  of 
Hebron.  The  one  to  us  was  as  friendly  and 
affectionate  as  though  he  had  been  a  brother, 
saying,  that  if  his  advice  had  been  followed,  all 
the  unpleasant  occurrences  of  yesterday  would 
have  been  spared  us,  and  that  immediately  on 
receiving  our  letter  he  had  despatched  twenty- 
one  of  his  best  soldiers  for  our  protection.  Who 
could  describe  the  fulness  of  our  hearts  as  we 

HEBRON.  309 

turned  our  horses'  heads  again  towards  Hebron, 
escorted  by  so  numerous  a  troop,  presenting  the 
most  martial  appearance,  as  well  as  by  seventeen 
of  our  own  attendants.  With  this  formidable 
company  we  again  took  possession  of  the  olive- 
ground,  resolving  to  encamp  there  for  the  night, 
and  to  manifest  by  every  means  in  our  power  the 
joy  we  felt  at  the  proof  here  given,  that  difference 
of  religion  does  not  always  preclude  amity,  or 
render  impossible  a  reciprocity  of  kindness.  The 

aga,  addressing  himself  to  my  dear  M ,  on 

delivering  the  letter,  said  that  he  and  his  men 
were  sent  to  protect  us,  and  that  they  were  ready 
to  shed  their  blood  in  that  duty.  Our  return  to 
Hebron  was  not  caused  \>y  a  feeling  of  bravado, 
but  that  we  might  refresh  the  men  after  a 
fatiguing  ride,  though  certainly  not  without  the 
desire  of  shaming  our  rude  assailants  by  ex- 
hibiting the  conduct  of  others  in  contrast  with 
their  own.  We  could  now  with  safety  have 
visited  the  cave,  which  we  venerate  equally  with 
themselves,  but  what  we  did  not  obtain  with 
complacency,  we  would  not  by  obtrusion.  The 
soldiers  asked  permission  to  fire  their  pistols  as 
they  entered  the  field.  It  was  certainly  an 
animating  occurrence,  and  one  never  to  be  erased 
from  our  memory,  that  the  Almighty  should 
permit  the  children  of  Israel  to  be  protected  by 


an  armed  force  of  Mussulmans  in  the  land  of  their 
ancestors.  Soon  were  we  again  surrounded  by 
numbers  of  our  brethren,  their  wives  and  children. 
Nine  sheep  were  ordered  to  be  killed  immediately, 
and  bonfires  to  be  made  round  the  field.  Some 
of  the  sheep  were  roasted  whole.  It  was  a  joyful 
sight  !  Abundance  of  wine,  bread,  fruit,  vege- 
tables, and  rice  were  added  to  the  feast,  of  which 
all  partook,  without  distinction  of  religion. 

The  hilarity  continued  to  a  late  hour,  and  the 
firing  throughout  the  night,  only  perhaps  to  the 
annoyance  of  those  who  merited  it.  Tobacco 
was  not  forgotten  among  the  luxuries,  nor  a 
supply  of  gunpowder  for  the  amusement  of 
the  Turks.  While  the  fete  was  being  prepared, 
we  rode  up  the  hill  to  visit  some  ancient  tombs, 
one  of  which  was  that  of  Jesse,  the  father  of 
David,  and  at  which  we  said  our  evening  prayers, 
joined  by  eight  Israelites  who  had  accompanied 
us.  Returning  down  the  hill,  the  sight  that 
presented  itself  to  us  might  well  have  employed 
a  painter's  skill.  The  blazing  fires, — the  whole 
sheep  roasting, — groups  of  Arabs  seated  in  circles, 
some  smoking,  others  singing,  dancing,  cooking, 
or  firing  their  pistols,  formed  a  scene  as  striking 
as  it  was  novel.  Mirth  and  content  were 
diffused  round  an  immense  circle.  Thanks  to 
the  Giver  of  all ! 

HEBRON.  311 

Wednesday r,  June  19. — The  firing  disturbed  us 
throughout  the  night,  but  our  satisfaction  pre- 
cluded the  idea  of  fatigue.  At  half-past  seven 
we  were  all  mounted,  our  valiant  troop  pro- 
ceeding en  avant,  the  splendour  of  the  Turkish 
uniform,  and  the  beauty  of  the  horses  striking  us 
with  admiration.  During  the  day's  journey  they 
amused  us  with  sham  fights,  throwing  the  djerid, 
firing  of  pistols,  rnuskets,  and  feats  of  the  broad- 
sword. It  was  a  most  pleasing  and  entertaining 
morning;  they  were  admirable  horsemen,  and 
threw  the  lance  (while  in  full  gallop)  most  grace- 
fully, attacking  each  other  riding  to  and  fro  in 
circles  up  and  down  the  hills.  At  half -past  nine 
we  stopped  at  the  tomb  of  Nathan  the  prophet, 
and  Gad  the  Seer,  near  the  village  of  Halhool, 
where  we  read  prayers,  and  partook  of  refresh- 
ment. We  remained  till  twelve,  when  our  good 

old  friend  Mr.  A ,  who  had  accompanied  us 

thus  far,  took  his  leave,  intending  to  return  to 
Jerusalem  by  the  direct  road.  We  have  ex- 
perienced every  kind  attention  from  this  gentle- 
man. Our  route  now  continued  along  a  descent 
between  mountains  till  past  two  o'clock,  when 
entering  on  a  plain,  we  dismounted,  and  seated 
ourselves  on  the  grass,  our  extra  guard  forming 

a  circle  around.     My  dear  M ,  on  discharging 

them,  presented  fifty  dollars  to  the  aga,  and  two 


to  each  of 'the  men,  with  a  promise  of  a  supply 
of  English  gunpowder  to  each  on  our  return. 

The  name  of  every  man  was  then  inquired  and 

written  down.  M returned  a  letter  of  thanks 

to  the  governor,  with  a  present  of  a  valuable 
telescope.  Our  road  has  been  to-day  free  from 
precipices,  and  pretty  easy,  the  mountains  richly 
covered  with  ash,  the  plains  well  cultivated  with 
corn  and  olive  trees.  We  encamped  in  a  planta- 
tion of  olives,  near  the  village  of  Zaccaria,  a 
quarter  before  eight  in  the  evening.  My  dear 

M was  greatly  fatigued,  and  he  retired  as 

soon  as  his  bed  was  prepared.  On  carving  some 
poultry  we  had  brought  with  us,  ready  roasted, 
we  were  obliged  to  send  it  immediately  from 
the  table. 

Thursday,  June  20. — My  dear  M feels  so 

indisposed  this  morning,  that  he  entertains  the 
idea  of  proceeding  by  water  from  Jaffa,  should  he 
there  meet  an  Austrian  steam-boat.  But  I  trust 
in  the  Almighty  that  on  arriving  at  that  port, 
his  strength  will  be  sufficiently  renovated  to  con- 
tinue our  equestrian  tour.  We  were  en  route  this 
morning  before  six,  and  passed  through  fertile 
plains,  enlivened  by  herds  of  cattle  and  camels 
laden  with  corn.  At  half-past  ten  we  reposed  at 
Nayani,  under  the  shade  of  a  large  tamarind-tree, 
but  which,  though  extremely  agreeable,  is  not 

BET  DiGON.  313 

equal  to  the  shady  fig-tree,  whose  'spreading 
branches  defy  the  scorching  sun.  Here  we  re- 
mained from  half-past  ten  to  eight,  and  then 
continued  our  journey  to  Bet  Dagon,  where  for- 
merly stood  the  temple  of  Dagon.  See  1  Samuel, 
v.  2,  &c.  It  was  twelve  before  we  arrived,  but 
it  was  a  delightful  moonlight  evening,  and  the 
well- wooded  country  through  which  we  passed 
resembled  some  of  the  noblemen's  parks  in  Eng- 
land, with  this  difference,  that  instead  of  oak 
there  were  stately  olive-trees,  which  seemed  to  vie 
with  the  noblest  of  the  former  in  size  as  well  as 
age.  The  country  in  the  vicinity  of  Ramlah 
was  equally  beautiful,  and  compensated  us  for  a 
little  fatigue. 

Friday,   June   21.      Bet  Ddgon,  near  Ashdod, 
on   the  sands,  close   to   the  sea,  near   Jaffa. — Set 

off  at   half-past   seven,  my   dear   M weak 

and  poorly.  About  half  way  to  Jaffa,  Amin 
rejoined  us,  with  the  janissary  of  the  British 
consul,  who  would  have  come  himself,  but  that 
the  plague  is  in  the  city.  We  rode  to  the 
sands,  close  to  the  sea,  and  pitched  our  tents. 
Here  we  were  soon  visited  by  the  English  and 
Russian  consuls,  with  their  guardiani,  we,  as 
before,  making  a  lazaretto  of  our  tents.  Their 
information  respecting  the  state  of  the  country 
was  not  the  most  encouraging.  They  represented 


it  as  verjr  disturbed,  and  added  that  the  roads 
hence  to  Beyrout  were  extremely  insecure.  What 
was  to  be  done  ?  we  could  not  remain  stationary 
where  we  then  were.  Presents  of  various  kinds, 
as  usual,  flocked  in  from  the  governor,  the  cadi, 
and  consuls,  and  we  had  a  quantity  of  fine  water- 
melons, and  different  sorts  of  fruit,  butter,  fish, 
&c.,  but  we  could  obtain  neither  meat  nor 
poultry,  as  the  Shohe't  had  quitted  on  account 
of  the  plague.  A  good  supply  of  excellent  fish 

sufficed  in  their  stead.    M rested  during  the 

day,  but  arose  and  dressed  for  sabbath. 

Saturday,  June  22.  Jaffa. — On  a  sandy  shore 
near  the  sea,  seated  in  Dr.  Loewe's  tent,  we  read 
our  sabbath  prayers.  The  weather  is  fine,  but 
warm,  according  with  the  climate.  We  had  made 
rather  too  free  an  inroad  into  the  plentiful  supply 
of  apricots  and  water-melons  sent  us  yesterday, 
but  having  nothing  to  interrupt  the  day's  tran- 
quillity, rest  restored  us.  The  British,  Russian, 
and  Prussian  consuls  visited  us,  and  remained 
some  time  supporting  a  very  agreeable  conversa- 
tion. The  Russian  gentleman  urged  my  accept- 
ance of  a  curious  ancient  silver  ring,  and  two 
antique  coins,  which,  with  M 's  appro- 
bation, I  did  not  refuse.  The  ring  resembles  a 
large  medal,  and  bears  an  Arabic  inscription. 
The  superintendent  of  the  quarantine  also  came 

FROM   JAFFA   TO   EL    KHADAR.  315 

to  our  tents  to  offer  his  services.  M—  —requested 
him  to  give  us  a  certificate  of  health,  and  also  of 
our  having  avoided  entering  the  city,  for  which 
he  requested  his  acceptance  of  twenty  Spanish 
dollars.  We  hope  that  this  document  will  enable 
us  to  pass  to  Beyrout  free  of  quarantine.  In  the 
evening  the  cadi  paid  us  a  visit ;  he  is  brother 
to  our  friend  the  governor  of  Jerusalem,  from 
whom  he  had  received  a  letter  apprising  him 
of  our  intended  visit  to  Jaffa,  and  requesting 
that  every  possible  attention  might  be  shown 
us.  This  request  certainly  has  been  fulfilled 
both  by  the  governor  and  the  cadi  to  the  utmost 
of  our  wishes. 

Sunday,   June    23. — Started    at   ten   minutes 

before  six  o'clock.     My  dear  M finds  himself 

better  this  morning,  and  enjoys  the  ride.  In  the 
course  of  an  hour  we  arrived  at  an  old  stone 
bridge,  fast  mouldering  to  decay;  and  having 
crossed  the  river  Petras,  reached,  by  nine  o'clock, 
the  tomb  of  the  sheikh  Ali  ibn  Alim,  situated  on 
an  eminence  towards  the  sea.  The  district  which 
we  were  now  traversing  was  a  sandy,  arid  waste, 
and  the  only  shelter  to  be  found  was  that  of  a 
mosque,  in  which,  infested  though  it  was  with 
fieas,  we  were  glad  to  rest  for  awhile,  and  partake 
of  breakfast,  the  chief  luxury  of  which  was 
water-melons.  It  was  half -past  two  before  we 


started  again.  The  heat  now  became  almost  in- 
tolerable. About  four  o'clock  we  crossed  the 
river  Nahr  el  Felek,  the  bed  of  which  was  almost 
dry,  while  the  country  around  still  presented  the 
same  wild  and  dreary  aspect,  except  as  it  was  oc- 
casionally relieved  by  the  appearance  of  tobacco- 
plantations  in  full  blossom.  By  six  o'clock  we 
reached  a  wide  and  fertile  plain,  at  the  extremity 
of  which  appeared  the  mountains  of  Carmel,  the 
intervening  lands,  with  the  village  of  Emkhalet, 
its  flocks  and  herds,  and  wells  of  sweet  water, 
offering  to  our  sight,  as  the  moon  rose  and  shed 
its  soft  lustre  around  us,  as  lovely  a  pastoral  scene 
as  poet  or  painter  could  well  imagine.  And  here 
it  was  that  we  formed  our  encampment  for  the 

Monday,  June  24. — We  had  the  courage  to 
rise  at  midnight,  in  order  to  escape  the  heat. 
Two  hours  were  occupied  in  loading  the  mules, 
and  in  other  preparations  for  starting,  among 
which  must  be  mentioned  the  little  repast,  con- 
sisting of  a  nice  cup  of  coffee  and  some  biscuits. 

How  balmy  and  tranquil  was  the  air  at  this 
hour  I  The  whole  world  seemed  to  have  sunk 
into  repose,  while  the  moon  and  stars,  which  had 
lost  none  of  their  brilliancy,  shed  their  delightful 
radiance  on  our  solitary  path.  At  about  four 
o'clock  their  lustre  yielded  to  the  more  powerful 


splendours  of  the  sun,  which  suddenly  shot  above 
the  horizon,  and  majestically  cast  aside  his  noc- 
turnal mantle. 

We  now  crossed  the  river  Kedra,  and  arrived 
at  Minet  el  Batikh,  or  market  of  water-melons, 
and  also  called  Abu  Zabara.  At  a  quarter-past- 
seven  we  reached  the  ancient  town  of  Csesarea, 
the  splendid  ruins  of  which,  with  its  magnificent 
marble  and  granite  columns,  still  testify  the  riches 
of  Herod's  proud  and  favourite  city.  But  it  is 
now  nearly  covered  by  the  sea,  and  the  beholder, 
as  he  contemplates  its  once  noble  harbour,  may 
well  exclaim,  "  How  are  thy  cities  fallen  ! " 

On  leaving  Emkhalet  this  morning,  it  required 
all  the  sagacity  of  our  horses  to  preserve  us  from 
accidents,  as  we  passed  the  many  cavities  in  the 
road  near  the  village,  and  which  owe  their  origin 
to  the  existence  of  numerous  subterranean 
magazines  for  corn.  When  these  dangers  were 
escaped,  the  ride  along  the  sands,  till  we  reached 
Csesarea,  was  truly  delightful.  Having  break- 
fasted, and  reposed  till  a  quarter-past  twelve,  I 
employed  myself,  while  preparations  were  being 
made  for  resuming  our  journey,  in  collecting  some 
of  the  beautiful  wild  flowers  which  grew  in  pro- 
fusion around.  I  fear,  however,  that  my  botanical 
treasure  will  meet  with  the  same  fate  as  many  of 
its  predecessors,  and  other  rarities.  When  the 


mules  took  a  fancy  to  roll  themselves  in  the  sand, 
baggage  and  all,  there  was  little  chance  for  our 
curiosities,  and  in  regard  to  flowers,  as  I  had  but 
a  loose  book  in  which  to  place  them,  a  gust  of 
wind,  or  a  precipitous  pass,  was  usually  sufficient 
to  destroy  the  fruits  of  my  diligence. 

At  half-past  one  we  were  again  on  our  way, 
and  in  the  course  of  two  hours  crossed  the  river 
Zarka,  where  we  observed  the  ruins  of  an  ancient 
bridge.  We  again  crossed  the  Zarka  before 
arriving  at  the  village  Tantura,  and  after  a  very 
interesting  journey,  encamped  at  five  minutes 
past  three  close  to  the  sea,  the  light  breezes  from 
which,  though  refreshing,  were  scarcely  sufficient 
to  dissipate  the  sultry  heat  of  the  atmosphere. 
To  our  right,  on  a  hill,  we  observed  the  ruins  of 
an  ancient  castle,  which  added  in  no  slight  degree 
to  the  interest  of  a  scene  in  itself,  with  a  lovely 
evening  to  aid  it,  full  of  sweetness  and  beauty. 

Tuesday,  June  25.  El  Khddar,foot  of  Mount 
Carmel. — In  order  to  reach  Acre,  and  avoid  the 
scorching  heat  of  the  sun,  we  were  called  at 
midnight,  and  very  soon  after  all  hands  were  em- 
ployed in  taking  down  the  tents,  and  in  reloading 
the  mules  and  donkeys,  Ibrahim  not  neglecting  to 
prepare  the  coffee  as  usual.  By  two  o'clock  we 
were  mounted,  and  after  passing  a  short  tract  of 
rocky  and  sandy  ground,  reached  a  fine  open  plain, 

EL   KHADAR.  319 

partly  cultivated  with  barley  and  tobacco,  and 
presenting  in  other  places  a  rich  variety  of  wild 
shrubs,  which  formed  a  gay  mantle  for  the  huge 
fragments  of  rock  that  were  strewed  around. 
Mount  Carmel  bounded  the  distant  view  on  the 
right,  and  to  the  left,  through  the  opening  hills,  we 
caught  frequent  glimpses  of  the  Mediterranean. 

At  about  half-past  three  the  clouds  of  night 
began  to  disappear,  and  the  stars  gradually  waned 
before  the  rising  dawn,  which  now  shed  its  lustre 
over  the  surrounding  scenes.  Within  about  two 
hours  of  this  place,  one  of  the  janissaries  informed 
Dr.  Loewe  that  some  curious  remains  were  to  be 
seen  towards  our  left.  This  information  induced 
us  to  seek  the  spot,  and  traversing  the  plain  for 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  we  came  to  some 
remains  of  an  ancient  fortress,  called  by  the 
natives  Atlik,  and  situated  close  to  the  sea.  A 
gate,  magnificent  even  in  its  ruins,  then  presented 
itself.  Its  sculpture  and  architecture  resembled 
those  of  the  most  ancient  times,  except  the  form 
of  the  entrance,  which  was  arched,  and  therefore 
belonged  to  a  later  period.  A  few  steps  further, 
towards  the  entrance,  we  perceived  a  square  aper- 
ture in  the  roof  of  the  building,  and  which  for- 
merly served  to  let  down  an  immense  monolith, 
to  bar  the  entrance  in  case  of  attack,  being  simi- 
lar to  those  gates  seen  even  at  the  present  day 
in  the  pyramid  of  Geezah. 


Proceeding  towards  the  northern  part  of  the 
village,  opposite  to  the  gate,  we  came  to  an  im- 
mensely strong  wall,  facing  the  east,  and  the 
architecture  of  which  was  similar  to  that  of  the 
western  wall  of  the  temple  at  Jerusalem,  and 
other  Jewish  buildings.  It  was  exceedingly  well 
preserved,  and  may  last  another  thousand  years. 
Continuing  our  investigations,  we  proceeded  a 
little  higher  up  towards  the  west,  when  another 
wall  of  the  same  character  appeared  facing  the 
east,  and  constructed  of  the  stone  furnished  by 
the  adjacent  rocks.  On  entering  the  village,  a 
beautiful  cylindrical  edifice,  with  five  symmetrical 
ornaments  struck  our  view.  The  figures  repre- 
senting human  faces,  above  the  windows  and  en- 
trances, show  that  the  Romans,  at  some  period  or 
the  other,  made  additions  to  the  original  building, 
which,  no  doubt,  owed  its  foundation  to  the 
Israelites.  The  edifice  has  long  furnished  a 
shelter  to  the  cattle  and  the  poorer  inhabitants  of 
the  village,  who  have  greatly  aided  to  destroy  its 
beauty  by  plastering  the  walls  with  mud. 

We  rejoined  our  party  by  a  path  cut  out  of  the 
solid  rock,  leading  to  the  plain,  and  pursuing  our 
journey,  soon  reached  a  rivulet,  the  banks  of 
which  were  ornamented  by  the  most  beautiful 
oleanders.  Approaching  Kaif  a,  and  passing  Mount 
Carmel,  we  proposed  breakfasting,  and  remaining 

EL   KHADAR.  321 

encamped  during  the  heat  of  the  day,  when  we 
perceived  a  number  of  horses  grazing,  and  im- 
mediately afterwards,  a  large  encampment.  At 
first  we  supposed  that  they  belonged  to  Ibrahim 
Pacha,  but  soon  discovered  that  they  were  those 
of  some  English  gentlemen  whom  we  had  met  at 
Jerusalem.  The  party  was,  in  fact,  guarded  by  a 
strong  cordon,  and  our  progress  was  stopped  by 
officers  of  quarantine.  We  presented  the  certi- 
ficate from  Jaffa,  but  what  was  our  disappoint- 
ment and  vexation,  when  we  found  that  neither 
the  document  nor  our  explanations,  that  we  had 
avoided  every  town  and  village,  and  encamped 
with  all  our  people  outside  the  walls,  could  pro- 
cure us  the  liberty  of  proceeding.  A  letter  was 
sent  to  the  officer,  with  an  offer  of  one  hun- 
dred colonadis,  but  it  did  not  succeed ;  his  orders 
were  peremptory,  and  we  were  accordingly 
obliged  to  pitch  our  tents  on  the  sea-shore  in  quar- 
antine. The  governor  of  Beyrout  was  next 
addressed  in  an  Arabic  letter,  describing  the 
grievance  to  which  we  were  subjected,  and  re- 
questing his  advice ;  and  another  letter  was  sent 

to  Mr.  K ,  partner  in  the  house  of  K , 

H ,  and  Co.,  of  Beyrout.    Two  guardiani  were 

then  appointed,  and  from  them  we  ascertained, 
that  if  we  received  permission  to  depart  with  only 
seven  days'  quarantine  instead  of  fourteen,  what- 



ever  we  might  take  with  us  must  be  washed,  and 
that  even  to  our  tents  and  bedding.  To  prevent 
delay,  we  would  not  wait  till  the  return  of  the 
messenger,  which  cannot  be  before  Saturday 
morning,  but  immediately  commenced  making  an 
assortment  for  the  journey  to  Beyrout,  and  having 
them  well  dipped  in  the  sea.  Our  tents  were 
exposed  to  the  same  ablutions,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  that  required  for  the  night. 

We  have  just  been  informed  that  a  messenger 
named  Rabbi  David  Loeb,  to  whom  we  spoke 
at  Kasmia,  and  who  was  sent  from  Zafed  by 
Rabbi  Abraham  Dob  to  Beyrout,  for  the  money 
forwarded  from  Amsterdam  for  the  congregation, 
has  been  wounded  and  robbed.  While  resisting 
the  Arab  who  tore  from  him  the  bag  of  money  in- 
trusted to  his  care  for  the  poor,  the  barbarian  took 
his  sword,  cut  off  the  fingers  which  held  the  trea- 
sure, and  immediately  made  off.  But  by  the 
justice  of  Providence  he  has  been  captured,  de- 
prived of  his  spoil,  and  suffered  the  retaliated 
pain  which  he  inflicted  on  his  unfortunate  victim. 

Kasmia  is  the  place  which,  providentially,  we 
could  not  reach  on  the  night  when  we  slept  in 
the  open  air.  It  is  considered  a  very  dangerous 
part  of  the  country.  In  how  many  instances,  O 
Lord,  have, we  remarked  thy  peculiar  mercy  and 
protecting  aid ! 

EL  KHADAR.  323 

Wednesday,  June  26.  El  Khddar,  foot  of 
Mount  Carm  1. — We  were  highly  amused  this 
morning  at  seeing  all  the  mookkaries  entering  the 
water,  with  even  their  turbans  and  under  caps. 
Dr.  Keith  and  his  friend  are  performing  quaran- 
tine on  the  shore.  We  spared  him  one  of  the  two 
water-melons,  which  alone  remained  of  the  pre- 
sent made  us  by  the  cadi  of  Jaffa.  Two  baskets 
of  fruit  have  been  sent  us  by  the  consul  of  Acre. 
The  figs  are  the  first  we  have  tasted  this  year,  and 
with  the  apricots,  apples,  and  citrons,  are  very 
acceptable.  Our  situation  here  perpetually  re- 
minds us  of  one  of  the  most  remarkable  events 
recorded  in  Scripture.  1  Kings,  xviii.  Mr. 
Finzi,  the  British  agent  at  Acre,  has  just  been 
here.  He  is  a  most  intelligent  and  hospitable 
person.  Having  heard  of  our  visit  to  the  several 

cities  in  Palestine,  and  of  M 's  wish  to  render 

a  permanent  benefit  to  the  inhabitants  by  the  in- 
troduction of  agriculture,  he  has  prepared  de- 
scriptions of  the  various  villages  in  his  vicinity, 
of  the  lands,  and  their  quality  and  productions. 
He  last  year  supported  forty  of  the  inhabitants 
at  his  table,  after  the  attack  of  the  Druses,  and 
supplied  them  with  clothing.  In  the  hope  of 
seeing  us,  he  made  a  journey  to  Jerusalem,  from 
which  city  he  is  just  returned.  Thus  our  deten- 
tion here  has  not  been  without  its  use. 
Y  2 


Thursday,  June  27.  El  Khddar,  foot  of  Mount 
Carmel. — Yesterday  we  parted  with  Amin,  our 
Tiberian  janissary.  Being  near  home,  he  was 
anxious  to  return,  nor  was  his  anxiety  lessened 
by  the  prospect  which  he  had  of  being  dipped, 
with  all  his  possessions,  in  the  sea,  if  he  conti- 
nued to  attend  us  on  our  journey.  He  had  proved 
himself  very  faithful  and  attentive,  and  we  were 
all  fully  satisfied  with  his  conduct.  After  receiv- 
ing a  handsome  bakshish,  he  came  into  my  tent, 
and  taking  my  .hand,  which  he  kissed,  placed  it 
on  his  forehead.  We  are  supplied  with  good 
poultry,  bread,  and  milk,  &c.,  from  Kaifa,  and 
well  prepared  by  the  people  of  our  nation.  A 
present  of  four  dressed  fowls  was  yesterday  sent 
us  by  the  Portuguese,  and  they  furnished  this 
morning's  breakfast. 

We  learn  that  the  governor  of  Acre  has  sent  his 
forty-five  wives  to  the  convent  of  the  Carmelites, 
on  the  top  of  Mount  Carmel ;  a  somewhat  suspi- 
cious circumstance  when  war  is  so  much  spoken 
of.  The  fragrance  of  the  flowers  which  crown 
the  summit  of  the  mount,  is  spoken  of  as  exqui- 
sitely sweet.  A  road  is  being  constructed,  ex- 
te.nding  to  the  valley.  Some  of  the  English  tra- 
vellers took  pratique  this  morning,  and  are  gone 
on  board  a  felucca  now  lying  in  the  bay.  Re- 
joiced they  must  be,  for  the  heat  is  only  just  sup- 

EL   KHADAR.  325 

portable  as  moderated  by  the  breezes  from  the 

Information  has  been  brought  us  that  many  of 
the  inhabitants  of  Zafed  have  fled  hither  in 
dread  of  another  attack  from  the  Druses.  The 
sufferings  which  they  endured  last  year  have 
tilled  them  with  terror  at  the  very  mention  of  the 
name  of  the  marauders.  Awful  indeed  is  the 
state  of  the  country.  Laws,  human  and  divine, 
are  alike  despised,  and  the  land  which  might  have 
flowed  with  milk  and  honey,  lies  forlorn  and 

Friday,  June  28.  El  Khddar,  foot  of  Mount 
Carmel — Arose  at  four  to  prepare  for  a  ride  up 
Mount  Carmel.  The  horses  being  ready,  we 
mounted,  and  proceeded  to  the  cordon.  To  our 
request  that  we  might  pass  through,  in  order  to 
visit  the  cave  of  Elijah,  the  guard  answered  that 
it  was  filled  with  cattle,  which  had  been  placed 
there  for  protection  against  the  heat  and  the 
plague.  Thus  disappointed,  we  turned  our  horses' 
heads,  and  ascended  to  the  summit  of  the  mount, 
over  the  path  along  which  the  new  road  is  being 
constructed,  and  which  is  at  present  very  preci- 
pitous, and  almost  covered  with  thorns  and  large 
stones.  The  convent  is  a  handsome,  spacious 
building,  not  yet  quite  finished.  Two  of  the 
monks  were  standing  at  the  entrance,  and  we 


should  have  paid  them  a  visit,  but  were  prevented 
by  the  rules  of  quarantine.  Our  sagada,  there- 
fore, was  spread,  and  we  seated  ourselves  for  a  few 
moments  to  enjoy  the  delicious  perfume  of  the 
various  wild  flowers,  which  grew  in  rich  luxuri- 
ance around.  Magnificent  was  the  scene  that 
lay  before  us.  A  sloping  plantation  of  tobacco  ; 
the  winding  path  leading  to  the  beach  ;  the  blue 
waters  of  the  Mediterranean  with  the  towns  of 
Kaifa  and  Acre  encircling  the  bay,  -formed  the 
main  features  of  this  lovely  prospect,  every  por- 
tion of  which  derived  an  unspeakable  interest 
from  historical  associations.  Dr.  Keith  would 
have  breakfasted  with  us  this  morning,  but  the 

rules   of  quarantine  forbade  it.     Mr.  B is 

detained  another  week,  from  the  mere  circum- 
stance of  having  come  in  contact  with  another 

person.     Lord  C H ,  Lord  R ,  and 

Mr.  L —  -  departed  yesterday.  To-day,  all  the 
soldiers  on  duty  here  were  sent  off,  for  the  pur- 
pose, we  suppose,  of  joining  Ibrahim's  army. 
Three  prisoners  and  a  soldier,  their  hands 
chained,  and  guarded  by  Turks  on  horseback, 
have  just  passed  by. 

Saturday  June  29.     El  Khddar,foot  of  Mount 
Carmel. — While  we  were  dressing  this  morning, 

M asked  me  the   hour.     It  was  half -past 

seven.     Though  Saturday  morning,  such  now  for 

EL   KHADAR.  327 

some  time  has  been  our  habit  of  early  rising,  that 
half-past  seven  seemed  by  comparison  very  late. 
One  of  the  messengers  sent  to  Beyrout  returned 

to-day,  and  brought  letters  from  Mr.  K ,  with 

some  English  and  Italian  newspapers,  whereby 
we  found  that  disturbances  had  taken  place  in 
Paris,  and  in  some  of  the  English  manufacturing 
towns,  and  also  that  a  temporary  change  had 
occurred  in  the  administration. 

The  Druses  have  made  inroads  into  Damascus, 
and  pillaged  many  of  the  inhabitants.  Great 
fears  are  also  entertained  respecting  the  security 
of  the  road  between  this  place  and  Beyrout.  One 
of  our  mookkaries,  who  will  have  to  return  alone 
if  he  proceed  with  us,  asked  to  be  dismissed, 
having  great  apprehension  of  the  danger  of  re- 
tracing his  steps  without  companions.  We  have 

not  yet  granted  his  request.  M 's  horse  and 

two  mules  belong  to  him ;  and  M being  so 

well  satisfied  with  the  former,  is  unwilling  to 
mount  another  steed. 

We  regret  to  be  informed  of  the  death  of  Lady 
Hester  Stanhope,  an  event  accelerated  probably 
by  the  chagrin  she  experienced  at  the  conduct  of 
the  government  respecting  her  income.  Those 
who  knew  her  rarely  failed  to  speak  with  admira- 
tion of  her  lofty  intellect  and  noble  feelings,  which 
counterbalanced,  in  their  estimation,  most  of  her 


singularities.  She  was  interred  on  the  23rd  inst. 
two  days  after  she  breathed  her  last.  The 

British  consul  and  Mr.  T went  to  Sidon  to 

attend  her  funeral. 

The  superior  of  the  convent  yesterday  sent  us 
a  present  of  six  bottles  of  Cyprus  wine,  with  a 
very  complimentary  note.  We  had  the  pleasure 
of  sending  a  portion  to  Dr.  Keith.  This  morning 
he  has  sent  a  cheese  and  milk,  with  another  letter, 
expressing  a  hope  that  we  shall  visit  his  convent 
before  our  departure,  and  regretting  that  we  did 
not  enter  on  our  previous  excursion  up  the 

Sunday,  June  30.  El  Khddar. — Another  pre- 
sent, consisting  of  liqueurs  and  melons,  arrived 
this  morning  from  the  superior  of  the  convent. 
He  expresses  a  hope  that  we  shall  inscribe  our 
names  among  those  of  other  distinguished  persons 
who  have  visited  his  convent.  Our  second  mes- 
senger is  just  returned  with  duplicates  of  the 
letters  brought  yesterday  from  Beyrout,  and  the 
expected  letter  from  the  governor,  directing  our 
release  from  quarantine  to-morrow.  The  English 
consul,  and  the  physician  of  Kaifa,  have  just  paid 
their  respects,  and  expressed  themselves  satisfied 
at  our  appearance,  not  deeming  it  necessary  to 
feel  our  pulse.  We,  of  course,  were  content,  and 
took  care  not  to  mention  that  our  servant  Ann, 

EL   KHADAR.  329 

was  labouring  under  fatigue  from  the  heat  of  the 
weather  and  the  journey,  lest  our  doing  so  might 
cause  an  addition  of  forty  days  to  our  quarantine. 
The  contemplation  of  such  a  result  is  by  no 
means  agreeable,  especially  when  the  cannon 
from  the  neighbouring  town  is  resounding  in 
our  ears.  The  firing  is  stated  to  be  in  con- 
sequence of  a  victory  gained  by  Ibrahim  Pacha's 
troops  over  those  of  the  Sultan,  near  Aleppo.  If 
this  be  the  case,  the  road  is  more  secure,  but 
it  confirms  the  report  respecting  hostilities.  Dr. 
Keith  and  his  friend,  Dr.  Bonar,  called.  Their 
servant  has  warned  them  of  the  dangerous  state 
of  the  road  to  Beyrout,  and  they  accordingly  in- 
tend departing  to-morrow  by  water. 

Monday,  July  1.  El  Khddar. — In  consequence 
of  what  had  been  stated  respecting  the  road  to 
Beyrout,  we  engaged  extra  janissaries,  and  Signor 
Finzi's  cavas  to  attend  us,  that  gentleman  him- 
self also  intending  to  form  part  of  our  company. 
We  arose  at  four  o'clock.  The  guardiani,  and  all 
the  persons  who  had  sent  us  presents  came  to 
take  leave  and  to  receive  bakshish.  There  were 
also  the  captain  of  the  quarantine,  the  keeper  of 
the  post-office,  &c.,  &c.,  in  fact  every  one  who 
could  make  any  pretence  to  this  sort  of  remunera- 
tion. At  length,  having  satisfied  these  numerous 
claimants,  on  the  seventh  day  of  our  quarantine, 


we  took  leave  of  Mount  Carmel.     The  English 

consul,    Paolo   M ,    the    physician,    Signior 

F ,  and  the  officers  of  the  station,  were  at  the 

gate  on  horseback  ready  to  accompany  us  to 
Kaifa.  On  approaching  the  synagogue  we  were 
met  by  the  heads  of  the  congregation,  and  escorted 
to  the  place  of  worship.  At  the  entrance  we 
thanked  our  numerous  cortege,  and  begged  they 
would  not  wait  till  service  was  over.  Having 
taken  leave,  we  proceeded  i o  offer  up  our  prayers 
to  the  Almighty,  with  thanksgivings  for  the  pro- 
tection he  had  graciously  vouchsafed  us.  A  dollar 
was  then  distributed  to  each  individual ;  but 

M could  scarcely  conceal  his  vexation  at 

observing  the  disparity  of  age  between  some  of 
the  married  people  ;  in  one  case  a  man  of  sixty 
was  the  husband  of  a  girl  of  thirteen. 

On  leaving  the  synagogue  we  found  the 
English  consul  still  at  the  door  with  his  cavas, 
ready  to  precede  us  on  our  route.  After  a  three 
hours'  ride  on  the  sands  we  reached  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Acre,  having  been  previously  met 
by  the  chiefs  of  the  congregation  on  horseback. 
We  did  not  enter  the  town,  but  seating  ourselves 
under  some  trees,  partook  of  luncheon,  and 
remained  till  two  o'clock.  Our  position  afforded 
a  view  of  the  new  fortifications,  and  of  the  ruins 
of  those  destroyed  by  Ibrahim  Pacha,  also  of 

ABOO   ATABI   TO   EL   GHiFAR.  331 

the  aqueducts  which  extend  for  two  miles,  to  Sib, 
the  ancient  Akzib.  At  length,  after  a  journey  of 
nine  hours  and  a  half,  we  encamped  for  the  night 
at  Aboo  Atabi.  On  the  road  we  passed  two 
bridges,  and  a  Roman  column,  with  an  inscrip- 
tion of  Augustus  Csesar,  lying  on  the  ground. 

Tuesday,  July  2. — We  arose  at  midnight.  As 
usual  it  employed  two  hours  to  dress,  take  coffee, 
and  load  the  mules.  The  moon  and  stars  shed 
their  light  to  guide  us  on  the  way,  and  the  air 
was  soft  and  balmy.  Our  party  now  consisted  of 
twenty-four  persons,  and  we  deemed  ourselves 
sufficiently  strong  to  boast  of  not  dreading  even  a 
band  of  the  Druses ;  this  martial  feeling  being 
occasionally  stimulated  by  the  firing  off  of  our 
pistols  and  muskets.  The  road  was  mountainous 
and  rocky,  and  my  horse  lost  a  shoe,  but  it  still 
carried  me  safely.  I  frequently  regret  having  so 
soon  to  part  with  an  animal  which  has  served  me 
so  well.  It  seems  to  look  better  than  at  the 
commencement  of  our  journey.  I  am  frequently 
presented,  by  our  attendants,  with  flowers  and 
other  productions  of  the  fields.  My  pistol- 
holsters  were  adorned  to-day  with  a  sheaf  of 
Indian  corn,  said  to  contain  two  thousand  grains ; 
with  a  leaf  of  the  cotton-plant,  and  of  the  linseed 
given  me  by  Mr.  Finzi,  and  with  rhododendrons 
and  other  flowers  of  various  hue. 


Arriving  at  a  spring  of  water,  said  to  possess 
the  quality  of  healing  all  complaints,  we  refreshed 
ourselves  and  horses,  and  soon  after  stopped  at  a 
place  called  El  Ghafar,  or  the  Guardians,  where 
we  reposed,  and  took  luncheon  under  some  large 
pine-trees,  with  the  sea  in  full  view.  We  re- 
mained here  about  four  hours,  and  at  six  o'clock 
remounted  our  horses.  The  road  was  rocky  and 
precipitous,  but  we  arrived  in  safety  at  Ras  el 
Ayn,  where  we  encamped  for  the  night. 

Wednesday,  July  3. — At  half -past  one  we  found 
ourselves  on  the  way  to  El  Kantare,  and  a  good 
road  enabled  me  to  shake  off  the  drowsiness 
which  occasionally  oppressed  me,  and  only  finally 
yielded  at  the  dawn  of  day,  when  we  commenced 
our  morning  devotions.  On  passing  an  extensive 
plain,  bounded  by  rocks  and  caverns,  a  wolf  was 
seen  leaping  along  the  base  of  the  cliff.  One  of 
our  valiant  cavas  instantly  pointed  his  musket 
and  fired,  but  without  effect.  Four  wild  fawns 
next  presented  themselves,  and  bounded  across 
the  plain,  near  the  sea-shore,  mocking  the  eager 
and  sportsman-like  pursuit  of  our  companions. 
El  Kantare  again  afforded  us  a  spot  for  agreeable 
repose ;  but  the  road  from  hence  to  Kasmia  is 
infested  by  robbers,  and  we  found  that  the  poor 
fellow  who  had  taken  the  money  for  the  people 
of  Zafed  had  been  plundered,  and  was  since  dead 


by   the    wounds   which   he   received   from  the 
robbers.     We  slept  at  Bassatin. 

Thursday,  July  4. — The  neighing  of  the  horses 
awoke  me  before  twelve,  and  when  I  looked 
through  the  opening  of  the  tent,  already  almost 
illuminated  by  the  first  rays  of  the  rising  moon, 
the  scene  presented  by  the  bivouack  of  our  suite 
might  easily  have  excited  in  an  imaginative  mind 
the  memory  of  many  a  strange  and  adventurous 
legend.  All  for  a  time  remained  sunk  in  deep 
repose.  At  length  "  Sookoo,  Akhlasoo,"  and 
"  Tdllah"  and  then  "  Ibrahim,  Ibrahim,"  re 
sounded  through  the  still  midnight  air.  The 
busy  stir  of  preparation  was  begun,  and  after  the 
usual  refreshment  we  were  fairly  en  route  before 
two  o'clock.  The  songs  of  the  Arabs  kept  us  well 
awake,  and  at  ten  o'clock  we  stopped  to  break- 
fast, and  remained  reposing  for  six  hours. 

As  we  passed  through  Sidon  yesterday  the 
people  were  seated  in  groups  outside  the  houses, 
gaily  dressed,  and  rejoicing  at  the  victory  gained 
by  the  Pacha's  troops  over  those  of  the  Sultan. 

We  continued  along  the  sea-shore,  and  were 
astonished  to  behold  the  accumulation  of  sand 
over  the  mulberry  plantations.  It  is  of  a  reddish 
hue,  and  is  said  to  increase  every  year.  Several 
gentlemen  from  Beyrout  came  to  meet  us,  and  a 
young  man  from  Mr.  K brought  the  inf orma- 


tion  that  Mr.  T 's  house  had  been  engaged 

for  our  reception.  We  stopped  to  take  sherbet 
at  the  same  khan  at  which  we  before  rested. 

Friday,  July  5.  Beyrout. — We  find  Mr.  T 's 

house  far  more  agreeable  than  a  tent.  It  affords 
better  protection  against  insects,  though  not  quite 
impenetrable  to  the  mosquitoes.  The  house 
being  unfurnished,  we  have  accepted  the  offer  of 
Mr.  Kilbey  to  procure  us  another  bedstead,  a  sofa, 
chairs,  and  table.  Few  situations  can  be  more 
lovely  than  that  of  this  residence.  The  hill  on 
which  it  stands  is  covered  with  gardens.  On  one 
side,  in  the  distance,  soar  the  magnificent  moun- 
tains of  Lebanon  ;  on  the  other  are  noble  planta- 
tions of  palms,  mulberry-trees,  and  others,  reach- 
ing down  to  the  very  borders  of  the  sea. 

Mr.  T is  one  of  the  missionaries,  and  is 

very  civil  and  accommodating  to  strangers. 

Saturday,  July  6.  Beyrout. — The  steam-boat 
Acheron,  Captain  Kennedy,  arrived  early  this 
morning.  We  shall,  please  God,  take  our  depar- 
ture in  her  for  Alexandria,  as  soon  as  the  Indian 
mail  shall  have  arrived.  Rabbi  I ,  an  en- 
graver, has  presented  us  with  two  bottles  of  wine, 
which  is  not  to  be  obtained  here  except  through 
such  friendly  sources.  Lemons  also  are  very 

Among  the  objects  which  excited  our  curio- 

BEYROUT.  335 

sity  not  the  least  remarkable  was  the  dress  of 
the  female  Druses,  who  wear  a  sort  of  horn,  or 
trumpet,  on  the  head,  projecting  in  front  so  as  to 
keep  their  veils  from  resting  on  their  face.  The 
instrument  is  made  of  metal  resembling  silver, 
and  the  women  say  that  they  wear  it  for  the 
purpose  of  calling  their  husbands  to  their  aid 
in  time  of  danger,  its  sound  being  sufficiently 
powerful  to  be  heard  in  the  distant  mountains. 

Mr.  T ,  his  sister-in-law,  and  two  of  his 

daughters  visited  us. 

Sunday,  July  7.  Beyrout. — The  English  and 
French  newspapers,  with  the  calls  of  numerous 
visitors,  among  whom  are  the  Austrian  consul,  the 
governor,  a  French  gentleman  from  Kaifa,  and 
others,  greatly  help  to  protect  us  against  the 
incursions  of  ennui.  All  who  converse  with  us 
loudly  express  their  admiration  of  our  courage 
and  perseverance  in  accomplishing  a  journey  in 
spite  of  obstacles  presented  by  war,  plague, 
brigands,  and  the  intense  heat  of  a  Syrian 
summer.  The  Divine  mercy  has  protected  us 
against  the  dangers  arising  from  these  various 
sources  of  peril ;  and  we  have  now  but  to  reflect 
with  thankfulness  on  the  opportunities  afforded 
us  of  relieving  the  distresses  of  our  brethren. 
Hhasan,  Saad-Eddin,  and  Bekhor  remain  with 
us  during  our  stay  here,  and  Ibrahim,  though 


our  dinners  and  breakfasts  are  brought  ready 
dressed  from  the  town,  will  continue  in  our 
service  till  we  return  to  Malta. 

Monday,  July  8.  Beyrout. — My  dear  M 

finds  himself  much  indisposed  this  morning. 
The  effects  of  sickness  are  especially  depressing 
in  a  foreign  land,  where  climate,  the  habits  of  the 
people  and  a  different  mode  of  living  tend  so 
materially  to  cut  off  the  relief  and  supports 
which  may  be  had  at  home.  Graciously  has  the 
Almighty  aided  me  under  trying  circumstances., 
and  bestowed  a  fortitude  on  me  not  natural  to  my 
disposition.  In  this,  as  in  our  former  tour,  I  have 
felt  my  spirits  rise  as  we  have  proceeded  on  our 
journey.  For  this  I  cannot  be  sufficiently  grate- 
ful, and  I  trust  that  the  voyage  from  this  place 
will  soon  restore  health  and  cheerfulness  to  my 
dear  M . 

Mr.  M ,  our  consul,  sent  yesterday  to  ap- 
prise us  of  the  hourly  expected  arrival  of  the 
Indian  Mail,  almost  immediately  after  which  the 
steamer  will  proceed  to  Alexandria  and  Malta. 
We  are,  therefore,  again  on  the  alert,  preparing 
for  our  departure,  and  to-day  sent  a  part  of  our 

luggage  on  board  the  Acheron.  M also  wrote 

to  Mr.  Young,  the  Consul  at  Jerusalem,  forward- 
ing him  some  dollars — one- third  for  the  Christian 
Burial-ground,  and  two-thirds  for  the  indigent 

BEYROUT.  337 

Christians  in  the  Holy  City.  He  next  wrote  to 
Mr.  Thomson,  and  sent  him  some  money  for  the 
poor  Christians  of  Beirout,  an  acknowledgment 
for  the  accommodation  we  had  enjoyed  in  that 
gentleman's  house.  Nor  has  Mr.  Amzalag  been 
forgotten,  to  whom  the  promise  for  the  poor 
Israelites  of  Jerusalem  was  repeated. 

Every  day  during  our  residence  here  I  have 
received  bouquets  of  carnations,  roses,  orange  and 
lemon  blossoms,  the  perfume  of  which  is  too 
powerful  for  even  the  unroofed  hall.  They  are, 
therefore,  placed  on  the  balcony,  and  there 
mingle  their  odours  with  those  of  the  countless 
flowers  which  fill  the  gardens  around,  and  de- 
light me  with  their  beauties  as  I  recline  on  the 
sofa,  prevented  by  the  excessive  heat  from 
leaving  the  house. 

M—  -  is  full  of  plans  for  ameliorating  the 
condition  of  the  Jews  in  the  Holy  Land.  He  is 
most  anxious  to  reach  Alexandria,  when  he  pur- 
poses, with  the  blessing  of  the  Almighty,  to  make 
several  proposals  to  Mehemet  Ali : — may  they 
prove  successful,  then  indeed  shall  we  have 
been  well  repaid  for  any  danger  or  anxiety  en- 

Tuesday,  July  9.     Beyrout. — M ,  thank  the 

Almighty,  is  better.    He  to-day  presented  gifts  to  • 
the  three  Rabbis  who  are  to  sail  this  afternoon  for  • 


Jaffa,  having  taken  charge  of  the  money  promised 
for  the  poor  people  of  Jerusalem,  and  also  for 
those  of  Hebron ;  and  gave  our  tents  and  mat- 
tresses, together  with  some  clothing,  for  the  use 
of  the  latter,  to  protect  the  more  destitute  of 
them  from  <?he  miseries  of  the  rainy  season. 

A  person  called  on  us  to-day  on  his  return 
from  Vienna,  where  he  had  been  studying  medi- 
cine ;  and,  according  to  the  testimonials  which  he 
had  received  from  eminent  professors,  with  no 
slight  degree  of  success.  He  was  on  his  way 
to  Jerusalem,  where  his  return  had  been  long 
expected  by  his  wife  and  friends  with  intense 
anxiety.  Many  months  had  passed  since  they 
had  heard  any  tidings  of  him ;  and  on  the  evening 
previous  to  our  departure  from  Jerusalem,  the 
poor  woman  came  to  us,  weeping  bitterly,  and 
beseeching  us  to  make  inquiries  respecting  her 
husband,  while  her  father-in-law  added  his  en- 
treaties that  we  would  allow  him  to  accompany 
us.  to  Europe,  that  he  might  trace  out,  if  possible, 
the  sojourn  of  his  son  !  How  will  their  grief  be 
changed  into  joy  when  they  behold  him  again, 
skilled  in  a  profession  that  may  tend  to  their  in- 
dependence ! 

Wednesday,  July  10.  Beyrout. — M ,  re- 
suming his  industrious  habit  of  writing  before 
breakfast,  has  given  happy  indications  of  return- 

BEYROUT.  339 

ing  health.     He  was  at  this  employment,  when  a 

note  from  Mr.  K informed  us  of  the  arrival  of 

the  Indian  mail,  and  of  the  preparation  of  the 
steamer  to  depart  at  two  o'clock.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  a  letter  from  Mr.  M ,  who  advised 

us  to  go  on  board  at  one.     Immediately  all  was 

bustle;  but  the  usual  eagerness  of  my  dear  M 

to  be  in  time  left  little  to  arrange.  What  bag- 
gage remained  was  soon  despatched.  The  task  of 
leave-taking  followed,  and  the  Arab  family  who 
had  charge  of  Mr.  Thomson's  house,  and  were 
really  kind-hearted,  well-conducted  people,  bade 
us  farewell  with  many  an  expression  of  earnest 
feeling.  The  female  was  in  delicate  health,  and 
had  often  spoken  to  us  of  her  sickness,  evidently 
hoping  to  hear  of  some  remedy,  the  inhabitants 
of  the  East  haying  great  confidence  in  the  skill 
and  knowledge  of  Europeans.  I  suffered  greatly 
from  the  heat  in  walking  to  the  wharf,  whence 

Captain    K 's  boat    conveyed    us    to    the 

Acheron,  a  vessel  of  seven  hundred  and  twenty 
tons,  and  one  hundred  and  sixty  horse  power. 
There  was  a  heavy,  rolling  sea,  and  it  required 
all  the  ability  of  the  officers  to  assist  us  to 
ascend.  We  were  under  weigh  by  seven  o'clock. 
May  the  merciful  Being  who  has  hitherto  pro- 
tected us  still  bestow  His  gracious  aid  ! 

Thursday    and   Friday,  July  11    and  12.     On 
z  2 


board  the  Acheron. — The  heavy  sea  of  yesterday 
caused  an  uneasiness  which  obliged  us  to  have 
our  mattresses  spread  on  deck,  where  I  remained 
till  nine  o'clock,  when  I  was  handed  down  to  my 
cabin,  M remaining  on  deck  all  night,  suf- 
fering as  usual  from  the  movement  of  the  vessel, 
and  the  unpleasant  attendants  of  smoke,  oil,  and 
steam.  An  Arab  family  suffered  no  less  than  our- 
selves— two  little  children  and  the  maid-servant 
especially — the  mamma,  whose  gold  ornaments 
bedecking  her  head,  neck,  and  arms,  were  suf- 
ficiently conspicuous,  retained  her  usual  health 

and  spirits.     M has  gained  little  good  from 

his  repose  on  deck,  and  Ann  continues  so  indis- 
posed that  she  has  been  obliged  to  consult  the 
doctor  of  the  ship.  May  he  succeed  in  adminis- 
tering relief  to  our  excellent  and  worthy  servant ! 
We  are  going  at  the  rate  of  seven  or  eight  knots 
an  hour,  but  the  heavy  swell  of  the  sea  renders 
one  incapable  of  the  exertion  necessary  to  seek 

amusement.     M happily  employs  his  mind 

with  the  contemplation  of  plans  that  may 
improve  the  condition  of  our  brethren.  He 
intends  passing  the  night  again  on  deck. 

Saturday,  July  13.  Alexandria. — Our  voyage 
being  brought  to  a  happy  termination,  we  pro- 
ceeded to  the  Hotel  de  1J Europe,  which  we  find  a 
very  comfortable  establishment.  It  is  situated  in 


the  new  square,  which  for  extent  and  uniformity 
would  not  disgrace  any  city  in  Europe.  The 
style  of  its  architecture  is  French,  but  fragments 
of  columns  and  beautiful  capitals  found  in  the 
environs,  decorate  many  of  the  entrances.  A 
fountain  is  being  constructed  in  the  centre  of  the 
square,  and  most  of  the  consuls  and  the  richest 
of  the  inhabitants  have  their  residences  here. 
Its  situation,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  sea,  renders  it 
an  agreeable  evening  promenade,  and  it  is  much 
frequented  as  a  place  of  fashionable  resort. 

I  observed  a  far  greater  number  of  people  in 
the  European  costume  than  on  our  former  visit ; 
but  this  city  always  presents  a  motley  group  of 
all  nations,  and  is  just  now  more  than  ordinarily 
gay  in  consequence  of  the  late  victory.  Even 
the  firing  is  still  continued,  and  the  women  and 
children  parade  the  streets  singing  an  Arab  song 
of  triumph.  We  received  visits  from  the  chiefs 
of  our  people,  from  the  British  consul,  and  other 

M went  this  morning,  in  a  handsome 

sedan-chair,  lent  to  him  by  the  Sardinian  consul, 
to  pay  his  respects  to  the  Pacha.  He  was  ac- 
companied by  Dr.  Loewe,  and  met  by  appoint- 
ment, at  the  palace,  Boghos  Bey  and  Colonel 
Campbell,  the  British  consul-general.  He  made 
in  due  form  his  intended  request  with  regard  to 


the  cultivation  of  the  Land  in  Palestine  and 
Syria,  to  which  he  received  a  most  favourable 
reply,  with  a  promise  that  his  highness  would 

confirm  it  in  writing.  M also  entreated 

the  Pacha  that  the  wall  of  Tiberias,  which  was 
destroyed  by  the  earthquake,  should  be  repaired, 

and  to  this  his  highness  also  assented.  M 

then  presented  him  with  a  medal,  bearing  a 
likeness  of  our  most  gracious  Queen,  which  was 
struck  by  order  of  the  authorities  of  the  City  of 
London,  to  commemorate  her  Majesty's  visit  to 
the  Guildhall,  on  the  9th  of  November,  1837.  He 
examined  it  attentively,  and  appeared  pleased 

with  it ;  and  having  asked  M if  it  was  a 

good  likeness  of  the  Queen,  thanked  him  for  it. 

Mr.  Waghorn  paid  us  a  long  visit.  He  is  most 
vsanguine  as  to  the  practicability  of  forming  a 
road  across  the  desert  to  India. 

Sunday,  July  14.  From  Alexandria,  on  board 
the  Steam-boat.  We  were  so  disturbed  by  mus- 
quitoes,  during  the  night  that  scarcely  an  hour's 
rest  was  permitted  us,  and  thankful  we  were  for 
the  return  of  day. 

The  Pacha's  boat  was  in  readiness  to  convey 
us  to  the  Acheron,  which  lay  at  anchor  some 
distance  off:  the  passage,  however,  was  soon 
made,  and  we  found  ourselves  safely  seated  on 
the  spacious  deck  of  this  excellent  steam-ship. 


As  usual,  it  was  long,  that  is,  nearly  three  hours, 
before  we  weighed  anchor.  The  Egyptian  fleet 
was  again  in  full  view,  presenting  a  noble 

Monday,  July  15,  on  board  the  Acheron. — Wind 
contrary,  but  proceeding  at  eight  or  nine  knots 
an  hour ;  we  all  feel  poorly.  It  will  not  suit 
fastidious  people  to  travel  in  hot  climates,  espe- 
cially at  sea.  A  degree  of  lassitude  deprives  one 
of  energy  to  pursue  any  sort  of  occupation,  at 
least  so  I  found  it.  Byron  and  Campbell  were 
brought ;  they  were  looked  into,  then  laid  aside. 

Tuesday,  July  16,  on  board  the  Acheron  steam- 
boat.— Still  a  contrary  wind,  but  making  rapid 
progress.  The  captain  assures  us  a  passage  of 
less  than  five  days.  This  is  some  consolation  for 
sickness,  especially  when  we  remember  our  former 
voyage  of  twenty-four  days.  Thanks  to  the 
steam-boat  establishment.  The  poor  turtle,  of 
which  there  are  six  on  board,  and  turned  on  their 
backs,  are  fair  objects  of  commiseration.  In  this 
position  they  can  only  move  their  paws,  and  are 
merely  sustained  by  a  little  water  occasionally 
thrown  over  them.  Our  chicken  feast  will  termi- 
nate to-day,  the  supply  brought  from  Alexandria 
being  finished,  and  it  is  time  it  should  be.  In 
passing  near  the  Isle  of  Candia  this  afternoon, 
our  vessel  rolled  tremendously,  and  continued  to 


do  so  for  two  or  three  hours.  I  remained  on  deck 
watching  the  silvery  waves,  and,  invited  by  the 
«tar^decked  firmament  and  soft  bright  moon, 
seated  myself  on  one  of  the  benches,  enveloped  in 
my  plaid  mantle,  which  I  have  often  found  ser- 
viceable in  no  slight  degree.  Some  of  the  gentle- 
men kept  up  a  philosophical  conversation  till 
nearly  twelve,  interrupted  occasionally  by  the 
stewardess  coming  to  state  the  hour. 

Wednesday,  July  17,  on  board  the  Acheron. — 
We  proceed  to-day  at  the  rate  of  eight  and  nine 

knots.     M remains  on  deck  both  night  and 

day.  To-day  we  had  our  dinner  served  there ; 
but  the  salt-fish,  eggs,  and  maccaroni,  of  which  it 
chiefly  consisted,  could  not  tempt  me.  I  also 
prudently  refused  to  partake  of  some  excellent 
melons  offered  us  by  our  fellow-passenger,  Mrs. 
T .  This  lady  possesses  an  excellent  o-arden 

»/      JT  £3 

near  .Alexandria,  comprising  a  hundred  acres  of 
ground,  rented  from  the  Pacha,  with  whom  her 
husband  is  on  intimate  terms.  The  abilities  of 
his  highness  are  spoken  of  with  admiration  by 
many.  He  certainly  has  displayed  great  talent 
in  warfare,  and  much  energy  of  character  in  many 
of  the  improvements  which  he  has  introduced. 
Happy  would  it  be  were  he  to  direct  his  mind 
more  immediately  to  the  moral  amelioration,  to 
the  general  civilization  of  his  people,  and  the  pro- 
tection of  their  property. 

MALTA.  345 

Thursday,  July  18,  on  board  the  Acheron. — 
The  captain  assures  us  that  we  shall  arrive  in  the 
harbour  of  Malta  before  ten  o'clock  this  evening. 
M — —  has  promised  two  gallons  of  spirits  to  the 
man  who  shall  first  descry  land.  I  passed  a  very 
indifferent  night,  having  suffered  greatly  from 
eating  too  freely  of  different  sorts  of  melons,  as 
well  as  from  heat  of  the  weather.  I  could  not 
obtain  any  rest,  and  to-day  have  no  appetite. 
The  sofa-cushions  are  kindly  ordered  on  deck  by 
the  captain,  and  these,  with  the  lounging-chair, 

alternately  serve  to  afford  me  repose.  M 

treated  the  crew  with  a  sheep  and  a  double  share 
of  grog  on  entering  the  harbour  of  Malta  before 
ten  o'clock  at  night. 

Friday,  July  19.  Malta.  Fort  Manuel. — 
Tranquillity  reigning  in  the  ship,  I  passed  a 
pleasant  night,  and  we  all  breakfasted  with  the 

captain  in  the  cabin.  M has  been  on  shore 

to  engage  rooms  in  the  lazaretto  at  fort  Manuel, 
and  also  a  guardiano  and  a  lad  to  attend  on  us. 
Our  late  Maltese  valet-de-place  came  in  a  boat 
alongside  the  ship,  to  solicit  our  re-acceptance  of 
his  services ;  but  as  our  domicile  at  Fort  Manuel 
will  necessarily  be  perfectly  stationary  and  im- 
moveable,  we  shall  find  no  occasion  for  his  aid. 

At  three  o'clock  we  were  stationed  at  our  new 
temporary  abode,  having  been  put  on  shore  by 


the  boat  of  the  Acheron.  The  captain  presented 
us  with  six  bottles  of  old  port,  and  a  turtle,  in- 
tended to  be  presented  to  the  governor,  but  which 
we  could  not  send  him,  the  sailor  having  killed  it 
in  bringing  it  on  shore. 

Saturday,  July  20.  Fort  Manuel. — The  ne- 
cessity of  having  all  our  trunks  turned  topsey 
turvey,  and  every  article  therein  rummaged  over 
by  the  guardiano,  even  to  the  smallest  trinket, 
lest  a  piece  of  cotton  should  escape,  has  proved  a 
great  annoyance  to  the  whole  party,  and  rendered 
this,  I  may  say,  in  reality  a  black  Saturday.  The 
quarantine  regulations  are  much  more  severe  than 
on  our  former  visit,  and  are  very  strictly  adhered 
to.  A  great  privation  is  experienced  in  the  with- 
drawal of  the  permission  formerly  granted  to 
enjoy  a  boat  in  the  harbour,  and  which  afforded 
an  infinite  relief  to  the  monotony  of  the  seclu- 
sion. This  tedious  quarantine  must  certainly 
prove  an  impediment  to  general  travelling  in 
Egypt,  and  pernicious  to  the  interests  of  that 
country,  as  well  as  to  this  island.  But  perhaps 
the  infectious  maladies  to  which  warm  climates 
are  subject  renders  it  a  matter  of  imperative  ne- 
cessity. We  dined  early,  and  took  our  fast  at 
seven.  Ann  is  very  poorly.  I  trust  that  all  the 
maladies  and  unpleasantnesses  will  subside  and 
vanish  away  with  Tishea-bedb. 

MALTA.  347 

Sunday,  July  21.  Malta.  Fort  Manuel. — 
The  extreme  heat  of  the  weather  is  almost  insup- 
portable to-day,  and  fasting,  of  course,  does  not 
render  us  less  sensible  to  its  enervating  effects. 
We  are  incapable  of  any  application ;  the  book 
is  taken  up,  and  again  laid  down.  Galignani 
affords  some  slight  recreation. 

When  captain  and  Mrs.  C 's  name  were 

handed  to  us,  it  was  with  difficulty  I  could 
descend  to  the  parlatorio  to  speak  to  them.  It  is 
in  reality  a  fatiguing  undertaking  from  the 

number  of  the  stairs.  M was  incapable  of 

moving  a  step.  Scarcely  had  I  returned,  when 
Sir  Hector  Grey  was  announced,  and  again  I  had 
to  recount  the  history  of  our  journey  in  the  Holy 
Land,  of  escaped  perils,  and  of  pleasures  enjoyed. 
This  gentleman  recommends  us  to  change  our 
rooms,  for  though  they  are  the  most  spacious  in 
the  building,  still  their  southern  aspect,  and  their 
being  situated  over  the  kitchen  of  the  traiteur, 

are  great  objections.  Mr.  C has  received 

orders  to  prepare  the  apartments  lately  inhabited 

by  the  Duke  of  D ,  said  to  be  much  cooler. 

We  have  just  perceived  three  stars,  and  thank 
the  Almighty  for  having  allowed  us  to  perform 
the  duties  of  the  day. 

Monday,  July  22.  Malta.  Fort  Manuel. — 
Moved  into  the  northern  part  of  the  palazzo, 


which  we  find  more  airy  and  agreeable,  but  the 
thermometer  at  two  o'clock  was  again  87°  in  the 
shade.  Dr.  Loewe  was  taken  very  poorly,  and 
obliged  to  go  to  bed ;  so  that,  unfortunately, 
another  is  added  to  our  list  of  invalids ;  but  I 
trust  that  all  will  soon  be  well  again.  The  rocks, 
which  almost  surround  the  bay,  greatly  hinder 
the  circulation  of  the  air,  and  render  Malta  at 
this  time  of  the  year  not  the  most  desirable  resi- 
dence. To  be  subject,  therefore,  to  a  prolonged 
quarantine  of  twenty  days,  is  somewhat  annoy- 
ing ;  but  we  cannot  have  everything  to  suit  our 
inclinations  in  this  world,  and  it  is  best  to  submit 
with  a  good  grace  to  that  which  it  is  not  in  our 
power  to  alter.  Admiral  Sir  John  Lewis  paid 

us  a  visit,  as  did  Mr.  and  Mrs.  C and  their 

daughter.  Twelve  years  have  changed  the  latter 
from  a  nice  little  girl  into  a  handsome  young 

lady.     Captain  K and  his  officers  also  called, 

and  brought  a  copy  of  the  log.     All  proffer  their 

services  with  the  greatest  kindness.     Mrs.  C 

sent  us  some  oranges,  which  the  servant  obtained 
from  the  governor's  garden;  a  very  acceptable 
present,  there  being  no  oranges  at  this  season  in 
the  market. 

Tuesday,  July  23.  Fort  Manuel — We  find  our 
present  suite  of  appartments  much  more  desirable 
than  those  which  we  previously  occupied,  the 

MALTA.  349 

rooms  and  arcade  extending  all  round  the  build- 
ing, commanding  an  extensive  prospect,  and  the 
enjoyment  of  a  free  current  of  air.  The  key  of  the 
bastions  we  have- not  yet  made  use  of,  our  party 
nob  being  sufficiently  recovered  even  to  enjoy  the 
exercise  of  a  moonlight  walk.  Armstrong  in- 
forms us  the  steam-boat  from*  Gibraltar  has 
arrived  in  the  harbour.  We  look  anxiously  at 
every  sail  in  view  while  confined  to  this  spot.  Dr. 
Loewe  continues  poorly,  attended  with  shivering 

and  fever.  M thought  it  advisable  to  send  for 

the  physician  on  the  establishment.  The  captain 
of  the  guardiano  was  obliged  to  be  apprised  of 
it,  and  also  of  the  necessity  of  our  sending  for 
another  female  attendant,  as  no  one  can  be 
admitted  without  his  knowledge.  Four  persons 
came  with  the  doctor,  who  pronounced  Dr.  Loewe 
to  have  fever,  and  ordered  him  to  be  kept  low. 
He  also  saw  Ann,  who  is  extremely  weak  and 
poorly.  It  was  laughable  to  observe  the  cautious 
manner  in  which  the  Maltese  gentlemen  re- 
mained in  the  rooms,  lest  they  should  come  in 

contact  with  any  of  us.     M felt  Ann's  pulse 

for  the  physician. 

Wednesday,  July  24.  Fort  Manuel. — Sir  John 
Lewis  paid  us  a  visit  at  the  parlatorio  this 
morning.  I  found  it  very  fatiguing  to  go  down 
so  many  steps  to  receive  him,  but  it  was  requisite 
to  exert  myself,  I  being  the  only  one  of  the  party 


capable  of  it.  Dr.  Loewe's  fever  again  returned 
about  the  same  hour  as  yesterday,  with  the 
shivering.  Ann  is  not  any  better.  The  doctor 
came  late  ;  he  says  she  may  not  take  any  wine, 
but  only  cool  drink  and  arrow-root.  Sir  Hector 
Grey  has  sent  us  a  present  of  syrup  of  vinegar 

made  at  Rome,*and  Signor  L has  also  sent 

a  large  hamper  filled  with  salt  fingeres,  sausages, 
liqueurs,  and  a  gilt  glass  vase  filled  with  sweet- 
meats. We  have  a  person  come  to  do  the  wash- 
ing, who  remains  on  the  establishment  the  whole 
of  the  quarantine,  as  no  one  who  once  enters  and 
comes  in  contact  is  allowed  to  leave  during  the 
twenty  days.  I  regret  that  our  clothes  cannot 
be  sent  to  the  excellent  Valetta  laundresses. 

Thursday,  July  25.  Fort  Manuel. — The  French 
steam-boat  has  arrived,  also  the  Megara,  Cap- 
tain G ,  from  Gibraltar.  The  former  states 

that  the  Turkish*  Capit^n  Pacha  has  delivered  up 
the  Turkish  fleet  to  Ali  Pacha,  and  that  it  is  now 
in  the  harbour  of  Alexandria.  Previously  to  our 
departure  from  that  port,  it  was  confidently 
reported  that  such  would  be  the  case,  as  the 
prime  minister  at  Constantinople  was  at  variance 
with  the  Capitan  Pacha,  and  the  latter  would 
not  submit  to  his  government. 

I  have  been  for  some  time  watching  an  im- 
mense number  of  black  rats,  as  large  as  small 
cats,  running  about  the  fortress.  I  trust  they 

MALTA  351 

will  not  reach  our  windows  and  invade  our  apart- 
ments, for  we  are  compelled  to  have  the  windows 
open  at  night,  notwithstanding  musquitoes  and 
other  intruders.  The  spacious  lazaretto  is  now 
completely  full.  Among  the  last  arrivals  was  a 
Catholic  archbishop  and  suite.  We  did  not  see 
any  one  to-day  but  the  physician,  who  finds  his 
patients  improved.  The  abstemious  regimen 
seems  to  succeed.  We  took  tea  on  the  arcade, 
where  we  remained  till  twelve  o'clock,  the  light 
of  the  moon  and  stars  producing  a  lustre  equal 
to  that  of  day. 

Friday,    July   26.      Fort  Manuel — Wrote    to 

Mrs.  P and  Mrs.  M'G in  reply  to  their 

letters  of  inquiry.  The  Acheron  departed  about 
one  o'clock  this  forenoon.  The  number  of  small 
pleasure-boats,  with  awnings,  rowing  about  the 
harbour,  makes  me  envy  the  refreshing  exercise, 
and  feel  painfully  the  privation  created  by  the 
existing  quarantine  laws.  The  doctor  just  now 
reports  favourably  of  his  two  patients,  so  that 
we  no  longer  entertain  apprehensions  of  a  longer 
detention  here,  though  the  guardiano  and 
traiteur,  perhaps,  would  not  object  to  it.  The 
weather  not  being  so  sultry  to-day,  makes  the 

confinement  less  tedious.     M even  begins  to 

be  more  reconciled,  and  says  it  will  soon  pass. 
A  large  French  vessel  has  just  arrived  in  the 
harbour  from  Marseilles,  and  various  reports  are 


afloat,  as  usual.  Certainly  the  Pacha  of  Egypt 
has  proved  himself  a  successful  warrior,  for 
having  vanquished  the  Turkish  army,  the  fleet 
now  surrenders  to  his  power.  Some  of  our  new 
quarantine  neighbours  amused  themselves  with 
singing  and  music  during  the  evening.  Un- 
luckily we  do  not  derive  the  same  pleasure 
which  they  seem  to  obtain  from  the  wiry  and 
discordant  sounds  of  an  indifferent  violin. 

Saturday,  July  27.  Fort  Manuel — The  French 
packet-boat  has  arrived,  bringing  Galignani's 
papers  to  the  17th.  The  news  of  the  Sultan's 
death  had  reached  London  and  Paris.  We  are 
to  have  pratique  on  the  6th  of  August,  including 
in  the  twenty  days  the  day  of  arrival  and  the 
day  of  departure,  by  order  of  Admiral  Sir  John 

L .    Mrs.  C has  lent  us  a  very  convenient 

machine  for  ice-water.  It  is  made  of  tin,  shaped 
like  a  tea-urn.  The  ice  is  placed  where  the 
heater  would  be  put,  and  merely  by  turning  the 
spout,  we  have  refreshing  water  on  our  table  all 

We  walked  up  and  down  the  terrace  in  the 
evening,  but  the  rays  of  the  moon  were  almost 
as  hot  as  those  of  the  sun,  and  it  wore  a  red  cast. 
The  air  was  exceedingly  sultry.  A  barge,  illu- 
minated most  brilliantly,  with  a  large  party,  and 
a  military  band  on  board,  was  impelled  along  the 
harbour  by  several  small  boats,  with  a  single 

MALTA.  353 

large  light  in  each.  Tranquilly  they  glided 
along  the  surface  of  the  water,  and  presented  a 
very  beautiful  appearance. 

The  doctor  finds  his  patients  improved,  but 
Ann  is  still  in  bed.  She  has  had  a  tedious 
and  serious  indisposition,  but  I  trust  before 
we  are  allowed  pratique,  she  will  be  perfectly 

Sunday,  July  28.  Fort  Manuel. — It  is  reported 
that  there  are  150,000  Russian  troops  at  Con- 
stantinople. This  confirms  the  rumours  at 
Alexandria.  The  political  horizon  is  cloudy  and 
threatening,  and  whether  the  atmosphere  will 
recover  its  serenity  without  some  severe  storm, 
time  only  can  determine.  There  are  about  three 
hundred  and  fifty  persons  at  present  performing 
quarantine  here :  of  these  two  hundred  and  forty 
are  pilgrims  from  Mecca,  &c.,  the  remainder  are 
from  various  parts  of  the  world.  It  is  so  well 
arranged,  that  each  party  has  a  separate  apart- 
ment, and  is  not  inconvenienced  by  others ;  in 
fact  we  seldom  see  any  of  them,  there  being 
sufficient  space  for  exercise  for  all.  It  must 
afford  a  great  deal  of  employment  and  profit  to 
the  Maltese,  as  a  guardiano  must  be  engaged  to 
every  new  arrival.  We  again  drank  tea,  and 
passed  the  evening  on  the  balcony.  A  party  of 
gentlemen  amused  themselves  with  cricket  on  the 

A  A 


fort.  Some  sang,  others  played  the  flute.  The 
number  of  boats,  with  parties  and  lights  in  each, 
gliding  along  the  glassy  waters,  formed  an  agree- 
able variety  to  the  scene.  We  retire  about 
eleven,  though  I  am  afraid  of  sitting  in  a  room 
with  lights,  lest  they  should  attract  the  mos- 
quitoes, already  sufficiently  numerous. 

Monday  July  29.  Fort  Manuel, — At  an  early 
hour  we  were  awoke  by  the  firing  of  cannon. 
Various  were  the  cries  in  answer  to  our  inquiries 
respecting  the  occasion.  Some  said  it  was  in 
consequence  of  the  arrival  of  the  son  of  the  King 
of  France,  &c.  At  length  the  true  reason  was 
discovered,  it  was  the  anniversary  of  the  three 

The  Hebrew  letters,  descriptive  of  the  Holy 
Land,  and  the  mode  of  cultivation,  &c.,  are  being 
translated  into  English  by  Dr.  Loewe.  They 
contain  a  great  deal  of  useful  information.*  Mr. 

and  Mrs.  C ,  who  are  just  returned  from 

Gaza,  visited  us  to-day.  They  remark,  that  the 
heat  this  summer  is  greater  than  in  ordinary 
years ;  the  thermometer  at  Valetta  on  Saturday 
last  was  94°,  here  it  was  from  82°  to  87°,  there 
being  a  refreshing  breeze.  In  the  evening  we 
heard  some  good  singing  from  our  neighbours  in 
quarantine,  a  large  party  of  French,  English,  and 
*  See  Appendix. 


Italians.  They  have  a  piano,  flute,  and  violin. 
Some  of  them  have  good  voices  and  sing  well, 
the  ladies  taking  their  part. 

The  music  continued  till  ten  o'clock  ;  I  retired 
half  an  hour  after.  M has  regained  his  in- 
dustrious habits,  which  I  am  always  accustomed 
to  regard  as  a  good  sign  of  returning  health. 

A  supply  of  ice  is  furnished  twice  a  day.  It  is 
brought  from  the  mountains,  and  affords  a  large 
revenue  to  the  contractor. 

Tuesday,  July  30.  Fort  Manuel. — I  regret  to 
say  Ann  has  passed  a  very  indifferent  night.  Our 
numerous  friends  continue  to  support  their  well- 
merited  character  for  hospitality  ;  but  we  are  so 
carefully  attended  to  by  the  traiteur  and  Mrs. 

A that  we  need  to  accept  only  oranges  and 

"  Galignani." 

Wednesday,  July  31.  Fort  Manuel. — Ann  still 
continues  very  ill.  I  trust  she  will  be  so  far 
recovered  by  Tuesday  as  to  be  able  to  leave  the 
lazaretto,  and  go  with  us  in  the  steamer.  At 
present  there  are  about  three  hundred  pilgrims 
performing  quarantine.  It  is  also  expected  that 
there  will  shortly  be  a  great  number  of  arrivals 
from  India,  the  difficulty  of  crossing  the  desert 
being  so  much  diminished.  Ann  finds  the  pain 
which  she  suffered  removed  since  the  application 
of  leeches  this  afternoon  ;  and  having  taken  the 
AA  2 


prescribed  medicine,  she  has  fallen  asleep,  and 
continued  tranquil  all  the  evening. 

Thursday,  August  1.  Fort  Manuel. — Alas  !  that 
I  should  have  to  record  the  death  of  our  poor 
servant,  Ann  Flinn.  How  delighted  she  was  at 
the  idea  of  visiting  Jerusalem,  and  when,  by  the 
mercy  of  our  Divine  Protector  we  reached  that 
city,  how  earnest,  how  grateful  were  her  expres- 
sions of  joy  that  she  had  the  privilege  of  visiting 
the  sepulchre  which  her  religion  sanctified  !  She 
spoke  this  morning  of  the  feeling  with  which 
she  had  been  impressed  on  contemplating  the 
scenes  so  dear  to  her  thoughts,  and  referred  to  a 
memorandum  in  her  Prayer-Book,  dated  Mount 
of  Olives,  10th  of  June,  when  she  had  read  the 
twentieth  Psalm,  "  which,"  she  added,  "  is  most 
beautiful."  These  were  her  last  words,  and  she 
expired  about  two  o'clock. 

Dr.  Loewe,  on  looking  into  her  chamber  at 
his  usual  early  hour,  was  greatly  shocked  to 
perceive  so  evident  and  sudden  a  change,  for, 
according  to  the  account  of  two  females  who 
remained  with  her,  she  had  slept  throughout  the 
night.  He  found  her  hands  and  feet  cold,  her 
eyes  fixed,  and  the  pulse  scarcely  perceptible. 
The  physician  of  the  lazaretto,  on  being  imme- 
diately sent  for,  expressed  his  apprehension  to 
my  dear  M ,  who  hastened  to  her  room.  She 


remarked  that  she  must  be  greatly  worse,  for 
that  Dr.  Loewe  seemed  frightened  and  red  in  the 

face.  Wishing  to  divert  her  attention  M 

inquired  respecting  her  family,  and  on  noticing 
the  memorandum  in  the  Prayer-Book,  observed, 
"  You  prize  your  Prayer-Book  as  well  as  I  do 
mine."  When  I  went  into  the  room  she  told  me 
she  had  passed  a  very  good  night.  An  English 
physician  accompanied  the  other  on  his  second 

visit,  and  the  Rev.  Mr.  C also  visited  her ; 

but  consciousness  soon  ceased,  and  she  expired 
without  a  groan.  We  have  lost  a  faithful  and 
affectionate  attendant,  and  one  whose  gentleness 
of  disposition  and  propriety  of  conduct  endeared 
her  to  the  whole  party. 

In  this  climate  the  interment  takes  place  the 
day  after  the  decease.  The  medical  man  returned 
in  the  afternoon,  and  gave  a  certificate  that  poor 
Ann's  death  was  not  caused  by  the  plague,  but  by 
a  pulmonary  affection.  They  wished  to  remove 
the  corpse  immediately  to  a  magazine  below,  but 
we  objected  to  this,  and  in  the  evening  proceeded 
with  the  physician,  the  guardiano,  &c.,  in  boats  to 
the  lazaretto  burying-ground,  to  select  a  grave. 
Many  were  already  dug! 

Friday,  August  2.  Fort  Manuel — Just  returned 
from  fulfilling  the  last  duties  to  poor  Ann !  The 
ceremony  was  deeply  affecting,  and  well  calcu- 


lated  to  inspire  solemn  convictions  of  the  vanity 
of  the  world  and  its  concerns.  At  six  in  the  morn- 
ing we  set  off  in  boats,  the  physician,  the  clergy- 
man, and  clerk  having  respectfully  arrived  to 
attend  us.  The  two  captains,  the  guardiano,  and 
Armstrong  were  also  present.  A  basket  of  quick- 
lime being  ready,  the  lid  of  the  coffin  was  re- 
moved, and  the  lime  poured  upon  the  body.  The 
countenance  of  the  departed  was  thinner  than  in 
life,  but  calm  and  placid.  Peace  be  to  her.  In 
half  an  hour  her  mortal  remains  would  become 
like  the  dust  spread  over  them.  May  her 
Heavenly  Father  receive  her  spirit  with  forgive- 
ness ! 

Saturday,  August  3.  Fort  Manuel — If  ever  I 
experienced  the  happiness  of  the  Sabbath  it  was 
to-day.  I  sought  and  found  rest  to  the  mind  ; 
a  charm  to  the  spirits,  and  a  happy  feeling  of 
resignation  to  the  will  of  our  Heavenly  Father. 
Yesterday  we  were  oppressed  at  the  apparent 
sudden  demise  of  our  poor  servant.  This  day 
gives  us  leisure  to  acknowledge  the  mercy  of 
Providence  in  enabling  us  to  reach  a  place  where 
medical  aid  could  be  procured,  where  we  are  sur- 
rounded by  English  people,  and  where  the  inter- 
ment of  the  deceased  could  be  attended  with  all 
the  decencies  of  religion.  Happy,  indeed,  is  the 
day  of  rest  when  the  mind  can  correct  its  way- 


ward  ness,  and  become  more  and  more  sensible, 
that  trust  in  God  is  the  only  sentiment  which 
can  enable  us  to  deduce  good  from  evil,  and  ani- 
mate and  strengthen  the  hopes  of  a  blessed  futu- 

Some  difficulty  was  started  respecting  our 
passport,  in  consequence  of  its  being  lined  with 
cloth.  They  wish  us  to  have  a  new  one  to  pass 
the  quarantine,  for  engaging  places  in  the  French 
steam -boat  for  next  Tuesday,  when  we  hope  to 
have  pratique.  By  speaking,  however,  to  Mr. 

C the  objection  was  removed.  We  walked 

in  the  evening  on  the  terrace. 

Sunday,  August  4.  Fort  Manuel. — We  appro- 
priated the  whole  of  the  forenoon  to  prepara- 
tions fortaking  pratique.  The  Lycurgus  steam- 
boat starts  on  Tuesday,  and  will  put  into  Civita 
Vecchia,  where  we  left  our  carriage,  and  whence 
we  purpose  proceeding  by  the  same  vessel  to 
Marseilles.  There  are  forty-five  new  arrivals 
to-day  at  the  quarantine,  among  which  are  the 
French  ambassador  and  suite  from  Corfu. 

Being  greatly  fatigued  with  the  heat  of  the 
weather,  we  took  courage  and  walked  some  time 
on  the  ramparts.  This  was  the  first  time  we 
availed  ourselves  of  the  advantage  of  having  the 
key  at  our  command.  All  the  apartments  of  the 
Lazaretto  were  lighted  up,  and  the  edifice  pre- 


sented  a  gay  and  festive  appearance.  Some  of 
the  newly-arrived  were  occupied  with  spreading 
out  their  effects,  while  others  amused  themselves 
with  the  more  pleasurable  exercises  of  music 
and  singing,  promenading,  or  with  the  yet  more 
substantial  enjoyments  of  the  table. 

Monday,  August  5.  Fort  Manuel— We  are 
pleased,  in  no  slight  degree,  with  the  prospect 
of  quitting  the  Lazaretto  to-morrow  morning. 
Though  this  is  the  best  establishment  of  the 
kind,  possessing  the  advantages  of  a  beautiful 
situation,  and  being  of  great  extent,  the  heat  of 
the  climate,  and  the  surrounding  white  walls, 

often  led  M to  speak  of  it  as  a  prison.  In 

the  evening  we  went  to  see  the  tombstone 
erected  to  the  memory  of  poor  Ann  Flinn,  and 
had  the  vexation  to  find  it  and  the  inscription 
but  very  indifferently  executed. 

Tuesday,  August  6. — This  morning  at  half -past 
six  we  had  the  gratification  to  leave  the  quaran- 
tine harbour ;  but  our  pleasure  was  mingled  with 
pain,  for  one  who  had  shared  in  the  toils  and  de- 
lights of  our  pilgrimage  was  now  mingled  with 
the  dust. 

The  captain  of  the  Lazaretto  had  behaved  with 
great  attention  and  politeness  during  the  whole 

of  our  abode  there,  and  M ,  on  taking 

leave,  presented  him  with  a  douceur  in  acknow- 


ledgment  of  his  civility ;  but  he  declined  accept- 
ing it,  observing  that  he  was  not  allowed  to 
receive  any  present. 

We  found  the  caleche  waiting  for  us  according 
to  order,  and  were  soon  once  more  in  the  streets  of 
Valetta,  through  which  the  air  was  blowing 
freshly,  as  if  to  inspire  us  with  a  quicker  sense 
and  enjoyment  of  recovered  freedom.  We  were 
set  down  at  Durnsford's  hotel,  and  then  has- 
tened to  the  house  of  prayer,  to  offer  our  devout 
thanks  to  the  merciful  and  Almighty  Being  who 
had  so  continually  protected,  guided,  and  com- 
forted us. 

Wednesday,  August  7. — During  a  farewell  call 
on  the  governor  his  excellency  said  he  had  heard 
of  us,  both  during  and  after  our  journey.  We 
were  now  ready  to  bid  adieu  to  the  hospitable 
isle,  and  were  followed  by  a  host  of  lame  and 
blind,  old  and  young,  to  the  Custom-house  stairs, 
down  which  we  stepped,  probably  for  the  last 
time,  into  the  boat,  in  which  Dr.  Loewe  was 
already  seated.  We  were  soon  on  board  the 
French  steamer,  the  neat  appearance  of  which 
excited  our  admiration.  It  was  twelve  o'clock 
before  she  started,  two  hours  having  been  lost 
in  waiting  for  a  passenger,  who  being  extremely 
deaf  could  not  understand  the  summons  to 
hasten  on  board,  though  observing  from  the 
shore  the  busy  preparations  for  departure. 


Some  rolling  and  threatening  white  clouds, 
with  a  brisk  breeze,  made  us  fear  a  squall ;  nor 
did  the  answers  of  the  officers  to  our  inquiries 
tend  to  dissipate  our  apprehensions.  But  lying 
down  on  the  benches,  enveloped  in  our  mantles, 
we  soon  forgot,  in  tranquil  sleep,  the  dread  of 
storms  and  every  other  danger. 

Thursday,  August  8.  On  board  the  Lycurgm. 
— Before  daylight  this  morning  I  was  awakened 
by  a  noise  which  I  imagined  was  occasioned  by 
the  pouring  of  cinders  into  the  sea.  The  noise, 
however,  becoming  louder  and  louder,  I  began  to 
calculate  the  lavish  waste  of  the  government 

stores,  when  M 's  voice,  and  the  exhortation 

not  to  be  alarmed,  made  me  open  my  eyes.  I 
instantly  perceived  flashes  of  lightning  of  awful 
vividness,  followed  by  loud  and  frequent  peals  of 
thunder.  The  cabin  also  was  by  this  time  almost 
inundated  with  rain ;  and  at  the  vociferous  com- 
mand of  the  steward  and  captain,  two  or  three 
men,  sans  certmonie,  entered  the  cabin  to  cover  the 
skylight.  We  were  now  near  Cape  Passero,  and 
the  water- spouts  and  storms  of  our  former  voyage 
came  forcibly  to  our  memory.  The  terrors  of 
that  period  were  happily  not  renewed.  This 
was  but  a  summer  tempest.  The  thunder  and 
lightning  cleared  the  atmosphere  of  yesterday's 
sultry  heat,  and  again  the  firmament  blessed  the 


sight  with  its  celestial  and  brightening  blue.  I 
dressed  and  went  on  deck,  when  a  clear  view  of 
the  city  of  Messina  presented  itself;  the  noble 
row  of  houses,  just  commenced  on  our  previous 
visit,  now  forming  a  fine  embellishment  to  the 
shore,  while  the  mountains  of  Sicily  on  the  one 
side,  and  those  of  Calabria  on  the  other,  gave  to 
the  whole  scene  a  character  of  grandeur  and 
sublimity.  About  two  o'clock  the  cloud-capped 
top  of  Stromboli  offered  itself  to  view ;  and  not 
long  after,  as  we  sailed  round  the  island,  the 
crater  became  distinctly  visible. 

The  afternoon  was  fine,  but  we  had  again 
much  lightning  in  the  evening. 

Friday,  August  9.  On  board  the  Lycurgus. — 
We  have  just  passed  the  Lipari  Isles,  and  Ischia, 
Vesuvius,  and  the  small  towns  at  its  foot  have  sue- 
cessively  presented  themselves  to  view.  Towards 
evening  a  dark  cloud  overspread  the  heavens,  and 
took  from  our  sight  the  brilliant  stars  which  had 
just  before  lit  up  the  sea  with  their  soft  and  cheer- 
ing rays.  I  dreaded  the  approach  of  a  storm,  and 
though  we  had  to  encounter  only  an  increase  of 
the  breeze,  the  creaking  and  rolling  of  the  vessel 
exposed  me  to  much  suffering,  and  I  remained 
on  deck  till  near  eleven. 

Saturday,  August  10.  Harbour  of  Civita  Vecchia. 
— The  rolling  and  creaking  of  the  ship  continued 


throughout  the  night,  and  almost  deprived  me  of 
sleep.  At  dawn  of  day  we  anchored  in  this  har- 
bour, and  having  received  the  visits  of  several 
friends  who  came  on  board  to  offer  their  congra- 
tulations, sailed  again  at  two  o'clock  for  Mar- 
seilles, where,  by  the  mercy  of  our  Divine  Pro- 
tector, we  arrived  safely,  and  in  health  and  spirits. 
Thus  terminated  a  tour,  every  day  employed  in 
which  furnished  us  with  proofs  equally  affecting 
and  instructive  of  the  Divine  mercy,  and  at  the 
same  time  with  the  most  profitable  incentives  to 
the  exercise  of  thought.  May  the  gratification 
experienced  during  the  prosecution  of  the  journey 
produce  in  our  minds  the  permanent  fruits  of  a 
more  perfect  devotion  to  the  Almighty,  and  of  a 
yet  clearer  and  clearer  apprehension  of  the  way 
in  which  we  may  best  fulfil  his  will,  and  perfect 
the  designs  which  he  had  in  our  creation. 







Btmng  fjis  sojourn  tfjcre. 


SUFFICIENT  has  been  said  in  the  preceding  pages  to  intimate 
to  the  reader  that  the  journey,  of  which  they  offer  a  faint 
record,  was  not  undertaken  with  a  mere  selfish  purpose.  The 
object  contemplated  was  one  in  which  humanity  and  religion 
are  equally  interested,  and  to  the  success  of  which  scarcely 
any  mind  of  ordinary  benevolence  can  be  entirely  indifferent. 
In  the  course  of  her  narrative  the  writer  of  the  Journal  has 
alluded  to  this  subject  with  such  particularity  as  the  extent 
of  her  notes  would  allow  ;  but  it  is  a  matter  of  so  much 
importance,  and  possessing  so  many  claims  to  attention,  that 
she  avails  herself  of  the  existence  of  some  original  documents 
and  letters  to  exhibit,  in  the  most  authentic  manner,  the  sen- 
timents with  which  Sir  Moses  Montefiore's  plans  and  efforts 
were  met  by  those  for  whose  benefit  they  were  designed. 




To  our  Lord,  who  is  the  crown  of  our  head  ;  who,  by  His 
virtuous  and  noble  deeds,  is  most  distinguished  amongst 
men,  SIR  MOSES  MONTEFIORE.  May  his  light  shine  for 
ever  !  May  the  Almighty  will  it  to  be  so. — AMEN. 

Blessed  be  our  God  ;  for  His  mercy  to  those  that  fear  Him 
has  been  abundant,  and  in  our  dire  distress  He  remembered 
how  deeply  we  had  drunk  from  the  cup  of  misfortune.  We 
have  now  seen  that  Israel  is  not  left  in  widowhood,  for  there 
are  still  men  of  high  repute  who  are  ready  to  strengthen 
those  whose  hands  are  weak  and  whose  feet  are  unstable, 
that  they  may  obtain  the  favour  of  the  Creator  (to  whom  be 
all  glory  for  ever  and  ever). 

These  lines  are  designed  to  express  to  your  honour  our 
gratitude  for  the  beneficial  light  which  we,  in  common  with 
all  our  brethren  in  the  Holy  City,  have  derived  from  your 
very  liberal  succour.  For  the  good  which  your  deeds  con- 


veyed,  the  poor  in  this  land  humbly,  and  with  the  most 
fervent  feeling,  proffer  you  their  thanks.  And  on  behalf  of 
that  class  we  have  now  to  entreat  your  honour's  most  par- 
ticular attention,  to  the  end  that  your  honour's  compassion 
may  be  kindly  shown  them.  You,  Sir,  have  doubtless  heard 
of,  and  probably  have  also  seen  their  afflicting  poverty,  and 
their  generally  wretched  condition.  There  are  amongst  them 
some  who  wish  for  assistance  in  the  way  of  employment,  no 
matter  in  what  it  may  consist,  and  in  the  height  of  their 
distress  they  humbly  pray  your  honour  to  create  it  for  them. 
They  would  most  gladly  engage  in  agricultural  occupations, 
or  become  shepherds,  although  they  have  hitherto  had  no 
experience  in  such  pursuits  ;  yet,  impelled  by  their  poverty 
and  their  fervid  attachment  to  this  land,  in  which  they  wish 
ever  to  dwell,  they  would  apply  themselves  to  such  with 
indefatigable  assiduity. 

The  persons  just  referred  to  venture  humbly  to  petition 
your  honour  to  buy,  or  to  hire,  a  piece  of  fertile  land,  consist- 
ing either  of  vineyards  or  olive-plantations,  according  as  you 
may  be  able  to  treat  for  such  with  the  governors  of  this  region, 
and  to  place  the  same  in  the  hands  of  those  who  are  disposed 
as  we  have  related ;  so  that  by  rearing  cattle,  or  other  em- 
ployments in  connection  with  the  soil,  they  may  establish 
means  for  their  own  maintenance.  For  those  who  are  learned 
in  our  sacred  ordinances,  and  who  devote  themselves  to  the 
study  thereof,  we  entreat  that  they  may  be  enabled,  as  here- 
tofore, to  continue  their  studies,  by  the  wonted  protection  and 
support  of  our  honoured  benefactor  (may  your  life  ever  be  an 
object  of  the  Almighty's  especial  care),  so  that  by  this  project 
the  worship  of  our  God  may  in  nowise  fall  off,  nor  the  know- 
ledge of  the  holy  law  be  diminished.  By  this  means  will  Sir 
Moses  strengthen  our  tottering  knees — the  poor — who  by 
their  extreme  penury  are  in  danger  of  sinking  to  the  earth. 
£uch  an  action  will  assuredly  be  looked  upon  by  the  Almighty 
as  one  of  sacred  merit,  and  will  remain  before  him  as  a 


memorial  by  which  the  horn  of  your  honour  will  be  elevated 
till  the  arrival  of  the  great  and  righteous  Redeemer. 
Signed  by 

ABRAHAM  DOB,  from  Awaritsh,  Chief  Rabbi. 



DOB  BERISH,  from  Bad. 

POSTSCRIPT.— We,  the  undersigned,  also  declare  that  our 
mouths  are  filled  with  praise,  even  as  the  depths  are  filled 
with  water,  and  our  tongues  are  laden  with  rejoicings  to  the 
Almighty  (blessed  be  his  name),  for  that  he  did  not  leave  us 
without  a  redeemer  (protector),  whom  we  have  found  in  our 
lord,  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  :  he  who  seeks  righteousness,  and 
shows  compassion  to  the  suffering,  and  endeavours,  with  un- 
remitting energy,  to  promote  the  happiness  of  his  people, 
and  who  is  to  them  as  a  strong  tower  of  defence.  May  his 
glory  be  elevated,  for  he  withheld  not  his  benevolence  and 
his  friendship  from  his  brethren — from  the  nation  of  the 
Almighty  and  his  inheritance. 

His  eyes  have  been  cast  upon  this  land  in  order  to  its  being 
cultivated  by  our  brethren.  Thus  will  he  fortify  the  cities  of 
the  pious  and  the  learned,  who  are,  alas !  like  broken  vessels 
(to  which  sad  condition,  we  fear,  our  sins  have  provoked  the 
Almighty  to  reduce  us).  Our  benefactor,  wishing  to  preserve 
them  from  utterly  perishing,  has  devised  a  plan  for  securing  a 
comfortable  subsistence  for  those  that  remain  ;  which  is,  that 
every  one  should  labour  in  some  one  branch  of  the  business  of 
agriculture.  By  this  means  they  will  all  be  provided  with  a 
maintenance  from  their  own  industry.  Thus,  also,  will  the 
Holy  City  be  preserved,  for  the  learned  and  their  pupils  will 
continue  to  devote  their  mental  powers  to  cultivating  the 
knowledge  of  the  holy  law,  and  the  worship  of  the  Almighty, 
whilst  the  ordinary  people  will  perform  their  due  tasks  in  the 
field,  and  bring  food  for  their  families  from  the  fruits  of  the 
B  B 


field  and  vineyard  with  which  the  Almighty  may  have  blessed 

The  effects  of  your  plan,  Sir  Moses,  will  prove  of  the 
utmost  importance  ;  they  will  become  to  you  as  a  thousand 
shields,  which  will  ward  off  all  ills  from  your  life  and  peace. 

May  your  dignity  never  decay.  By  the  abundance  of  this 
good,  many  will,  under  the  Almighty's  blessing,  live  to 
enjoy  it. 

Written  in  the  year  "  Happy  art  thou,  and  it  shall  be  well 
with  thee." 

Signed  by  the  principals  of  the  Portuguese  congregation 
at  Zafed. 








Statement  of  the 

extent  of  each 

Number  of  places 

Names  of  Vil- 
lages in  the 
<  icinity  of 
Zafed,  under 
the  Governor 
of  that  Town. 

Field,  and  the 
quantity  of 
Grain  required 
for  sowing  each 
Field,  which  is 
known  by  the 
number  of  the 

The  length  and 
breadth  of  each 
Field,  shown  by 
the  number  of 
hours  occupied 
in  walking 
through  it. 

Statement  of  what 
Wells  and  Rivers  irri- 
gate the  Fields  favour- 
able for  the  forming  of 
Gardens  or  Parks. 

in  the  same  dis- 
trict which  have 
no  constant  sup- 
ply of  Water, 
but  which  are 
well  adapted  for 
the  cultivation 

Fadans  em- 

of Vines  and 



Timnai  .  . 

40  Fadans 

22          22 

A    large    river 

and  2  wells. 



Kharis   .  . 


do.       do. 



Miroon  .  . 

30  ditto. 

2            3 

The   river  Me- 

gidu    and    2 



Tattaf    .  . 

25  ditto. 

1            2 

1     large    well 

and  2  others. 


*  Fadan  is  a  term  which,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Zafed,  signifies  two  oxer, 
but  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Acre  it  signifies  three.  Its  general  signification  in 
Arabic  is  "  an  ox  attached  to  the  plough,"  and  thence  it  is  used  to  denote  a 
certain  quantity  of  ground  to  be  tilled,  or  the  course  of  tillage. 

B  B   2 



Names  of 

Number  of 
Fadans  for  each 

Length  and 
breadth  of  Field 
shown  by  hours. 

Wells  and  Rivers. 

Number  o  i 
places  fit  for 
Vineyards,  &c. 

Kadita     .  . 

25  Fadans. 

1           2 



Goosh  Kha- 

30  ditto. 

2           3 

1  stream  &  1  well 


25  ditto. 

1           2 




25  ditto. 

1           2 



Ras     Kha- 

25  ditto. 

1           2 

Tetaba     .  . 

40  ditto. 

2           3 



Dalata      .  . 

20  ditto. 

1           2 




50  ditto. 

3           4 



Amooka  .  . 

10  ditto. 

1           1 

1  large  well  &  Ismail 



Mirnet,  Al- 
ba  &  neigh- 
bourhood . 

100  ditto. 

6          8 

1  large  well 


Kabea      .  . 

50  ditto. 

3          4 

4  wells 


amgar    .  . 

30  ditto. 

2          3 

12  wells 


Feram      .  . 

30  ditto. 

2          3 

5  wells  &  1  river 



Ganeana  .  . 

30  ditto. 

2          3 



ebi,      and 
Aniktela  . 

35  ditto. 

2          3 

4  wells 


&  Arshda  . 

3  ditto. 

2          3 

3  wells 




THE  SOUTH  OF  ZAFED— continued. 

Names  of 

Number  of 
Fadaiis  for  each 

Length  and 
breadth  of  Field 
shown  by  hours. 

Wells  and  Rivers. 

Number  of 
places  fit  for 
Vineyards,  &c. 


3  Fadans. 

2          3 

5  wells 


Eyn  Zetoon 

3  ditto. 

2          3 

1  large  well 



40  ditto. 

2          3 



Aptekha  .  . 

50  ditto. 

6          8 

2  rivers 


Khoula    .  . 

100  ditto. 

12         16 

2  rivers 


bria,    and 
Notem  .  . 

2  ditto. 

1          2 


Agayar     .  . 

3  ditto. 

2          3 



Total  Num- 
ber of 

Total  of 

Length  com- 
puted     by 
hours,  66. 
Breadth   by 
the  same,  36. 

Total  number 
of  Gardens, 

Total  of 
places  fit  for 
vineyards  or 
olive  plan- 
tations, 365. 

The  villages  here  named  pay  to  the  pasha  in  coin,  one 
hundred  and  eighty  thousand  piastres ;  also  three  hundred 
garas  of  wheat,  which  is  equal  to  thirty  thousand  Egyptian 
"  roobas  ; "  five  hundred  garas  of  barley,  equal  to  fifty  thou- 
sand Egyptian  roobas  ;  and  for  each  head,  moreover,  thirty- 
three  piastres. 


These,  in  the  following  year,  will  be  lessened  by  one-half. 
After  a  lapse  of  four  or  five  years  they  might  be  much 
further  diminished  by  the  productions  of  the  gardens  and 


For  the  purchase  of  both  wheat  and  barley  seed  for 

nine  hnndred  and  fifty  fadans ....     28,275 

Materials  for  the  cultivation  of  the  gardens  and 
vineyards,  including  wheat,  barley,  and  lentils          .     52,625 
Wages  of  the  labourers         .  .  .  .     23,275 

Total  ....      75,900 

The  purchase  of  lentil-seed,  of  each  kind  two  kilas,  would 
amount,  for  each  f adan  seven  karas,*  to  6,500. 

The  formation  of  each  garden  will  cost  one  hundred  karas; 
and,  with  God's  permission,  we  shall  renew  six,  3,600. 

The  making  of  a  fence  around  each  vineyard  costs  at  least 
fifty  talaries,  (Spanish  karas,)  and  the  number  altogether 
which  we  intend,  with  God's  help,  to  cultivate  being  three 
hundred  and  eighty-five,  the  expense  will  be  10,250  talaries. 

I  have  not  mentioned  the  price  of  oxen  and  agricultural 
implements,  because  Sir  Moses  said  that  the  requisite  imple- 
ments should  be  sent  hither  from  England  ;  and  my  humble 
opinion  is,  that  it  would  be  the  most  beneficial  to  give  the  seed 
to  the  proprietors  of  the  villages,  and  to  furnish  them  with 
the  amount  of  their  expenses  as  a  loan.  If  that  were  done, 
they  would  supply  oxen  and  agricultural  tools  ;  and,  with 
God's  blessing,  thence  forward  our  own  earnings  would  pro- 
bably cover  all  further  expenses  ;  in  that  respect  our  share 
would  equal  that  of  the  peasants,  but  the  pasha's  dues  would 
have  to  be  paid  before  any  division  could  take  place. 

I  have  now  to  inform  Sir  Moses  of  the  conditions  into 
which  it  is  essential  he  should  cause  the  pasha  to  enter  : 
without  them  the  proposed  plan  cannot  be  put  into  operation. 

1st.  The  pasha  must  station  persons  of  tried  courage  to 
protect  each  village,  and  the  places  belonging  thereto,  in 
accordance  with  the  custom  observed  in  the  time  of  Abdalla 
Pasha,  at  the  villages  here  named :— Gesser  Benat  Jacoob, 

*  Kara  signifies  a  Spanish  dollar. 


Keshoor  Joosif ,  Khan  el  Mina,  and  Shoonat  El  Moghrebin,  in 
the  district  of  Senin  ;  and  also  at  Zafed  and  Malkha. 

2nd.  These  guards  must  always  be  in  attendance  when  the 
labourers  are  reaping  the  corn  on  the  fields,  or  are  otherwise 
employed,  in  order  to  prevent  anything  from  being  stolen  or 
unlawfully  removed. 

3rd.  Neither  the  Moudir  of  Acre,  nor  the  Mousselim  of 
Zafed,  shall  have  any  power  to  interfere  with  the  cultivators, 
or  with  the  people  of  the  villages.  (This  clause  is  necessary 
to  prevent  any  occasion  arising  for  bribing  those  parties  : 
because  the  money  so  given  to  them  generally  amounts  to  a 
higher  sum  than  that  exacted  by  the  pasha.)  The  money  to 
be  paid  to  the  pasha  shall  be  taken  from  those  only  who  are 
really  engaged  with  the  fields,  and  not  from  the  mere  resi- 
dents of  the  villages  :  the  payment  to  be  made  between  the 
first  month  of  Tamooz  and  the  termination  of  the  second,  the 
period  of  the  harvest. 

4th.  The  pasha  shall  guarantee  that  none  of  the  cultivators 
shall  be  forced  into  the  military  service.  This  condition  will 
incite  the  labourers  to  toil  unremittingly.  But  if  it  should 
not  be  G-od's  pleasure  for  Sir  Moses  to  be  so  successful,  it  will 
be  necessary  that  the  pasha  should,  at  least,  order  that  none 
be  taken  for  soldiers  during  the  harvest  season ;  and  that 
the  sheikh  of  the  village  only  should  be  empowered  to  select 
the  men  required.  The  result  of  this  stipulation  would  be, 
that  the  men  most  suitable  for  the  tillage  would  not  be 

5th.  The  cultivators  shall  pay  the  pasha's  dues  in  cash, 
instead  of  wheat  and  barley  ;  otherwise  in  the  measure 
termed  the  rooba  of  Acre.  This  condition  is  of  much  impor- 

6th.  Such  productions  of  the  country  as  shall  be  sent  from 
one  place  to  another  by  sea  shall  be  free  from  any  duty. 

7th.  No  Arabs  shall  be  allowed  to  dwell  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  fields,  unless  security  be  had  from  them  that  they  pay 


for  any  damage  done  to  the  soil  or  crops.  (The  Arabs  are 
accustomed  to  turn  their  cattle  loose  upon  the  cultivated 
land,  whereby  the  seed  is  destroyed.) 

8th.  All  the  foregoing  conditions  must  be  written  in  Arabic 
or  Turkish,  and  sealed  with  the  seal  of  Mohammed  Ali,  and 
copies  delivered  to  the  cultivators,  so  that  by  exhibiting  such 
documents  they  may  protect  themselves  from  loss  in  times  of 

9th.  A  sum  of  twenty-five  piastres  shall  be  paid  annually 
for  each  vineyard,  and  for  each  garden  fifty  piastres,  for 
which  Sir  Moses  would  hold  possession  of  them  in  perpetuity. 
(The  rent  would  not  be  excessive  if  more  than  that  should  be 
paid  ;  but  any  payment  must  be  subject  to  the  foregoing 

The  division  of  the  profits  arising  from  the  arrangements 
in  question  should  be  divided  in  the  manner  presently  stated. 
It  is  incumbent  on  me  to  entreat,  a  thousand  times,  pardon 
from  Sir  Moses  for  the  liberty  I  have  taken  in  making  this 
proposal  ;  and  when  I  consider  what  affability  and  kindness 
we  have  witnessed  in  Sir  Moses,  and  that  in  this  matter  I 
seek  to  preserve  this  holy  spot  from  desolation,  I  trust  that  I 
shall  be  fully  pardoned. 

One-third  of  the  gross  profits  must  be  devoted  to  the  pay- 
ment of  the  taxes  ;  the  remaining  two-thirds  must  be  dis- 
tributed thus  :  one-third  to  the  Israelites  who  undertake  the 
work,  the  second  third  to  the  Israelitish  servants  employed 
therein,  and  to  pay  5  per  cent,  interest  to  the  parties  who 
advanced  the  money  for  the  execution  of  this  scheme  ;  and 
the  remaining  third  to  those  who  devote  themselves  to  the 
study  of  the  law. 

I  have  given  my  information  in  as  brief  a  manner  as  I 
could,  for  I  did  not  like  to  dwell  on  the  subject  at  length, 
because  other  people-  might  say  enviously,  "  We  could  have 
set  forth  those  matters  as  well  as  he."  For  this  reason  I 
have  also  withheld  any  information  respecting  several  minor 


These    are    the    words    of    one   who  has  faith  in    the 



The  British  Agent  at  Acre. 


The  undermentioned  localities  are  not  very  productive  : — 
G-ermek,  Miroon,  Sammui,  Safsaf ,  Tetaba,  Kadita,  Gisg,  Caffr 
Berai'm,  Ras  el  Akhmar,  Ein  Zetoon,  Biria,  Daria  Takhte, 
and  Daria  Foka. 

In  the  vicinity  of  these  villages  a  small  quantity  of  white 
grain  and  peas  only  can  be  sown.  A  fadan  consists  of  two 
oxen,  to  which  is  attached  one  labourer,  who  takes  the 
fourth  part  of  the  produce,  one  hundred  piastres,  and  the 
oil.  Foreigners  pay  two  hundred,  or  two  hundred  and  fifty 
piastres  for  each  fadan  during  the  year. 

The  district  of  Jakook  and  Abusciuscia  have  some  good 
land.  In  Abusciuscia  may  be  sown  rice,  yellow  grain,  sumson, 
and  every  kind  of  herb  desirable  for  use,  because  the  ground 
is  well  watered.  The  available  land  there  may  be  computed 
by  about  one  hundred  fadans.  The  major  part  of  the  popu- 
lation there  consists  of  Arabs,  and  they  pay  in  taxes  only 
eighteen  thousand  piastres  per  annum,  and  one  cantar  of 

The  undermentioned  villages  are  in  the  environs  of 
Tabaria— El  Megdel,  Tabariade,  and  Hattin.  These  places 


have  good  land,  the  produce  of  which  is  equal  to  that  of  the 
terrain  of  Acre,  except  in  regard  to  cotton  and  sumson.  El 
Megdel  produces  rice.  A  foreigner  undertaking  the  cultiva- 
tion of  any  land  here  has  to  pay  three  hundred  piastres  for 
each  fadan.  During  the  summer  the  oxen  have  not  much 
work  to  do.  The  inhabitants  of  these  places  are  chiefly 
Moslemin,  with  a  few  Christians  intermingled. 

The  lands  belonging  to  the  villages  mentioned  in  the 
following  are  fruitful,  and  their  cultivation  is  vested  in  the 
Moodir  of  Acre. 

Menscia,  situated  ten  minutes'  distance  from  Acre,  on  a 
large  plain  ;  it  employs  eighty  fadans,  each  consisting  of 
three  oxen,  two  of  which  work  together,  being  alternately 
relieved  every  two  hours  by  the  third.  The  soil  produces,  in 
the  winter,  wheat,  barley,  beans,  lentils,  and  peas  ;  and  in  the 
summer,  cotton,  sodi,  sumson,  white  dura,  or  grain,  cucum- 
bers, popy,  and  cucumbers  of  other  kinds  called  cetriuolo,  and 
also  various  kinds  of  herbs.  The  persons  from  whom  the 
ground  is  hired  are  Ibrahim  Agha  and  Tatar  Agasi.  They 
exact  from  the  tenants,  the  labouring  peasant  having  to 
furnish  a  third  part  of  the  produce,  but  nothing  more.  The 
purchase  of  seed,  and  the  hiring  of  fadans,  for  the  first  year 
would  cost  from  two  thousand  to  five  thousand  piastres. 

The  following  villages  are  situate  at  from  one  to  three 
hours'  distance  from  Acre  :  Kaffr  Joosif,  Damoon,  Sciab, 
Cabool,  Schef  amar,  Megdel,  El  Shiams.  The  product  of  these 
localities  is  similar  to  that  of  Menscia.  A  foreign  cultivator 
has  to  pay  rent  at  the  rate  of  three  hundred  piastres  per  fadan. 
The  population  is  composed  of  Moslemin,  Christians,  and 
Druses  ;  but  at  Kaffr  Joosif  and  Shefamar,  there  are  a  few 
Israelites.  The  contributions  of  these  villages  to  the  govern- 
ment revenue  are  in  wheat,  barley,  and  money,  as  was  the 
custom  formerly.  They  must  also  comply  with  any  demand 
made  by  government  for  camels,  horses,  &c.  Such  additional 
contributions  are  supplied  from  the  residue  of  the  value  of  the 


produce,  and  are  borne  equitably  by  the  inhabitants,  divided 
by  the  fadan.  The  chief  of  the  village  is  entitled  to  two 
fadans,  clear  of  all  expense,  that  of  conveying  the  article 
into  his  store-houses  included. 

Very  fruitful  years  occasionally  occur,  when  the  ground 
yields,  in  the  winter,  eight  or  ten  times  the  ordinary  quantity  ; 
and  in  summer  the  proportion  of  fifty  to  thirty.  The  peasant 
that  works  on  the  land  in  Bouy  is  obliged  to  sow  exactly  what 
the  master  directs  him,  and  for  his  wages  he  takes  one-fifth  of 
the  produce,  one  hundred  piastres,  his  maintenance,  and  two 
rottles  of  oil,  but  nothing  more.  If  the  harvest  be  particularly 
abundant  the  master  must  employ  other  men  to  assist  him. 
They  receive  three  piastres  per  day,  with  bread  and  water. 


Three  oxen  .  .  .  .  .900 

Agricultural  implements  .  .  .60 

Grain  for  seed — one  grara*  of  barley,  and  half 

a  grara  of  beans  ....     450 

One  kila  of  peas    .  .  .  .  .60 

Half  a  kila  of  lentils        .  .  .  .15 

Cotton-seed,  twenty  mozinf        .  .  .100 


One  mid  of  sumson-seed,  and  three  mid  of  dura      20 
Wages  to  the  labourer  or  harrat  .  .     100 

Food  for  the  oxen,  with  seed  for  cotton  or 
beans      .  .  .  .  .  .80 

A  sack        .  .  .  .  .  .250 

Which    amount,    added     to     the     preceding, 
makes    ......  2,035 

*  A  grara  contains  twelve  kilas ;  one  kila  contains  six  mids ;  one  mid 
four  rottles,  or  eight  okas ;  one  oka  is  equivalent  to  four  hundred 

t  A  mozin  contains  ten  okas. 




.     600  to  800 
.     500  to  600 
,     200  to  300 

A  good  camel  for  burthens,  from 
A  mare  .... 
A  good  milk-cow . 

A  sheep  for  milk* 
A  she-goat 

40  to 
35  to 


Computed  by  the  number  of  Fadans. 

Menscia     .  .  .  .  .  .80 

El  Biruy    .  .  .  .  .  .45 

KaffrJoosif 50 

Damoon     .  .  .  .  .  .50 

Scias  .  .  .  .  .  .80 

Cabool  and  Tire    .  .  .  .  .30 

Shefmar    .  .  .  .  .  .120 

Megdel 60 




4  Tatnooz,  5599. 

It  is  my  intention  to  acquaint  Sir  Moses  with  all  that 
occurred  to  me  previously  to,  and  up  to  the  time  of,  my 
becoming  acquainted  with  the  state  of  the  Holy  Land,  and  to 

*  The  sheep  brings  forth  young  every  five  months. 

t  In  all  the  districts  here  referred  to  tobacco  may  be  grown. 


show  that  even  in  its  desolation  it  might  still  be  flowing  with 
milk  and  honey,'  for  those  who  should  engage  in  its  cultiva- 
tion. A  long  time  ago  my  attention  was  directed  to  the  con- 
dition of  our  brethren  in  this  region  ;  and  then  thought  I, 
"  How  much  longer  are  they  to  receive  bread  to  consume 
which  makes  them  blush  ? "  I  here  allude  to  the  relief 
afforded  them  by  Israelites  in  exile,  which  may  be  considered 
really  the  bread  of  poverty,  inasmuch  as  some  of  it  is  con- 
tributed by  Israelites  who  are  of  the  poorest.  This  aid  is  so 
diminished  by  the  expenses  of  its  transmission  to  this  spot, 
that  when  it  is  received  it  is  scarcely  adequate  to  relieve 
one  fourth  part  of  the  wants  to  which  it  is  applied. 

I  feel  prompted  to  ask,  Why  should  our  condition  be  worse 
than  that  of  Christians  in  the  Holy  Land  ?  for  they  have 
no  inheritance  in  the  soil,  nor  have  they  absolute  possession 
of  any  portion  of  it  any  more  than  we  ;  yet  the  Christians 
here  derive  a  sufficient  sustenance  from  the  fruitfulness  of 
the  land,  and  the  abundance  of  its  seas.  It  has  been  my 
chief  endeavour,  from  earliest  youth,  to  live  by  the  labour  of 
my  hands,  and  to  help  to  sustain  those  who  devote  their  lives 
to  the  study  of  the  holy  law.  I  engaged  in  commercial 
pursuits,  intending  to  make  a  journey  once  a  year  into 
Egypt :  and  on  my  return  I  sold  the  goods  I  had  purchased 
to  shopkeepers,  but,  that  I  might  duly  attend  to  the  law,  I 
refrained  from  appearing  in  any  shop  myself.  On  my  second 
return  from  Egypt,  I  was  exposed  to  great  danger,  for  my 
preservation  from  which  I  have  to  give  thanks  to  the 
Almighty.  But  my  father,  seeing  that  we  had  not  the  means 
requisite  to  extend  our  business,  so  as  to  derive  from  it 
incomes  which  might  support  our  families  in  comfort,  and 
especially  as  the  necessaries  of  life  and  the  articles  of  com- 
merce were  at  that  time  very  expensive,  and  the  roads  to 
Egypt  in  a  state  of  great  peril,  would  not  sanction  my  going 
thither  any  more  :  two  years  have  now  elapsed  since  I  gave 
up  that  undertaking. 


My  present  employment  is  connected  with  the  reconstruc- 
tion of  the  former  ruin  of  Rabbi  Yehooda  Hakhasid,  which  I 
deem  a  good  action.  I  am  mindful  so  to  inspect  the  work 
that  nothing,  not  a  half -penny,  be  lost  by  miscalculation  in 
the  purchase  of  the  building  materials.  I  have  refused  com- 
pensation for  my  labours,  and  have  also  declined  taking 
charge  of  any  of  the  money  for  defraying  the  expenses,  that 
my  conscience  should  be  clear  before  God  and  before  Israel, 
trusting  in  the  Almighty  that  I  should  obtain  a  maintenance 
through  some  other  channel.  The  director  of  the  work,  on 
seeing  my  task  thus  performed  with  zealous  rectitude,  pre- 
sented me  with,  as  a  reward,  a  seat  in  the  great  study,  called 
the  "  Consolation  of  Zion,"  and  secured  it  by  a  written  deed 
to  me  and  my  heirs  for  ever.  I  supplicate  the  Almighty 
incessantly  that  I  may  always  find  some  mode  of  sustaining 
myself  in  the  Holy  Land,  and  that  no  circumstance  may 
arise  to  draw  me  hence,  hurting  my  feet  on  foreign  ground, 
and  my  heart  by  having  to  knock  for  succour  at  the  doors  of 
the  benevolent. 

Last  year  I  purchased  some  wheat  from  a  certain  person, 
whom  I  will  call  Manzoor,  in  one  of  the  villages  here,  and  I 
then  observed  that  all  the  peasants  of  the  village  were  as 
slaves  under  that  person,  he  taking  nearly  all  that  the  land 
produced.  I  inquired  of  the  peasants  how  that  person  ac- 
quired so  powerful  a  position,  and  from  them  I  had  the  in- 
formation which  follows.  In  that  district  there  is  much  land 
fit  for  cultivation  ;  and  whoever  has  the  means  to  erect  a 
house  in  the  village,  and  to  purchase  about  six  oxen  for  the 
plough,  the  cost  of  which  is  about  two  thousand  five  hundred 
Turkish  piastres,  or  fifty  ducats  ;  who  also  appoints  a  person 
to  do  the  necessary  manual  labour,  providing  him  with  seed, 
may  obtain  an  income  which,  after  the  subjoined  conditions 
are  complied  with,  may  be  deemed  very  profitable.  These 
are,  to  give  a  fifth  part  of  the  fruits  to  the  pasha,  as  a  tax  on 
the  land,  and  a  fifth  part  to  the  labourer.  The  cost  of  food 


for  so  many  oxen  during-  the  period  of  four  months  in  which 
there  is  no  pasture  for  them,  is  about  three  thousand  piastres, 
in  seasons  when  things  bear  a  fair  price.  The  three  fifths 
remaining  to  him,  subject  to  this  last  outlay,  provide,  as  said 
before,  a  very  considerable  income.  Manzoor  had  built  several 
houses,  and  had  conducted  all  the  other  requisite  operations 
on  a  large  scale,  having  also  constructed  stalls  for  the  cattle 
and  for  sheep,  and  thus  he  had  acquired  great  wealth. 

Reflecting  on  these  facts,  I  said  to  myself,  "  This  agricul- 
tural business  in  the  Holy  Land  must  be  an  advantageous 
one."  I  wished  to  engage  in  it  myself,  but  my  own  property 
consisted  of  only  three  thousand  piastres.  It  happened,  how- 
ever, that  I  met  an  Israelite  belonging  to  our  Portuguese 
brethren,  who  sometimes  transacted  business  with  Manzoor. 
and  I  proposed  to  him  that  we  should  purchase  six  oxen, 
and  place  them  under  the  care  of  Manzoor,  having  first 
induced  him  to  enter  into  partnership  with  us,  and  to  add  six 
more  oxen  to  them,  and  to  appoint  peasants  to  till  the 
ground.  This  he  agreed  to  ;  Manzoor  also  was  agreeable  to 
the  plan,  we  paying  him  six  thousand  piastres  to  cover  the 
expenses  of  the  seed  and  the  maintenance  of  the  oxen.  It 
was  further  stipulated,  that  the  produce  should  be  divided 
between  us  equally,  and  a  correct  statement  furnished  by 
Manzoor  after  the  harvest,  of  the  expenditure,  so  that  if  any 
portion  of  the  six  thousand  piastres  remained  it  should  be 
rendered  back  to  us.  He  had  the  charge  of  all  my  available 
property,  and  thus  I  became  his  partner. 

When  the  season  arrived  for  reaping  the  corn,  I  went  to 
the  village,  and  remained  in  the  neighbourhood  several  days, 
anxious  to  see  that  the  work  was  properly  executed.  Some 
of  the  inhabitants,  remarking  my  attention  to  the  business, 
said  to  me,  "  Why  do  you  put  yourself  to  so  much  trouble 
and  expense  in  watching  here  so  constantly,  exposed  to  the 
heat  of  the  day  and  the  extreme  cold  of  the  night,  when  all 
the  land  you  have  in  cultivation  is  only  half  a  f adan  ?  you 


ought  to  have  taken  up  two  f adans  at  the  least  (consisting  of 
twelve  oxen),  and  have  furnished  money  for  the  necessary 
expenses  of  such  a  quantity.  In  that  case,  this  undertaking 
would  have  sufficed  for  the  full  maintenance  of  you  and  your 
family,  and  would  have  been  worth  the  attention  which  you 
now  show."  My  answer  to  these  observations  was,  that  what 
I  was  now  doing  was  only  an  experiment  ;  but  that  the 
ensuing  year  I  would,  with  G-od's  leave,  act  upon  their 

After  this  short  conversation  I  went  to  Manzoor,  and 
desired  him,  on  behalf  of  my  partner  as  well  as  myself,  to 
furnish  me  with  an  account  of  the  expenses  of  our  specula- 
tion. He  told  me  he  would  do  so  when  the  harvest  was 
over,  "  and  then,"  added  he.  "  I  will  divide  the  oxen  also,  for 
I  do  not  like  partnership."  His  reason  for  wishing  to  dis- 
solve our  contract  was  a  disinclination  to  have  any  of  his 
proceedings  overlooked  in  the  manner  in  which  I  had  been 
employing  myself  :  indeed,  he  wished  to  do  everything  in  his 
own  way.  From  this  I  concluded  he  must  have  heard  of  the 
conversation  between  me  and  the  people  just  referred  to 
respecting  my  future  agricultural  operations.  He  was  an 
avaricious  man,  and  it  seemed  that  he  could  not  endure  to 
see  another  derive  any  benefit  from  the  soil.  I  certainly 
felt  much  chagrined,  and  I  reminded  him  that  the  sustenance 
of  every  human  creature  depended  on  the  will  of  the  Al- 

Then  was  I  moved  to  pour  forth  my  troubled  spirit  to  the 
eternal  God  of  the  world.  "  0  Lord  ! "  I  ejaculated,  "  this 
man  is  rich  in  cattle,  in  sheep,  and  in  asses  ;  he  has  built 
himself  many  houses,  which  are  fair  to  see,  and  I,  thy  poor 
servant,  whose  all,  a  mere  trifle,  was  embarked  in  this  matter, 
I.  trusting  in  thy  beneficence  for  success,  am  now  envied  by 
the  man  who  would  debar  me  from  the  recompense  to  which 
industry  is  justly  entitled.  Glorify  thy  name,  0  Lord,  for  the 
snke  of  thy  servants  by  whom  it  is  glorified  ;  succour  me  in 


this  strait,  0  Lord,  that  I  may  not  be  dependent  on  the 
favour  of  this  envious  man." 

Before  I  departed  from  the  village,  it  so  happened  one 
day  that  I  met  a  peasant  belonging  to  another  village,  named 
Gezaze,  who  told  me  that  the  land  around  that  place  was  of 
a  much  better  quality  than  the  fields  to  which  my  present 
venture  related.  This  peasant,  having  married  a  woman  of 
this  village  who  was  reluctant  to  quit  her  family,  was  in 
some  sort  compelled  to  dwell  here  ;  but  he  suggested  to  me 
that  I  should  send  some  oxen  to  Gezaze,  and  occupy  some 
land  there  as  soon  as  the  present  harvest  should  be 

When  I  was  about  to  return  to  Jerusalem,  as  my  father 
limited  my  stay  till  the  last  month  of  Sivan,  in  order  that  I 
might  not  neglect  the  general  prayers  of  the  congregation 
(and  the  necessity  for  attending  to  these  devotions  compelled 
me  to  appoint  another  person  to  watch  the  harvest  in  my 
stead,  whose  expenses,  in  addition  to  the  others,  nearly 
swallowed  up  all  my  profits),  there  came  a  messenger  from 
my  father,  to  inform  me  that  Sir  Moses  had  delighted  him 
with  his  benign  consideration,  in  seeking  to  benefit  the 
country  by  the  very  means  which  had  lately  so  much  en- 
grossed my  attention.  At  this  intelligence  I  fervently  gave 
praise  to  the  Almighty  for  His  merciful  interposition  in  our 
behalf  at  so  important  a  crisis.  I  saw,  by  the  tenour  of  my 
father's  letter,  that  it  was  your  wish,  Sir,  to  establish  the 
prosperity  of  our  holy  institutions  by  the  occupation  of  the 
land,  to  be  effected  by  our  cultivating  it,  and  that  I  should 
ascertain  what  villages  were  most  suitable  for  the  abode  of 
those  of  our  brethren  who  might  undertake  to  labour  on  the 
soil.  Upon  this,  I  at  first  thought  of  the  villages  bordering 
on  the  Jordan.  Here,  however,  though  the  land  is  very 
good,  agricultural  pursuits  are  attended  with  much  hazard, 
for  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Jordan  there  are  many  Arabs  who 
support  themselves  chiefly  by  plunder ;  and  to  such  an  extent 
C  C 


are  their  depredations  carried  on,  that  the  Moslemin  are 
afraid  to  approach  them.  The  villages  suitable  in  the  plain 
near  G-haze  and  Ramie  I  knew  to  be  in  a  very  wretched 
condition,  for  as  there  are  no  building  materials  close  at 
hand,  stones  and  wood  have  to  be  brought  from  a  considerable 
distance  ;  in  lieu  of  wood  for  fuel,  indeed,  the  villagers  are 
often  obliged  to  burn  the  excrement  of  cattle  to  dress  their 
food ;  consequently  there  could  be  no  places  in  which  any 
Israelites  could  comfortably  dwell.  While  my  thoughts  were 
thus  roving,  the  suggestion  of  the  peasant  recurred  to  me, 
and  though  it  was  night  when  I  received  the  letter,  I  went 
forth  at  once  into  the  village  in  which  my  fadans  were  lodged, 
and  inquired  of  the  man  what  were  the  dimensions  and 
precise  advantages  of  the  village  of  G-ezaze. 

He  assured  me  that  its  advantages  were  numerous,  and 
that  few  villages  beside  had  so  many.  He  further  suggested 
that  I  should  go  thither  in  person,  in  order  that  I  might  be 
fully  satisfied ;  I  thought  it  well  to  do  so.  It  is  situated 
seven  hours'  distance  from  Jerusalem,  and  three  from  Ramie. 
I  found  it  had  not  been  misrepresented.  In  former  years  it 
must  have  been  populous,  for  I  saw  the  ruins  of  very  ex- 
tensive buildings.  It  has  three  wells,  supplied  by  living 
springs,  just  as  those  are  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jaffa ;  and, 
contiguous  to  these  wells,  gardens  and  plantation-grounds 
could  be  laid  out,  and,  in  process  of  time,  rendered  as  beau- 
tiful as  those  on  the  road  leading  to  Jaffa.  The  lands  of 
this  village  are  bounded  by  two  rivulets.  The  course  of  one 
stream  might  be  diverted  into  a  valley,  which,  if  the  project 
should  be  sanctioned  by  Sir  Moses,  might  be  converted  into 
an  immense  reservoir,  in  which  fish  (first  brought  from  the 
sea,  which  approaches  to  within  five  hours'  distance  of  the 
spot)  might  be  bred  with  great  abundance.  There  are  rem- 
nants of  a  water-mill  on  the  banks  of  the  other  stream,  built 
and  worked,  probably,  many  ages  past.  The  grounds  per- 
taining to  the  village  are  extensive,  and  five  hundred  oxen 


could  be  fully  employed  in  the  ploughing  of  that  part  suited 
for  grain,  which  may  be  more  easily  sown  than  in  that  place 
of  which  I  have  recently  spoken  as  being  the  scene  of  my 
first  experiment.  There  is  also  good  pasture  for  sheep  and 
cattle,  and  the  young  of  the  sheep  and  cattle  that  I  saw 
were  in  excellent  condition.  According  as  the  choice  of  the 
occupant  might  dictate,  vines  and  olive-trees  could  be  suc- 
cessfully reared  in  this  spot,  which,  in  addition  to  its  other 
good  qualities,  abounds  with ,  herbs  on  which  bees  thrive, 
and  the  bees  there  are  to  be  seen  in  numerous  and  heavy 
swarms,  a  circumstance  very  unusual  near  other  localities. 

I  was  informed  by  some  of  the  inhabitants,  that  anciently 
there  were  vineyards  here,  equal  in  their  produce  to  those  at 
Jerusalem,  but  that  the  lax  administration  of  the  laws  by  the 
government  had  permitted  robbers  to  interrupt  the  labours 
of  the  husbandman  so  grievously  as  at  length  to  cause  the 
land  to  be  left  almost  desolate.  But  they  have  already  begun 
to  cultivate  the  vine  and  the  olive ;  I  personally  saw  some 
samples  of  a  very  good  quality. 

Not  far  from  G-ezaze  there  are  some  rocky  eminences,  from 
which  stone  and  chalk  for  building  may  be  obtained  for  the 
construction  of  dwelling-houses,  such  as  those  of  the  towns  ; 
there  is  also  a  forest,  from  which  timber  for  building  and 
domestic  uses  may  be  obtained  in  abundance.  The  houses 
forming  this  village  are  built  like  those  of  Zafed. 

I  made  inquiries  concerning  the  proprietorship  of  the 
houses,  and  the  fields  and  arable  ground,  in  the  course  of  which 
I  spoke  to  the  sheikhs  of  the  village.  The  sheikhs  told  me 
that  they  had  seen  the  place  when  it  was  nothing  but  a  ruin, 
about  thirty  years  ago.  They  themselves  had  rendered  it 
habitable  as  I  now  saw  it.  The  property  of  the  fields  is  vested 
in  the  pasha,  who  takes  as  rent  a  fifth  part  of  their  produce. 
The  sheikhs  occupy  as  much  land  as  require  five  f adans,  and 
from  this  they  derive  their  support ;  they  have  not  to  render 
any  portion  of  the  produce  to  the  pasha ;  this  exemption  is 

cc  2 


made  on  account  of  their  exertions  for  the  improvement  of 
the  village.  Sheikh  Sai'd  farmed  the  pasha's  fifth  for  the 
annual  sum  of  fifteen  thousand  Turkish  piastres,  and  one 
hundred  khabias  of  barley.*  The  inhabitants  have  to  pay  a 
tax  of  thirty-five  piastres  for  every  male  child  above  the 
age  of  fifteen  years;  this  is  in  their  language  called  the 
Nemry.  The  village  contains  about  sixty-five  men,  some  of 
whom  are  old  and  too  feeble  to  work. 

Now,  if  Sir  Moses  should  deem  it  proper  to  bring  all  the 
land  of  Grezaze  into  cultivation,  one  hundred  f  adans  would  be 
requisite ;  and  as  each  f adan  usually  requires  the  attendance 
of  one  man,  consequently  there  would  be  employment  for  a 
hundred  men.  At  present  there  are  but  thirty  fadans  in 
use ;  ten  of  these  were  given  by  the  Turks  to  the  people  of 
some  town.  It  is  essentially  necessary,  in  making  any  arrange- 
ment for  the  occupation  of  the  land,  to  procure  a  firman 
from  the  Sultan,  and  one  also  from  the  Viceroy  of  Egypt,  to 
the  effect  that  no  man  belonging  to  the  village,  or  in  the 
employ  of  Sir  Moses,  be  forced  into  the  military  service. 
When  the  time  approaches  in  which  the  annual  con- 
scription is  accomplished,  the  inhabitants  leave  the  village 
through  fear,  and  thus  the  cultivation  is  quite  neglected, 
and  thieves  find  no  hindrance  in  committing  their  misdeeds 
at  night. 

I  was  told  by  the  present  sheikhs,  that  while  the  village 
was  under,  the  direction  of  Sheikh  Said,  he  made  such 
arrangements  as  protected  the  inhabitants  from  the  military 
impressment.  Unfortunately  for  Sai'd,  this  year  something 
irregular  was  discovered  in  the  management  of  his  office,  and 
he  has  been  removed  to  await  the  pasha's  judgment  for  his 
offence  ;  consequently  he  has  no  further  controul  here,  and  the 
villages  have  again  been  subjected  to  the  conscription.  The 
sheikhs  gave  to  understand  that  they  wished  for  protection 
from  this  liability,  and  that  if  Sir  Moses  could  guarantee  the 

•   A  ihabia  contains  sixteen  roobas ;  a  rooba  contains  two  rottles. 


people  exemption  from  enlistment,  they  would  entirely  devote 
themselves  to  his  service,  with  everything  they  possessed. 

I  have  now  to  observe  to  Sir  Moses  that  the  Shemita.  or 
year  of  release,  is  near,  the  year  5600;  therefore,  if  Sir 
Moses  wishes  to  purchase  the  land  entirely  from  the  govern- 
ment, we,  the  Israelites,  should  not  be  permitted  to  cultivate 
all  the  fields,  not  even  through  the  medium  of  other  people ; 
but  if  Sir  Moses  should  only  undertake  to  rent  a  certain 
portion  of  the  land  by  paying  one  fifth  of  its  produce  to  the 
pasha,  by  which  arrangement  it  would  still  be  the  property  of 
its  former  possessors,  then  we,  as  well  as  anyone  else,  should 
be  allowed  to  do  with  it  as  we  might  choose.  Our  best  plan 
would  be  to  place  our  oxen  under  the  care  of  the  sheikh  of 
the  village,  who  ostensibly  would  engage  peasantry  for  the 
manual  labour.  One  fifth  of  the  whole  produce  would  be 
first  set  apart  for  the  pasha,  another  fifth  would  be  deducted 
for  the  labourer's  recompense,  and  the  other  three  fifths 
would  be  ours,  subject  to  a  small  further  deduction  to  com- 
pensate the  sheikh  for  any  trouble  he  might  have  taken  in 
the  transaction.  Should  Sir  Moses  not  entertain  the  same 
view  of  the  affair,  I  am  apprehensive  that  no  other  efficient 
plan  could  be  carried  out. 

The  custom  of  the  country  is  to  plough  the  ground  in  the 
month  of  Nisan,  and  plant  those  seeds  which  yield  their 
fruit  in  the  summer,  like  poppy,  from  which  oil  is  made,  and 
doora,  or  Indian-corn.  The  harvest  of  these  fruits  is  in  the 
months  of  Ab  and  Elul.  In  the  winter  season  the  soil  from 
which  these  articles  are  raised  is  again  ploughed,  for  the 
reception  of  wheat,  barley,  and  various  kinds  of  lentils, 
which  grow  during  the  winter.  These  ripen  in  the  month 
of  lyar.  Ground  so  used  is  termed  in  Arabic  krdb.  Fields  in 
which  nothing  but  wheat  and  similar  grain  is  raised,  and 
ploughed  and  sown  in  the  month  of  Nisan,  would  become 
comparatively  barren,  for  they  would  be  greatly  deteriorated 
by  the  thorns  and  weeds  which  would  thus  be  suffered  to  take 


root,  if  they  should  not  be  ploughed  in  the  month  of  Nisaii 
now  approaching,  which  is  the  year  of  release,  and  we  shall 
not  have  the  krab-fields  (whose  fruits  are  blessed)  the  fol- 
lowing year.  When  the  year  of  Shemita  is  over,  Sir  Moses 
might  purchase  the  village  if  he  should  incline  so  to  do,  and 
it  could  be  named,  in  allusion  to  himself,  "  Kef ar  Moshe  ;  " 
the  court,  or  area  of  those  buildings  he  might  erect  could  be 
called,  in  reference  to  Lady  Montefiore,  "  Khazer  Yehoodit." 
The  respect  we  owe  to  her  claims  from  us  some  such  monu- 
ment to  preserve  her  for  ever  in  our  minds.  May  she  be 
blessed  with  all  the  blessings  her  virtues  merit !  If  my  sug- 
gestion in  this  matter  were  fulfilled,  your  names  would  be 
held  up  to  the  veneration  of  the  Israelites  here  through  all 
time,  and  would  exist  for  good  and  blessed  purposes ;  and 
thus  would  be  accomplished  that  passage  in  the  Scriptures, 
which  says,  "  I  shall  give  them  a  hand  (a  take-hold)  within  my 
house  and  my  walls,  which  is  better  than  sons  and  daughters." 
However,  if,  with  G-od's  favour,  we  reach  other  Shemitot, 
then  we  shall  do  the  Mizwah  of  Shemita  according  to  our 
holy  law,  and  the  Almighty  will  bestow  his  blessings  on  us  ; 
as  it  is  written,  "  I  shall  order  my  blessings,  and  they  will 
produce  for  the  year,"  &c. 

I  have  to  acquaint  Sir  Moses  with  one  other  important 
fact.  The  present  year  is  a  favourable  one.  The  pasha  has 
not  yet  taken  possession  of  his  fifth,  because  the  corn  is  still 
in  the  gleans  ;  and  if  Sir  Moses  were  to  contract  with  the 
pasha  for  his  share,  as  Sheikh  Sai'd  did,  it  would  furnish 
bread  sufficient  for  all  our  congregation  here,  not  a  child 
excepted.  I  have  been  told  by  some  of  the  people  here  that 
any  one  contracting  for  the  pasha's  share,  might  by  it  realise 
one  thousand  ducats  profit ;  and  this  I  am  assured  is  not  an 
exaggeration  of  the  case,  as  many  merchants  have  been  en- 
deavouring to  make  terms  with  the  pasha.  Therefore  it  is 
advisable  to  commence  the  work  with  the  least  possible 
delay,  whatever  impediments  there  may  be  ;  thus  will  be 


fulfilled  the  passage  in  Scripture,  "Thy  beginning  will  be 
with  trouble,  but  thy  end  will  be  with  great  comfort." 

Sir  Moses,  I  do  not  forget  that  I  am  still  young  in  years, 
and  that  you  have  passed  through  many,  and  have  had  much 
experience.  It  would  have  been  natural  for  me  to  have  been 
diffident  of  disclosing  my  opinion  on  these  matters  to  you  ; 
but  I  conceived  it  was  by  the  Almighty's  ordinance  that  I 
had  employed  myself  in  such,  and  that  it  was  still  his  decree 
that  I  should  make  the  investigation  I  have  done  to  supply 
you  with  such  information  as  you  sought  for.  I  have  done 
my  best  to  procure  an  accurate  estimate  of  the  expenses 
for  the  first  year,  that  the  basis  of  an  establishment 
might  be  laid  in  that  village,  from  which  all  might  derive 
a  comfortable  maintenance,  as  from  a  bank.  This  asser- 
tion will  be  more  fully  borne  out  by  the  account  hereto 

When,  after  leaving  Gezaze,  I  arrived  at  Jerusalem,  I  was 
made  acquainted  with  the  sentiments  of  our  brethren  there. 
Some  asked  if  it  were  possible  that  children  of  Israel  could 
reside  in  the  villages  ;  "  for,"  said  they,  "can  a  man  dwell 
in  the  same  cave  with  a  serpent  1 "  *  Others  wished  to  be 
informed  if  it  were  possible  that  Israelites  could  engage  in 
agriculture.f  And  one  party  said,  "  Even  if  the  best  accom- 
modation should  be  offered  to  us,  we  would  not  break  up 
from  our  homes  at  Jerusalem."J  I  replied  to  them,  that  I 

*  This  expression  alludes  to  the  Arabs,  who  always  show  much 
animosity  to  the  Israelites,  and  who  form  the  major  portion  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  villages. 

t  The  observation  respecting  the  impracticability  of  agriculture  to 
them  was  on  account  of  the  monopoly  enjoyed  for  so  many  years  by 
people  of  other  faiths  in  the  East,  and  who  doubtless  would  throw  all 
the  Impediments  they  could  in  the  way  of  Israelites. 

t  Most  of  the  Jews  at  present  in  Jerusalem  have  gone  thither  for 
safety.  Having  been  exposed  to  great  danger  and  many  annoyances  in 
the  places  where  they  dwelt  before,  they  had  been  at  considerable 
trouble  to  convey  their  effects  to  this  asylum,  and  to  form  the  establish- 


had  seen  the  land  proposed  for  their  occupation  with  my  own 
eyes  :  "  and,"  said  I,  "  it  is  a  fertile  land,  a  land,  in  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Scripture,  really  flowing  with  milk  and  honey  ; 
and,  if  the  impulse  to  occupy  it  comes  from  the  Almighty, 
let  us  go  up,  and  we  shall  surely  prosper,  and  every  one  of 
us  will  be  settled  in  peace,  as  the  following  particulars  will 

In  the  first  place,  we  shall  do  well  to  choose  from  among 
our  own  congregation  ten  righteous,  G-od-fearing  men,  who 
are  well  acquainted  with  the  Arabic  tongue.  The  duties  of 
these  should  be  to  superintend  the  general  disposal  of  the 
land,  a  subject  that  demands  considerable  attention,  as  I 
myself  can  testify  from  what  I  witnessed  in  the  village 
belonging  to  Manzoor  ;  and  to  appoint  proper  hours  for 
studying  the  law,  especially  those  parts  of  it  which  relate  to 
this  region,  the  land  of  our  forefathers  ;  and  they,  and  their 
families  shall  dwell  in  the  village.  These  persons  shall  have, 
in  payment  for  their  services,  a  tenth  part  of  every  benefit 
derived  from  the  undertaking.  They  shall  have  wherewith 
to  maintain  a  housekeeper,  and  it  shall  be  ordered,  that  if  one 
should  become  unable  to  perform  his  duties,  his  son,  if  he 
have  one,  or  son-in-law,  shall  take  his  place.  All  the  other 
housekeepers  shall  be  on  the  same  footing  with  the  other 
members  of  the  community,  and  it  shall  further  be  stipulated 
that  the  community  shall  have  power  to  expel  any  one  guilty 
of  misconduct  from  the  village,  and  to  place  another  in  his 

Secondly.  To  these  ten  persons  shall  be  attached  one, 
appointed  by  the  favour  of  our  benefactor,  Sir  Moses,  whose 
office  shall  be  to  keep  the  books  correctly,  in  which  the 
receipts  and  disbursements  of  the  business  shall  be  carefully 

ment  by  which  they  secure  what  degree  of  comfort  they  have.  A  sudden 
idea  of  suffering  a  state  of  things  similar  to  what  they  formerly  had  to 
complain  of,  in  the  event  of  their  removing  again  into  the  open  country, 
very  probably  dictated  this  declaration. 


entered.  Moreover,  three  directors  shall  be  appointed  to 
dwell  in  Jerusalem,  in  whom  shall  be  vested  the  distribution 
of  the  revenues  of  this  village  to  the  members  of  our  con- 
gregation, for  the  maintenance  of  their  households.  There 
shall  be  appointed  a  treasurer,  to  whom  all  the  proceeds  on 
the  undertaking  shall  be  duly  forwarded ;  and  two  auditors 
shall  have  control  over  his  accounts.  Another  person  shall 
be  appointed,  at  the  discretion  of  Sir  Moses,  to  arrange  the 
accounts  between  these  and  the  directors,  to  whom  the  chief 
superintendent  of  the  labourers  in  the  village  shall  be 

Thirdly.  Every  scholar  shall  devote  a  certain  portion  of 
each  day  to  his  studies,  and  shall  join  in  the  holy  worship  in 
the  house  for  study,  especially  that  called  "  the  Consolation 
of  Zion  ;  "  and  shall  be  in  attendance  each  night  in  the  house 
of  meditation.  Every  day,  after  the  usual  recital  of  the 
forms  of  divine  worship,  prayer  shall  be  read  for  the  welfare 
of  Sir  Moses,  and  of  his  virtuous  and  beneficent  lady.  A  lec- 
turer shall  be  appointed  for  the  instruction  of  those  who  are 
not  of  the  degree  of  scholars,  and  he  shall  read  to  them 
every  day  a  certain  portion  of  the  law,  to  be  regulated  by  the 
capacity  of  their  intellects  ;  and  his  task  shall  be  performed 
in  the  morning  immediately  after  the  conclusion  of  the  usual 
service,  and  in  the  evening  between  the  recital  of  the  Minkha 
and  Marib  prayers.  In  the  middle  of  the  day  such  persons 
are  employed  in  the  business  of  the  representatives  of  our 
congregation,  according  to  what  orders  are  on  hand  from 
their  president.  From  this  body  four  parties  of  men  shall  be 
taken  to  form  watches  over  the  effects  of  the  community; 
each  watch  shall  do  duty  for  one  month  at  the  time,  the  four 
taking  the  duty  in  rotation  ;  and  the  other  three,  while  not 
thus  engaged,  shall  assist  in  any  work  requisite  to  be  done, 
as  the  work  will  be  very  onerous  in  proportion  to  the  numbers 
to  perform  it.  The  entire  produce  of  the  establishment  shall 
be  sent  to,  and  placed  in  the  charge  of,  the  chief  superin- 


tendent  in  town,  that  it  may  be  equitably  divided,  under  the 
sanction  of  the  leaders,  amongst  all  the  congregation  accord- 
ing to  the  wants  of  each  individual,  or  each  household.  The 
three  watches  not  on  watching  duty  shall  be  at  the  service 
of  the  directors,  to  bear  any  messages  or  parcels  to  any  one 
to  whom  they  may  have  occasion  to  send  ;  in  fine,  whatever 
work  it  is  necessary  to  do  for  the  benefit  of  the  community 
it  shall  be  incumbent  on  them  to  execute  to  the  best  of  their 
ability,  so  that  none  of  the  students  be  improperly  diverted 
from  their  studies. 

Unfortunately,  there  are  many  widows.  Some  of  them 
may  be  capable  of  rendering  some  assistance  to  the  commu- 
nity, and  to  contribute  to  the  comfort  of  the  students.  They 
shall  also  be  divided  into  separate  bodies,  and  in  rotation  go 
forth  to  the  pasture-land  and  milk  the  cows  and  goats,  and 
do  anything  else  in  connection  with  such  business  of  which 
they  may  be  capable.  The  orphans  shall  be  placed  under 
good  guardianship,  and  their  natural  capacities  properly 
attended  to  ;  they  shall  be  distributed  amongst  the  house- 
keepers, so  that  they  shall  be  reckoned  as  belonging  to  the 
various  households. 

All  regulations  enumerated  in  the  preceding  paragraphs  it 
shall  be  the  especial  care  of  the  seven  most  eminent  Israelites 
in  the  city  or  town  to  carry  into  effect,  so  that  every  member 
of  the  community  may  dwell  in  peace  in  his  appointed  situa- 

It  is  the  earnest  request  of  our  congregation  that  the  names 
delivered  to  Sir  Moses,  those  in  the  list  of  persons  who  were 
included  in  this  project,  be  written  by  Sir  Moses  in  a  book,  so 
that  the  village  described,  and  its  appurtenances,  may  remain 
in  the  possession  of  themselves  and  their  offspring  till  the 
great  day  of  our  redemption,  and  that  no  foreigner  may  be 
allowed  to  meddle  with  our  affairs,  unless  he  conform 
implicitly  to  the  foregoing  regulations. 

I  wish  Sir  Moses  to  understand  that  the  business  of  plough- 


ing  and  sowing  cannot  be  performed  by  Israelites  exclusively, 
because  much  of  it  requires  to  be  done  by  persons  well  skilled 
in  such  ;  even  the  people  of  the  village  are  not  alike  in  their 
abilities  for  agriculture.  But,  setting  apart  the  more  difficult 
business  of  the  agriculturist,  it  is  customary  to  add  to  every 
two  men  a  shepherd,  to  assist  them  in  various  minor  affairs  ; 
and  in  the  harvest  season  five  labourers  are  required  to  every 
f adan,  to  reap  and  tie  up  the  corn  in  sheaves,  and  to  convey 
it  to  the  threshing-floor.  It  is  usual  to  pay  these  labourers 
in  gleans,  and  they  have,  in  addition  to  their  pay,  also  the 
privilege  of  gleaning  the  fields  after  the  owner's  portion  has 
been  taken  away,  which  emolument  is  to  them  very  consider- 
able. All  such  labour  as  I  have  here  described  Israelites  may 
perform  as  well  as  any  others. 

When  these  regulations  had  been  proposed  to  our  brethren 
at  Jerusalem,  and  distinctly  explained,  they  with  one  voice 
prayed  to  the  Almighty,  that  they  might  meet  the  approba- 
tion of  Sir  Moses,  and  that  he  might  ever  prosper.  Such  of 
the  learned  as  are  competent  to  engage  in  the  project  at  once 
gave  it  their  consent  to  remove  into  the  village  and  dwell 
there.  And  I  myself  respectfully  request  to  be  appointed  to 
some  office  there,  so  that  I  might  make  it  my  chief  place  of 
abode.  I  should  like  to  have  the  inspection  of  the  measures 
taken  for  the  accomplishment  of  this  scheme,  especially  if 
there  were  anything  to  be  negotiated  with  the  governor, 
in  which  case  I  could  be  of  great  service,  as,  I  think,  having 
already  more  insight  into  agricultural  pursuits  than  most 
of  my  brethren,  and  being  also  interpreter  to  the  congre- 
gation in  the  Holy  City.  I  trust  the  Almighty  would  con- 
tinue so  endow  me  with  vigour  to  secure  success  in  such 
matters,  because,  though  as  one  of  the  learned  I  might  have 
derived  my  support  from  the  same  source  as  the  others,  I 
sought,  and  the  Almighty  blessed  my  endeavours,  to  main- 
tain myself  by  the  labour  of  my  own  hands.  I  prefer  sitting 
on  the  threshold,  though  even  in  a  village,  especially  as  the 


end  I  strive  for  is  a  good  one  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord — the 
restoration  of  the  land  of  our  forefathers. 

The  foregoing  are  the  sentiments  of  the  congregation,  ar- 
ranged by  the  undersigned,  who  hopes  for  the  Almighty's 
succour,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Sir  Moses  Monte- 
fiore,  whom  may  the  Almighty  ever  preserve. 


the  son  of  Eabbi  Abraham  Shelomo  Salman,  the  son-in-law 
of  the  Rabbi  Tobiah,  head  of  the  assembly,  and  director  of 
the  congregation  at  Jerusalem,  at  the  epoch  of  the  first 
arrival  of  Sir  Moses  in  the  Holy  City. 



100  fadans  (each  fadan  in  this  part  consisting  of  six 

oxen,  valued  at  100  rials) 10,000 

100  asses  (an  ass  will  be  required  to  each  fadan  for 

the  carriage  of  the  agricultural  instruments)  .  .  800 
Instruments  for  tilling  and  threshing  ....  200 
Four  months'  provender  for  the  oxen  where  there  is 

no  pasture  (necessary  in  the  first  year)      .         .        .    2,500 

Stalls  for  cattle  and  sheep 150 

The  purchase  of  200  cows,  for  breeding  and  for  giving 

milk  (all  these  may  find  sufficient  pasture)  .  .  2,000 
600  sheep  and  goats,  at  7  rials  a-piece  ....  4,200 
Dwelling-places  for  the  labourers  .  .  .  .100 
Houses,  provided  with  an  area  for  the  Israelites  that 

would  reside   there   to  superintend  the   labourers, 

and  other  matters  connected  with  the  undertaking .  1,000 
For  repairing  the  three  wells  in  the  village  .  .  300 
Three  horses  for  the  convenience  of  those  having  to 

superintend  places 150 

Carried  forward     .        .        .        .20,800 


Brought  forward   ....  20,800 

Fifty  camels,  for  carrying  into  the  storehouses  the 
produce  of  the  land  during  the  harvest  (these, 
during  the  other  portion  of  the  year  might  be  pro- 
fitably employed  in  the  removal  of  various  sorts  of 
goods  from  place  to  place) 2,000 

Total  of  rials  22,800 

The  expenses  enumerated  in  the  foregoing  table  are  chiefly 
required  for  the  first  year  only.  In  the  ensuing  years  the 
whole  of  them  might  be  defrayed  out  of  the  net  proceeds 
of  the  business. 

After  setting  apart  the  pasha's  due,  the  labourers'  Rials, 
share,  and  that  required  for  the  next  year's  seed,  the 
wheat,  5,000  khabias  from  each  f adan,  would  realise  10,000 
(In  any  one  year,  however,  in  which  the  land  might 
not  be  so  productive  as  it  usually  is,  that  which  is 
obtained  from  it  would  command  a  price  higher  than 
ordinary,  so  that  the  profits  would  not  greatly  vary.) 
Barley,  subject  to  the  same  deductions  just  mentioned. 

20  khabias  from  each  f  adan,  would  realise  .  .  2,500 
Beans  and  lentils,  400  khabias  from  each  fadan  .  .  800 
The  foregoing  are  the  fruits  of  what  would  have  been 

planted  and  sown  in  the  winter  season. 
The  fruits  arising  of  the  labours  in  the  summer  season 

would  be  as  follows  : — 

Doora,  50  khabias  from  each  fadan      ....    6,000 
Poppy  for  oil,  20  khabias  from  each  fadan  .         .         .    5,000 

Total  of  rials  24,300 

The  600  goats,  also,  would  yield  milk  sufficient  for  the 
making  of  3,000  rottles  of  cheese.  And  the  cows  would 
yield  a  considerable  quantity  of  milk  ;  of  this  milk  the  pea- 
sants make  butter,  and  prepare  a  kind  of  food  they  call 
xhannrefke.  They  likewise  make  para  cheese  from  it  to  sell 
in  the  towns. 


The  object  we  should  chiefly  seek  to  obtain,  is  the  Al- 
mighty's blessing  on  our  labours,  and  the  land  would  be  fruit- 
ful under  our  hands. 

I  think  it  not  amiss  to  observe  again,  that  the  hire  of  the 
camels,  when  not  employed  on  the  grounds,  would  realise  a 
considerable  profit,  though  I  cannot  specify  its  various  items. 
The  wood  with  which  the  country  adjoining  abounds,  would 
furnish  an  abundance  of  fuel,  much  of  which  could  be  con- 
veyed by  the  camels  for  the  use  of  all  our  congregation;  and 
from  the  cattle  and  sheep  a  sufficiency  of  fresh  meat  might 
be  obtained  for  the  same.  What  income  would  be  derivable 
from  the  sale  of  sheep  and  cattle  as  they  yearly  multiplied 
their  species  cannot  be  accurately  computed  ;  much  would 
depend  on  G-od's  blessing.  The  wells  so  fertilise  ground  for 
gardens,  that  vegetables  sufficient  for  the  consumption  of  all 
our  congregation  could  easily  be  raised  both  in  summer  and 
winter.  It  is,  above  all,  worthy  of  notice  in  this  calculation, 
that  half  the  wheat  we  could  raise  would  supply  bread  for 
five  hundred  souls,  who  would  in  no  shape  lack  the  other 
necessaries  and  most  of  the  reasonable  luxuries  of  life  ;  which 
would  enable  us  to  sit  peaceably  and  meditate  on  the  holy 
law,  and  duly  worship  the  Almighty. 




Jerusalem,  2nd  Tamooz,  5599. 

To  the  joy  of  our  heart  and  the  light  of  our  eyes. 

We  heard  it  with  our  own  ears,  from  his  own  mouth. 

that  the  chief  design  of  our  dignified  benefactor  in  visiting 

this  land  was  to  show  a  paternal  compassion  to  his  brethren. 

the  Israelites  who  dwell  in  the  vineyard,  which  is  by  right 


our  inheritance  from  the  Almighty  Lord  of  Hosts,  by  taking 
measures  to  supersede  the  necessity  for  being  sustained  by  the 
uncertain  stream  of  gifts  flowing  to  us  from  Europe,  and 
which  are  only  the  gifts  of  men ;  and  to  enable  everyone  to 
sit  under  his  own  fig-tree,  as  in  former  days.  We  then  in- 
voked on  his  head  the  blessings  of  Zion,  the  source  of  all 
blessings,  for  there  the  Almighty  ordained  that  blessings 
should  ever  dwell.  It  is  always  proper  to  give  thanks  to  the 
Lord,  and  therefore  do  I  embrace  this  opportunity  for  ren- 
dering to  Him  my  gratitude,  forasmuch  as  He  has  shown  to 
me  many  mercies. 

Twenty-four  years  have  I  now  been  wandering  about  on 
the  great  field  of  the  world,  twelve  of  which  have,  in  the 
city  of  Jerusalem,  been  devoted  to  a  holy  service,  inasmuch 
as  I  have  borne  the  burthen  of  a  pure  congregation  in  serving 
the  Polish  and  German  congregation,  whose  lives  I  pray  God 
to  preserve.  The  roads  and  various  places  of  importance  in 
this  region  are  better  known  to  me  than  to  other  people  who 
live  a  discursive  life  here,  therefore  I  have  thought  fit  to 
communicate  such  information  to  Sir  Moses  as  might  enable 
him  to  profit  by  embarking  in  agricultural  pursuits.  The 
nature  of  the  lands  best  adapted  for  his  purpose  I  shall 
presently  explain ;  and  I  have  to  solicit  his  indulgence  for 
occupying  his  attention  by  my  statement  too  long;  this  I 
doubt  not  he  will  readily  accord  me,  as  I  am  trying  to  fulfil 
his  own  desire,  and  much  is  required  to  be  said  to  furnish  all 
the  intelligence  necessary  on  this  subject. 

The  first  thing  necessary  to  be  done  in  "commencing  opera- 
tions will  be  to  procure  a  firman  from  the  pasha,  securing  the 
people  in  those  districts  which  your  dignity  might  take  in 
charge,  from  impressment  into  the  military  service,  and  from 
the  payment  of  taxes.  On  account  of  your  illustrious  repu- 
tation and  influence,  the  Viceroy  of  Egypt  would  concede 
exemption  from  the  military  service,  and  might  also  forego 
his  claim  to  one-fifth  of  the  produce  of  the  soil,  as  a  portion 


of  the  State  revenue  ;  this  fifth  is  exacted  from  wheat,  barley 
and  also  a  kind  of  corn,  called  in  Arabic  doora.  Doora-bread 
is  chiefly  used  by  the  peasantry  ;  and  if  Sir  Moses  should  be 
so  successful  as  to  procure  for  us  such  an  exemption,  the 
benefit  which  would  accrue  therefrom  would  be  beyond  any- 
thing of  which  words  can  convey  an  idea. 

It  is  essential  to  acquaint  Sir  Moses  that  much  of  the  agri- 
cultural work  could  not  be  achieved  by  Israelites  alone,  for 
two  reasons ;  the  first,  the  observance  of  the  holy  sabbath 
would  interfere  with  the  customs  of  those  concerned  in  the 
business  who  might  be  of  another  faith ;  the  second,  the 
Israelites,  as  they  now  are,  possess  not  strength  equal  to 
every  task  in  connection  with  ploughing  and  sowing.  The 
mode  in  which  agricultural  affairs  are  conducted  by  the 
inhabitants  of  this  district  I  will  now  describe,  and  my 
information  shall  be  arranged  in  sections. 

In  the  first  place,  the  Pasha  of  Egypt  owns  all  the  land  of 
the  district,  and  he  takes  one-fifth  of  the  produce,  as  before 
stated.  The  quantity  of  land  tilled  is  computed  by  the  f  adan 
(a  fadan  here  consisting  of  six  oxen).  There  are  many 
expenses  involved  in  cultivation  ;  first,  the  purchase  of  the 
oxen,  the  price  of  wheat,  and  other  kinds  of  grain  for  seed, 
provender  for  the  cattle,  as  in  this  country  there  is  no  pasture 
except  during  three  months  in  the  year,  and  then  the  heat  is 
so  intense  that  all  the  herbage  is  soon  parched  up.  In  the 
winter  the  cattle  are  fed  with  straw,  and  grains  of  cotton- 
seed. These  expenses  can  in  nowise  be  varied,  except  by 
allowing  the  labourer  as  a  recompense,  instead  of  wages  in 
money,  a  certain  portion  of  the  produce,  which  arrangement 
generally  induces  him  to  render  his  services  faithfully.  His 
share  of  the  business  is  well  known  to  be  a  difficult  one. 
However,  if  Sir  Moses  should  secure  from  the  pasha  an 
immunity  fr'om  all  the  taxes  specified  herein,  many  of  our 
brethren  would  make  strenuous  exertions,  and  the  labourers 
probably  would  work  for  less. 


Secondly,  it  will  be  most  important  to  form  a  contract 
with  the  pasha  of  that  nature  termed  booyooruldi,  specifying 
the  number  of  years  we  are  to  hold  the  land ;  because  the 
country  may  possibly  pass  under  another's  control.  Pre- 
viously to  the  present  pasha's  assuming  the  government,  we 
lived  in  a  very  precarious  manner,  and  even  in  our  bed- 
rooms our  lives  were  not  safe,  because,  as  it  is  well  known, 
the  children  of  Edom  are  savages.  I  therefore  trust  that 
Sir  Moses  will  endeavour  to  effect  an  arrangement  to  which 
the  governors  shall  give  their  express  sanction,  and  espe- 
cially the  Sultan,  so  that  it  may  be  permanent,  and  our  abode 
in  the  land  of  life  undisturbed. 

Thirdly,  instructions  should  be  given  by  the  pasha 
relative  to  our  affairs  to  the  Mooselim  of  Jerusalem  and  of 
Ramie,  because  the  villages  adapted  for  our  purposes  border 
on  both  places,  so  that  when  we  should  require  any  soldiers 
for  the  protection  of  our  property,  they  might  be  obtained 
from  either  place  without  difficulty.  Three  soldiers  in  each 
village  would  be  force  sufficient ;  and  if  we  were  free  from  the 
military  service  altogether,  we  should  require  no  such  pro- 
tection at  all,  as  the  peasants  in  our  employ  would  willingly 
perform  all  the  necessary  duties  of  watching. 

Fourthly,  we  ought  to  have  the  privilege  of  possessing 
arms  in  the  villages,  for  driving  off  beasts  of  prey,  par- 
ticularly as  much  of  our  property  would  consist  of  cattle 
and  sheep.  It  is  well  known  that  all  the  weapons  formerly 
possessed  by  the  inhabitants  have  been  taken  away  by  the 

Fifthly,  a  guarantee  should  be  given  us  from  the  govern- 
ment, that  no  soldiers  be  permitted  to  take  any  of  our  horses 
or  asses  for  the  State  service,  and  that  our  beasts  of  burthen, 
when  found  in  towns,  should  be  liable  to  no  such  seizure. 
Straw,  wood,  and  coals  belonging  to  us,  should  also  be  pro- 
tected from  similar  appropriation. 

Each  f  adan  consists  of  six  oxen ;  the  cost  of  six  oxen  would 
D  D 


be  about  2,000  piastres.  An  ox  of  the  best  quality  would  cost 
500  piastres.  On  the  ground  of  one  fadan  might  be  sown 
'wheat,  barley,  doora,  beans,  lentils,  and  karselle  (a  kind  of 
grain  eaten  by  camels),  and  in  the  lands  of  the  villages  which 
I  recommend,  those  near  Ramie,  a  great  deal  of  poppy  might 
be  sown,  which  is  an  article  of  great  utility  in  this  country, 
and  very  profitable  to  trade  in,  as  oil,  both  for  the  dressing  of 
food  and  for  burning,  is  extracted  from  it  ;  and  in  the  same 
districts,  cotton  might  be  advantageously  reared.  The  ex- 
penses attending  the  working  of  one  fadan,  including  various 
sorts  of  seed,  food  for  the  cattle  during  the  winter,  and  agri- 
cultural tools,  would  amount  to  3,000  piastres.  This  statement 
is  perfectly  in  accordance  with  the  customs  of  the  region,  so 
greatly  celebrated  in  our  holy  law. 

In  the  winter  season  they  sow  wheat,  barley,  beans,  and 
lentils.  This  deposit  involves  much  expense,  because  for 
wheat  and  barley  a  great  deal  of  seed  is  required.  The  most 
profitable  crops  are  those  arising  from  the  deposit  of  seed  in 
the  summer,  as  that  is  comparatively  small.  Doora  and 
cotton  are  sown  in  the  summer,  and  these  plants  thrive  from 
the  dew,  which,  in  the  absence  of  rain  throughout  the 
summer,  is  indeed  a  blessing. 

In  ordinary  years  the  produce  of  the  ground  of  one  fadan 
is  as  follows  :— 

A  khabia  contains  thirty  rottles  ;  the  measure  of  a  rottle, 
in  the  Holy  City,  is  two  okas  and  one  rooba  ;  an  oka  contains 
four  hundred  drachms.  Ten  khabias  of  wheat  are  sown  to  the 
fadan,  and  their  product  is  forty,  and  this  quadruple  product 
may  be  affirmed  of  the  other  sorts  of  grain.  The  product  of 
some  articles  is  five  and  six-fold  ;  but  in  one  of  the  blessed 
years  the  fruits  of  the  agriculturist  are  ten  and  fifteen  times 
the  quantity  of  his  deposit.  Every  sixth  year  is  generally 
one  of  such  abundance,  by  the  Almighty's  blessing.  The 
present  year  dates  the  sixth  from  the  last  remarkably 
abundant  year,  and  I  have  been  assured,  by  a  man  of  honest 

APPENDIX.  4-03 

character  here  in  Jerusalem,  who  has  been  engaged  in  agri- 
cultural pursuits  these  last  five  years,  the  produce  of  the 
land  this  year  promises  to  be  fifteen-fold. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  villages  which  belong  to 
Jerusalem ;  they  are  near  to  the  town,  and  are  in  a  pros- 
perous condition — the  blessing  of  God  seems  to  be  upon  them. 

Gebbel  TOOT. — This  at  present  engages  twelve  fadans  ;  but 
eight  more  might  be  worked  with  advantage.  The  neigh- 
bourhood abounds  with  fruit.  It  contributes  ten  thousand 
piastres  annually  to  the  pasha's  revenue. 

Issabie. — This  is  situated  half-a-mile  from  the  above,  and, 
like  that,  has  vineyards  and  other  delightful  appendages. 
Twelve  fadans  are  worked  here,  and  it  contributes  twelve 
thousand  piastres  to  the  revenue. 

Indte. — Another  village  situated  at  about  two  hours'  dis- 
tance from  Jerusalem.  A  great  quantity  of  stone  is  obtained 
from  this  place  for  the  chief  buildings  at  Jerusalem.  It  con- 
tains many  advantages.  Twelve  fadans  are  employed  here, 
and  its  contribution  to  the  revenue  is  ten  thousand  piastres. 

Sib.— Situated  two  hours'  distance  from  Jerusalem.  The 
lands  abound  with  vines  and  olives.  Its  fadans  are  twenty, 
and  the  pasha  derives  from  it  twenty  thousand  piastres 

Elimisre. — This  stands  at  three  hours'  distance  from  Jeru- 
salem, and  abounds  with  olive-trees.  It  employs  thirty 
fadans,  and  pays  thirty  thousand  piastres  annually  to  the 

These  villages,  then,  it  appears,  take  up  eighty-six  fadans. 

The  cost  of  a  f  adan  being  two  thousand  piastres,  and  the 
other  expenses  three  thousand  piastres  certain  (sometimes 
the  total  amount  may  be  six  thousand  piastres),  we  require 
for  the  commencing  of  operations  five  thousand  piastres  per 
fadan.  Total,  four  hundred  and  thirty  thousand  piastres. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Ramie  is  a  beautiful  plain,  celebrated  for 
its  pasture  for  sheep  and  cattle.  It  also  produces  cotton 
D  D  2 

404-  APPENDIX. 

and  poppy,  but  it  has  little  timber  ;  nevertheless  its  ad- 
vantages are  numerous.  Though  a  large  plain,  called  in 
Arabic  Blades,  there  is  no  risk  on  it  from  Bedouin  robbers,  of 
whom  there  are  vast  numbers  in  the  country,  who  constantly 
carry  off  corn  as  well  as  sheep.  It  is  about  six  hours'  distance 
from  Jerusalem. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  villages  adjacent  to  Ramie. 

Khoolda. — To  this  is  attached  forty  fadans  ; — it  is  now  in 
the  occupation  of  an  Israelite,  and  he  is  sowing  the  ground 
of  many  fadans.  He  pays  to  the  pasha  the  annual  sum  of 
eleven  thousand  five  hundred  piastres,  also  fifty  khabias  of 
wheat  and  doora.  At  this  time  the  pasha  prefers  to  money  a 
fifth  part  of  the  produce. 

Gezaze. — This  is  near  Khoolda  ;  it  has  sixteen  fadans,  and 
pays  to  the  pasha  annually  fifteen  thousand  five  hundred 
piastres,  seventy-five  khabias  of  wheat,  with  barley  and 

Sidoon,  Ynane,  Elmanzoor,  AbusJioosJie . — These  villages 
could  employ  two  hundred  and  twenty  fadans  and  more  ;  and 
they  have  good  pasture- grounds,  which  have  no  equal  in  all 

The  places  I  have  mentioned  would  yield  food  sufficient 
for  all  the  population  of  Jerusalem,  and  especially  if  the 
produce  of  those  be  included  which  I  stated  as  being  near 
Jerusalem.  They  are  so  situated  in  the  middle  of  the 
country  as  not  to  be  exposed  to  much  danger  from  marauders  ; 
but  it  still  would  be  judicious  to  secure  an  order  from  the 
pasha  to  the  governors  of  Jerusalem  and  Ramie,  to  see  that 
we  were  not  molested. 

The  season  for  ploughing  here,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Holy 
City,  begins  in  the  month  of  Kislev.  I  have  set  my  mind  on 
G-ebbel  Toor  as  the  spot  for  my  operations,  and,  with  God's 
help,  and  the  permission  of  Sir  Moses,  I  will  occupy  that 
ground.  I  intend  to  commence  with  another  Portuguese, 
who  has  already  been  engaged  in  the  business  five  years.  In 


another  month  it  will  be  time  to  provide  straw  and  similar 
things  necessary  for  this  purpose. 

Sir  Moses  is  aware  that  both  myself  and  the  scribes  were 
engaged  an  entire  day  in  writing  the  lists.*  I  am  now  sitting 
on  the  ground,  not  being  provided  with  a  table,  writing  on 
my  hand  ;  therefore  my  language  may  not  be  so  correct  as  I 
should  address  to  Sir  Moses  ;  and  I  have,  on  that  account, 
to  solicit  his  kind  indulgence.  I  have  only  endeavoured  to 
impart  to  his  honour  such  knowledge  on  this  subject  as  I,  after 
a  careful  inquiry,  have  obtained.  I  depend  on  our  most  worthy 
friend,  Dr.  Loewe,  for  having  my  words  arranged  in  the  form 
most  fitting  for  Sir  Moses  to  look  at.  They  are  the  words  of 
one  who  writes  in  the  gloom  of  night,  and  who  has  no  proper 
writing  instrument.  He  is  the  faithful  servant  of  those 
who  are  servants  of  the  Almighty,  and  he  bows  himself  from 
afar  to  the  dignity  and  purity  of  heart  of  him  who  is  our 

Of  him  do  I  say,  may  the  Almighty  help  him  with  the 
blessings  of  peace,  and  send  His  angel  to  be  his  safeguard  on 
his  way,  to  bring  him  to  his  home  in  peace.  May  the  merits 
of  the  Holy  Land  protect  him  for  ever;  and,  in  his  days,  may 
Judah  and  Israel  have  the  prosperity  each  to  sit  in  his  own 
vineyard  and  under  his  own  fig-tree.  These  are  the  words  of 
a  faithful  servant  to  him  who  truly  worships  the  Almighty. 


NOTK.— There  are  near  Jaffa  many  pleasant  gardens  and  plantations, 
and  there  are  wine-presses,  by  which  much  wine  may  be  obtained.  The 
villages  there  are  in  good  condition,  and  those  who  live  there,  not 
Israelites,  are  healthy  and  athletic,  having  a  nourishing  sustenance, 
derived  from  their  engagement  with  the  peasantry  in  agricultural 

*  The  lists  here  referred  to  were  those  of  the  poor  in  Jerusalem  of 
various  denominations,  difference  of  religious  faith  not  being  observed, 
to  whom  Sir  Moses  distributed  a  sum  of  money  for  their  relief. 



Jerusalem,  <ith  of  Tamooz,  5599. 

With,  many  blessings  and  with  heartfelt  joy  we  greet  Sir 
Moses  Montefiore,  the  beloved  friend  of  his  people,  and  who 
is  illustrious  amongst  nations.  We  pray  the  Almighty  to 
preserve  him  in  peace,  and  to  grant  that  his  light  may  shine 
brightly  evermore.  Amen. 

O  Lord,  protect  him  for  ever,  let  thy  greatness  rest  over 
him  like  a  shield,  and,  in  thy  infinite  grace,  elevate  his  honour 
so  that  the  universe  may  know  it,  and  grant  that  he  may 
behold  with  our  joy  the  renovation  of  our  Holy  City;  because 
he  walked  in  the  paths  of  Zion,  which  now  are  desolate  and 
in  mourning.  Yes,  fervently  do  we  pray  the  Lord  of  Hosts  to 
bless  him  with  the  felicity  of  seeing  the  first  kingdom  return 
to  the  daughter  of  Jerusalem.  When  that  shall  come  to  pass 
then  will  Moses  rejoice  at  his  portion,  the  recompense  of  his 
steps  in  entering  the  temple  of  the  King.  Then  will  be 
resplendent  his  fame  and  merit.  Thus  blessed  will  be  he  who 
fears  the  Almighty.  The  horn  of  his  ancestors  will  be  ex- 
alted ;  the  horn  of  David  will  again  be  lifted  up  ;  the  holy 
temple  will  stand  in  its  splendour  as  it  was  wont,  in  the  midst 
of  its  proper  nation.  Amen,  Amen. 

Lo  !  the  voice  of  Jerusalem  now  resounds  in  wishing  peace 
to  his  dignity,  forasmuch  as  words,  pure  as  those  which  have 
seven  times  passed  the  ordeal  of  purification,  came  from  his 
mouth,  revealing  to  us  that  the  Almighty  had  prompted  his 
noble  heart  to  show  compassion  to  his  brethren  dwelling  in 
those  places  of  the  Lord  at  Jerusalem  (which  are  now  ob- 
scured), and  to  those  who  are  dispersed  throughout  the  Holy 
Land.  As  a  bird  that  leaves  its  own  abode  to  mingle  with  its 
kind,  so  did  he  quit  for  a  period  his  birth-place,  and  brave 


the  toils  of  travel  to  ascend  the  mount  where  dwells  the 
Lord  of  Hosts,  that  he  might  behold  with  his  own  eyes 
the  poverty-stricken  and  oppressed  of  his  people,  who  are 
scattered  through  the  towns  of  Judea  and  Galilee,  where 
existence  is  constantly  in  suspense,  being  sustained  by  bread 
received  from  their  brethren  in  foreign  and  distant  lands. 

When  Sir  Moses  beheld  our  oppressed  state,  his  sympathy 
was  excited,  and  he  instantly  proceeded  to  devise  means  to 
raise  pillars  by  which  the  house  of  Israel  might  support 
itself ;  by  which  they  might  have  a  sustenance  of  bread  and 
of  water  that  would  never  raise  a  blush  on  their  countenances, 
never  make  dim  the  eye,  or  sick  the  heart  with  regret — such 
regret  as  pure  hearts  must  ever  feel  when  they  depend  for  life 
on  the  industry  of  their  brethren.  He  undertook  to  obtain 
for  them  a  secure  hold  in  the  land  of  our  forefathers — that 
which  may  be  derived  from  ploughing,  sowing,  and  reaping 
with  satisfaction,  so  that  every  one  may  repose  in  safety, 
worshipping  and  studying  the  law  under  the  shade  of  his  own 
vine  and  his  own  fig-tree,  every  one  acting  according  to  his 
quality  ;  those  designed  for  the  Almighty's  especial  service 
perpetuating  the  knowledge  of  the  holy  law,  and  the  others 
tilling  the  soil,  which  will  yield  the  best  fruits. 

Oh,  how  greatly  did  we  rejoice  when  we  heard  his  ingenuous 
and  beneficent  words,  and  we  straightway  invoked  upon  him 
the  blessings  of  Zion,  the  source  of  all  blessing.  How  pleasant 
and  how  soothing  are  all  the  deeds  of  Sir  Moses,  and  still  will 
they  continue  such.  With  one  accord  we  have  adopted  the 
plan  which  Sir  Moses  has  proposed  :  and  now  do  we  wait  for 
the  Almighty's  succour,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Sir 
Moses  the  faithful,  and  we  exclaim,  "When  shall  this 
redemption  begin  1 " 

Such  are  our  words,  because  we  are  anxious  that  the  coming 
season  for  ploughing  and  sowing  should  not  pass  away  in  vain. 
Therefore  do  we  presume  to  give  some  advice  to  Sir  Moses  on 
this  important  subject,  which  we  hope  he  will  graciously  re- 


ceive.  It  is  essential  that  he  exert  all  his  influence  to  obtain 
from  the  ruler  of  Egypt  a  firman,  giving  full  powers  to  Sir 
Moses  and  his  agents  to  commence  the  execution  of  this 
scheme,  in  the  mode  already  explained  to  Sir  Moses  in  a  letter 
written  by  our  friend,  the  faithful  notary  to  the  Polish  and 
German  congregations,  the  learned  and  esteemed  Rabbi 
Aryeh  Ashkenazi  (whom  may  Gfod  preserve).  Should  such 
a  firman  be  procured,  all  the  potentates  in  Europe  would 
willingly  support  Sir  Moses  with  their  influence  in  such  an 
undertaking.  Then  Sir  Moses  should  appoint  inspectors  to 
watch  the  working  of  the  project,  till  a  proper  establishment 
were  formed,  and  it  should  be  our  care  to  give  them  all  the 
information  necessary  for  selecting  fit  persons  for  each  kind  of 
labour,  and  fit  places  for  operations,  so  that  the  endeavour  for 
the  renovation  of  our  country  should  not  be  fruitless.  Our 
instructions  to  the  inspectors  and  directors  of  the  work  would 
be  particularly  necessary  at  this  period,  because  the  ensuing 
year  is  the  seventh  year,  the  shemita  ;  and  they  would  learn 
from  us  so  to  arrange  their  business  as  not  to  infringe  the 
ordinances  of  the  seventh  year,  which  is  a  very  important 

With  humility  our  eyes  are  now  cast  upward  to  heaven,  to 
the  Lord  our  God,  whose  dwelling-place  is  Zion,  that  He  may 
stretch  forth  His  all-powerful  arm  in  aid  of  this  pure  design, 
by  which  it  may  come  to  pass  that  those  brethren  of  Sir 
Moses  who  now  live  in  Zion  in  poverty,  may  live  in  their 
fatherland  in  peace  and  prosperity,  and  while  earning  their 
bread  with  their  own  hands,  may  securely  render  their 
worship  to  the  Almighty. 

When  our  united  wishes  shall  have  been  accomplished, 
then  will  Sir  Moses  and  his  brethren  here  raise  this  song  of 
thanksgiving  and  praise  to  the  Almighty  with  an  abundance 
of  joy  : 

"  Blessed  be  the  eternal  Lord  of  Hosts,  who  failed  not  to 
send  a  redeemer  to  his  land,  and  succour,  from  the  majesty  of 


his  power,  to  the  offspring  of  his  righteous  servants.  On  the 
head  of  his  people  he  has  placed  a  helmet,  and  in  his  great 
mercy  has  appointed  his  servant  Moses  to  exalt  the  light  of 
his  resplendent  might,  and  to  make  it  a  wonder  before  all  the 
nations  of  the  earth.  By  the  blessing  of  the  Almighty  did 
Moses  obtain  the  accomplished,  honoured,  and  most  virtuous 
Lady  Yehoodit.  May  all  the  blessings  of  ladies  in  their  tents 
rest  upon  her. 

"  And  now,  Lord  of  Hosts,  God  of  Israel,  who  alone  dost 
know  the  misery  of  our  life,  cast  thine  eye,  we  implore  thee, 
on  the  various  habitations  of  us  thy  people,  for  the  power  of 
helping  ourselves  is  nearly  bereft  us.  Strengthen,  0  Lord, 
the  hands  of  those  princes  who,  by  thy  mercy,  have  given 
to  us  their  aid.  Be  to  them,  0  Lord,  as  an  impregnable  rock 
and  a  shelter,  that  thy  nation  may  not  again  become  the 
prey  of  violence.  From  thy  transcendant  holiness  in  heaven 
look  down  upon  them ;  bless  their  lot  in  this  life  with  peace; 
grant  that  their  days  in  this  life  may  be  long,  and  fill  their 
houses  with  good  things  from  that  great  store  which  thou 
alone  dost  possess.  Let  the  end  of  their  greatness  be  happier 
than  the  beginning,  so  that  our  friends  may  not  be  fatigued 
and  discouraged  with  the  compassion  shown  to  us.  but  be 
incited  with  a  holy  desire  to  promote  our  welfare  in  future 

"  Thou,  0  Lord  dost  know  the  righteousness  of  their  hearts 
and  the  worthy  plans  they  cherish — strengthen  them  with 
thy  great  mercies,  and  show  to  all  men  the  good  effects 
which  by  righteousness  are  wrought.  Yes,  0  Lord,  open  to 
them  the  fountain  of  thy  treasure  ;  pour  upon  them  water 
therefrom,  until  we  be  inspired  with  thy  Holy  Spirit,  and 
thou  dost  send  to  us  the  righteous  and  glorious  Kedeemer 
whom  thou  hast  promised.  Let  the  kingdom  be  restored 
to  the  house  which  is  now  laid  low,  and  may  glory  arise  to 
the  house  of  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  throughout  the  world. — 
Amen,  Amen." 


Now,  thou  Moses,  upon  whom  have  descended  the  Al- 
mighty's blessings,  according  to  thy  dignity,  looking  with 
condescension  upon  others,  wilt  accept  this  tribute  of  our 
respectful  gratitude.  That  the  music  of  our  song  may  be 
soothing  to  thine  ears  is  our  humble  and  fervent  wish. 

May  the  Almighty  extend  and  elevate  thy  greatness  ;  and, 
agreeably  to  the  desire  of  thy  noble  soul,  may  the  great 
Redeemer  come  in  thy  time,  and  gather  together  in  one  fold 
the  scattered  children  of  Israel.  Thus  fervently  do  thy  ser- 
vants pray,  who  are  now  waiting  for  thy  gracious  reply. 

Signed  by  the  chief  and  most  distinguished  leaders  and 
directors  of  the  Portuguese  and  German  congregations  in 
the  Holy  City  (which  may  God  restore). 

NATHAN  NATA,  the  Son  of 

R.  Mendel. 
ARYEH,  the  Son  of  R.  Ye- 


YESHAYAH,  the  Son  of 
Isakhar  Ber,  &c.  &c. 


Wertheimer,  Lea  and  Co.,  Printers,  Circus  Place,  London  Wall. 



LD2lA-50m-2  '71 

General  Library 

University  of  California